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of the future. The mind of the age is unequal to moder
problems because the mental outlook of men has dragged fa
in the rear of social changes of profound significance: th
coming of the steam engine and with it the upsetting of th
social and moral equilibrium of society ; the gross exaggers
tion of the importance of the economic, giving the directoi

tune 15, 1927


of industrial life power they have never been fit to exercise ;
jf he urban drift and the centralization tendencies that took
away many of 'the communal educative experiences of the
Individual and left the community with the false notion
that formal schooling had been the one great teaching force,
education, too, has lagged behind social changes, teaching
jfor the most part conservative doctrines consistent with an
existing political and social system.

Adult education of the nature of vital, interesting prac-
[jtical and social experience is of fundamental import to
(democracy. The community educates. Schooling to be
educative in the social sense that Hart holds to, must par-
iticipate in the problems of the community, not so much
I that is, as the community that is becoming. Hart holds that
;j education is a matter of the whole, not merely a part of
Bone's life, chronologically and socially. It is a product of
" experience, not a series of stunts performed by ideas un-
| connected with emotions or things floating around in an
1 academic atmosphere like disembodied spirits at a seance.
Finally it will be part of, and the greatest factor in, social
democracy if we ever dare try such a thing in the United
States. LeRoY E. BOWMAN

Columbia University

Getting Facts on Unemployment

TICAL ASSOCIATION, edited bv Ralph C. Hurlin. director Depart-
ment of Statistics, Russell Sage Foundation, and William A. Berridge,
associate professor of economics, Brown University. Published by the
Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1926. 215 pp. Price $2.50 post-
paid of The Survey.

THE importance of this book in the development of
social statistics is established by its purpose and the
auspices under which it appears. The work had its genesis
in the unemployment situation of 1921. Though it was
generally appreciated at that time that the problem was
acute, the discussion of measures of relief or prevention was
hampered because no one knew within a reasonable margin
of error what the actual extent of unemployment was. Esti-
mates made by responsible experts ranged from three and
a half million to five and a half million.

In connection with President Harding's Conference on
Unemployment, in Washington in September, 1921, efforts
were made to harmonize these divergent estimates. The
consequent analysis of the defects in existing employment
statistics and in the methods by which they were compiled
led to the appointment of a Committee on Measurement
of Employment (later called the Committee on Govern-
mental Labor Statistics) of the American Statistical Asso-
ciation. The Committee, with Mary Van Kleeck as chair-
man, included persons with practical experience in compiling
or using employment statistics. It secured the attendance
of experts at its meetings, and enlisted suggestions and
criticisms from others.

This book on their deliberations, is the result of the
joint thinking of experts. It amounts to a plan for the
collection of employment statistics on a nation-wide basis
in such manner that they will be made available periodically,
promptly and intelligibly.

Part I gives the recommendations in general, with an
explanation of the plan and an excellent summary of the
history and present status of employment statistics in the
United States. This section, with its full description of
the sources and character of the data, will prove especially


serviceable to students who desire to orient themselves in
the whole field. A chapter on the uses of employment sta-
tistics points out the double significance of the facts in that
they provide a guide for programs of relief, and essential
information toward the control of industrial policies so as
to lessen the economic waste of irregular employment and
in particular to stabilize cyclical fluctuations.

Part II deals in detail with the methods for the collection
and tabulation of employment data, the computation of in-
dex numbers of employment for earnings, and the publica-
tion of the results. Authoritative answers are given to such
questions as, From what sources should employment sta-
tistics be secured? At what intervals and at what dates?
From how many firms must data be secured in order to
secure an adequate and representative sample? How may
data be secured for industries other than manufacturing?
In tabulating, how shall industries be classified? In form-
ing index numbers, how shall relative weights be deter-
mined? An appendix gives copies of the forms which are
in use in the collection and compiling of employment

The book will be an indispensable handbook for all who
are officially engaged in building up our employment sta-
tistics. Social scientists will value it not only for its sum-
marizing of the existing data but also for its emphasis on
an often neglected stage of statistical research, i. e., the com-
piling of adequate and reliable raw data to constitute the
foundation without which the most artistically contrived
estimates or mathematically elaborated techniques are use-

Barnard College

The "Antis" in Medicine

Columbia University Press. 136 pp. Price $2.25 postpaid of Tht

SHOULD WE BE VACCINATED?; A Survey of the Controversy m Its
Historical and Scientific Aspects, by Bernhard J. Stern. Harper. 146 pp.
Price $1.50 postpaid of The Survey.

MAN the thinker is the most teachable of all organisms.
Like other teachable organisms, he lets his early
acquisitions obstruct later attempts to put ideas into his
head. He uses his thinking powers chiefly to invent reasons
for not admitting, or even contemplating, new ideas. These
general statements on the nature of man can be confirmed
by extended observations upon any representative sample and
in respect to any set of ideas.

Dr. Stern has selected for observation various groups
found in western Europe and America during several cen-
turies past, in their reactions to ideas in the broad field of
"medical progress." The social factors that obstruct new
ideas are psychological, cultural and mechanical. On analy-
sis, the psychological factors are the tendency of the in-
dividual to identify himself too closely with his beliefs or
doctrines, or what Dr. Stern calls the "psychological vested
interest" in ideas ; the fear of the unknown ; the difficulty
of reconditioning behavior patterns; the avoidance of pain
or the unpleasant; and group and personal loyalties and
conflicts. The tendency to rationalize, which Dr. Stern lists
as a separate factor, operates apparently to justify all re-
sistance to change regardless of the basic motive.

The cultural factors are economic vested interests; per-
sonal or institutional authority; ignorance (or prevailing
assumptions, prejudices, etc.) ; the economic cost of replac-
ing equipment or establishing new procedures ; and the con-
flict of different phases of culture, as religion and science,



June 15, 7927

chemistry and surgery, and so on. The mechanical diffi-
culties are the task of diffusing knowledge among those
to be influenced, and of modifying institutional activities.

The thesis is supported by material taken from the con-
flicts in eight distinct episodes in the history of medicine:
human dissection ; circulation of the blood ; percussion ;
vaccination ; prevention of puerperal fever ; germ theory of
disease ; antisepsis ; asepsis. The material is well organized
and thoroughly documented.

The reader cannot but be impressed by the failure of
"education" to liberate men from those mechanisms that
make the ignorant and untrained person such a ridiculous
and pathetic object when confronted by new ideas. The
study is important if it can make a considerable number of
us reexamine the sources of our partisanship, whether it be
in medical controversy or in political or economic fields.
An optimist might also consider the possibility that such
an analysis would influence educational practise, not only
in medical schools but in general, but for the fact that
education is for the most part conducted by adults.

The history of vaccination controversy is elaborated in
greater detail in the second of these books, which should be
of help to all who come in contact with this or other social
maladies of the same class.

American Association BENJAMIN C. GRUENBERG

for Jlledical Progress

Republic Press. 245 pp. Price $1.00 postpaid of The Survey.




International Affairs

THE NEW BALKANS, by Hamilton Fish Armstrong, with an introduc-
tion by Archibald Cary Coolidge. Harper's. Price $3 postpaid of The

THOSE who would know why the Italo-Albanian treaty pre-
cipitated a ministerial crisis in Jugoslavia ; in what manner the
dispute over Bessarabia is related to the Soviet-German treaty
of 1926, or what the future of the Little Entente is likely to
be, may turn with confidence for enlightenment to Mr. Arm-
strong's excellent book. The Balkans are still the cauldron of
European politics. Treaties of every variety between western
powers and Balkan states are now more numerous than ever be-
fore. Their general purpose of advancing foreign political
and economic influence in southeastern Europe keeps alive "the
eternal eastern question the immediate cause of the world
war," of which Professor Coolidge speaks in his introduction.
The author believes that the solution of this question rests with
the Balkan states themselves which "should steer clear alike
from assuming commitments outside the Peninsula, and from
allowing foreign interference in dealings with one another."
As for the barriers between Balkan states, they will eventually
fall "because they are manifestly inexpedient."

THE UNITED STATES AND FRANCE, by James Broum Scott. Oxford
University Press. 175 pp. Price $2.75 postpaid of The Suney.
THIS is a collection of documents prepared for the occa-
sion of the ijoth anniversary of the Declaration of Independ-
ence by Dr. Scott. Added to the document and the revolution-
ary correspondence, are extracts from the writings of Jared
Sparks. Dr. Scott has selected and arranged these materials
and contributes the foreword.

THE CHINA YEAR BOOK, 1925, edited by H. G. W. Woodhead.
The Tientsin Press Ltd. (Brentano's, N. Y.) Price $15.00 postpaid
of The Survey.

ALL available data, particularly on trade, finance, industrial
enterprise, education, Chinese and foreign diplomatic service;
summary of political events and military operations in China;
Chinese Who's Who. Obviously indispensable to those whose
interests are in any way associated with China.

MR. WANG'S review of the spiritual and social forces be-
hind the uprising in China appears at an opportune moment
and will help to explain somewhat the extraordinary dynamic
force in and behind the Nationalist Army. But its interest
is even wider, for the preparation of the book, under the
general guidance of Professor Robert E. Park, has taken a
number of years. Particularly interesting is Mr. Wang's
comparison of the Chinese Renaissance movement with the
youth movement in Germany. There are many similarities
but also significant differences which he does not fail to bring
out. Mr. Wang is now teaching at Ohio State University;
and his sound methods and common-sense interpretation may
be expected to produce even more important contributions to
our knowledge of China and the Chinese in the future.

Peck. Crowcll, 489 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of The Survey. A',


Thomas. Dutton. 217 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey.

THIS book by Dr. Thomas is an ambitious effort to express
social causation in mathematical terms. Dr. Thomas finds that
over a period of 60 years the marriage rate, the birth rate and
the consumption of alcohol rise with improvement in business
conditions. Births do not respond, however, until the second
or third year after good times have set in; that is, there is "lag"
in the correlation. But in the consumption of alcohol the in-
crease is notable at once and also after a year has elapsed. The
correlation with prostitution is not so definite, being some-
times positive and sometimes negative. With a two-year lag,
pauperism and the business cycle show a high negative corre-
lation; when one goes up, the other comes down. Likewise
there is high negative correlation with crimes against property
with violence. It will surprise many to learn that there is
little, if any, connection between the business cycle and either
the general death rate or infant mortality. But the suicide
rate shows an immediate and rapid rise in hard times ; the
correlation is high even for a lag of two years. It is an inter-
esting fact, discussed by the author, that, while there is no
correlation between English emigration and the English busi-
ness cycle, there is high positive correlation between the Am-
erican business cycle and English emigration. These correla-
tions help to locate social factors of importance and make it
possible to study them in greater detail as guides to social
legislation and social work.

The author is thoroughly scientific in her attitude. But very
few of Dr. Thomas's coefficients are as many as four times the
size of the probable error. That does not altogether invalidate
her work, but it raises questions and precludes a ready accept-
ance of the apparent extent of the causal relation of the busi-
ness cycle and the various kinds of social data used.



THE INESCAPABLE CHRIST, by Walter Russell Bowie. Scribner's.
206 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Surtrey.

A PROMINENT CHURCHMAN speaking to a group of
men who were to solicit men of great wealth for funds to com-
plete a great Cathedral, said, "Tell them that religion is the
insurance of their prosperity." Mr. Bowie does not look upon
the Church as the defender of any status quo, but the one
dominant factor in the transformation of the social order.
What courts, officers, laws, treaties, leagues, etc., fail to accom-
plish the Church must do. Christ's message contains the leaven
of a new vvo^ld where the evils are removed. His order is a
"new man ' and then a "new order." With vividness of imagina-
tion, lucidity of statement, mental vigor, clarity of insight and
courage Mr. Bowie sets forth the close connection between
the teaching of Christ and the realization of a new social day.
His book should have a wide reading.

W infield, Kansas HAL E. NORTON

June 15, 1927



THE STUDENT WHO SMOKES, by J. Rosstyn Earp. The Antioch
Press. 61 pp. Price $1.00 postpaid of The Survey.

[IN THIS study of the smoking habits among men students
i at Antioch College, the author strikes a happy medium be-
! tween the frigid scientific monograph usually employed to
i summarize a serious piece of investigation, and the frills and
fancies with which scientific fact is often dressed up for intro-
duction to the general public. He writes directly and with
good humor for that public, assuming that it is interested and
1 intelligent enough to understand a simple explanation of the
| statistical method which lies back of his conclusions. According
to Dr. Earp's careful researches, smoking was not found to
produce any discernible harm to the body or to mental prowess
; as tested by the I. Q. In his experience, however, it was
definitely associated with low scholarship. Inhaling, in par-
ticular, was found to correlate with low marks, as was heavy

Because of the small numbers (less than 500) persons on
whom these conclusions are based, Dr. Earp has been at pains
to calculate the probable error in each case and to point out
the differences which probably are of no statistical significance.
He suggests three possible explanations of the low marks:
that smoking is likely to be characteristic of the gregarious
students as opposed to the naturally scholarly ones; that
smoking devitalizes ambition; or that some poison or poisons
in the smoke acting upon the central nervous system produce
a deterioration of nervous tissue leading directly to a lower
mental output. Evidence to support (and to defy) each of
these conclusions can be adduced; it is possible that all three
have a part in the relation, which Dr. Earp believes causal,
between the use of tobacco and low scholarship. M. R.

THE MEANING OF DISEASE, by William A. White. Williams &
Wilkims. 204 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey.

DISEASE like health is a relative matter. To discover the
cause of an illness it is essential to interpret the personality
make-up of the patient in terms of "the soul" as well as the
body. Any rigid concepts are impossible since life itself is
never static. A diagnosis of the state of the patient must in-
clude insight into individual dynamics and energy concepts.
When the harmonious outflow of energy needed to keep the
personality functioning becomes blocked the body expresses
the regression in terms of physical symptoms and manifestations
of disease. To quote Dr. White, "Disease is only an ex-
pression of the relation between stress and strength of ma-
terial." Therefore it is vital to deal with the subjective state
of the individual and his relations to reality. His reactions to
it are again reflected in concrete as well as abstract symbols,
since not only his actions but the language he uses are means
to analyse more clearly his symptoms. When the failure to
adapt to reality becomes a losing game the destructive factors
involve the emotions; thus continuous "going against the grain"
results in sickness. In Dr. White's words, "disease is a
failure of adaptations both to conditions without the organism
and to conditions within." As an inquiry into the fundamentals
of medical philosophy as well as an endeavor to break up old
patterns of thought Dr. White's study stands forth as a
challenge to the theory and practice of medicine.


PEDIATRIC NURSING, by Gladys Sellfui, R.N. Saunders. 450 pp.
Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey.

MISS SELLEW'S detailed descriptions of all nursing pro-
cedures in the care of sick children will be a valuable book for
both nurse and doctor. More than that it is an excellent
reference book for mothers and others interested primarily in
the care of well children. Especially good are the chapters on
the hygiene and feeding of young children in which due atten-
tion is paid not only to the preparation of food, but to the
methods of getting a child to eat. Throughout the attention


of the student nurse is constantly drawn to the need of knowing
chi d psychology m the successful nursing of the well or sick


c7,P . ITS tl AFTERMATH. by Norman Fenton. C. V.
Co. 173 pp. Pnce $3.00 postpaid of The Survey.

SHELL SHOCK is associated in the lay mind with the battle-
icld. To the medical profession it is a neurosis induced by
the horrors of war, but which may not be unrelated to the
patient's previous experiences. To care for its shell shocked
soldiers the United States government established Base
Hospital 117 in La Fauche, France, staffed by medical officers
trained in neuro-psychiatry. At this hospital the author, Doctor
Fenton, had the opportunity of studying war neuroses at first
hand. The first part of the book is taken up with a critical
examination of the facts gathered regarding the patients in the
hospitals. The victims of shell shock are studied in the light
of their mental and physical make-up and their social and
economic background. What happened to the shell shocked
soldier when he returned home, how he was treated ,by his
neighbors, how he was cared for by the government, and how
he became adjusted to civil life, are discussed in the second
half of the book. Dr. Salmon in the introduction says: "Doctor
Fenton has shown a definite relationship existing between
make-up, personal resources and access to treatment and com-
plete rehabilitation that confirms a growing belief in the use-
fulness of adequate therapy and prophylaxis in psychopathic

RHEUMATISM, by Lewellys P. Barker and Norman B. Cole. Appleton
166 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Survey.

HEALTH workers who are alarmed at the rising rate of
death from heart disease will find here a discussion of one of
the great causes of cardiac troubles. The authors explain in
popular style what rheumatism is, why it is a menace, how to
recognize it, and what physicians propose as remedies.

S. Rand. American Foundation for the Blind. 347 pp. Price $2.00 post-
paid of The Survey.

THIS is a list of institutions and services for the blind by
States and for Canada. Data on the institutions and their
scope should prove useful to those who have to deal with the
problem of blind or partially blind people.

POVERTY AND DEPENDENCY, by John Lewis Gilli* (.revised edition).
Century. 836 pp. Price $4.00 postpaid of The Survey.


CREATIVE SCHOOL CONTROL, by Philip W. L. Cox. Lippincott.
314 pp. Price $2.00 postpaid of The Survey.

HERE IS valuable matter on the theory and practice of the
new education, based on the author's own concept and phil-
osophy of the creative type of education plus the techniques that
serve for stimulus and control. He emphasizes the importance
of the school to give a cross section of life so that for the
student it is but a step from participation in the world of
the school to the world of the community. To unify the
personality, to help it develop harmoniously in ways socially
acceptable through a creative life should be the aim of edu-
cation. "The school itself becomes the way and the light."
It must form a cooperative unit of friendly contacts between
parents, teachers, and students promoting vital activities that
parallel community activities. The techniques and mechanisms
for improved class procedures are explained, with an elaborate
amount of material on the methods used in establishing creative
control through clubs and societies, student publications and
school organizations. The book is a detailed, scholarly attempt
to treat school problems not as ends in themselves but as a
means to make the Plastic Age serve as a training for that new
world now in preparation. H. S.


Exchange Sick-leave for Vacation


IN conformance to local practice the Social Service
Federation of Toledo has granted only two weeks'
vacation to members of its staff. In addition to this,
each worker is allowed twelve days absence for sick-
ness, each year, without loss of pay. This sick-leave
is not cumulative from year to year, and is supposed to ap-
ply only in case of actual sickness on the part of the worker
herself. In order to apply this policy a daily record of
attendance has been kept.

A study of the attendance record revealed the following
interesting facts:

1. Excluding vacations and regular leaves of absence, the
total of absences, most of which were due to the worker's
own illness, aggregated 377}^ days.

2. The total possible attendance for the year, that is the
total number of worker-days, was 9,175 days. Sick-leave
absences, therefore, constituted 4.17% of the total possible

3. The highest percentage of absence occurred in the winter
months. The low point was July, with .7%. From that
point the curve was upward, reaching its maximum in Feb-
ruary at 7.1%.

4. Each of the 31 workers had at least one day of absence
due to illness. Ten of them exceeded the allotted twelve
days. The average absence per person was 12.1 days.

Recognizing the fact that the strain on the workers is
considerably heavier in the winter than in the summer, and
noting the greatest amount of absence due to illness comes
in the winter months, it has been decided to try out as

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 77 of 130)