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emphasis and the under-emphasis upon the value of propaganda.
The final appendix is a brief effort to appraise the cooperative
educational work carried on in the United States generally and
the activities of the Cooperative League of America and the
specific relation of the movement in the state of Illinois to the
wider national movement. At this moment Mr. Warne is
organizing a series of correspondence courses for the new cor-
respondence school which the Cooperative League is developing.


Our Aimless Education

Snedden. Lippincott. 379 pp. Price $2.00 postpaid of The Surrey.

book is developed on the ancient and honorable cate-
I chetical plan. This enables the author to disclose his
theories incidentally, to criticise abuses and to suggest remedies
practically. And the professor is always restrained and judicial.
He sees clearly the anachronisms and stupidities of our educa-
tional system but they do not irritate him. He discovers wisdom
and promise in the methods of the "progressive" educationalists,
at least as they apply to children under ten years of age, but
he does not become an advocate for the "new schools." He



July 15, 1927-

holds the balance evenly. He is a surprisingly radical conser-
vative in the educational field.

Next to aimlessness Professor Snedden finds as a source of
weakness in the American educational system "the dominance
of subject matter specialism in the construction of courses and
curricula." It does not suffer from lack of financial support
or from poorly trained teachers. Indeed, "it is here contended
that large proportions of education can be given by persons of
comparative youth and even of far less than ideal professional
training, provided the objectives of that education are clearly
formulated and understood, and provided also, that administra-
tive authority has rendered its full service in differentiating
classes of learners and in providing favorable material condi-
tions for instruction." Does he mean that the perfect machine
is of more importance than the teacher?

Professor Snedden believes that "education" is too commonly
identified with "school education," and that liberal culture is
confused with liberal studies in high school and college. Most
of the successful students in these schools are from the class
predestined to leadership. He has grave doubts about the
essential usefulness of these schools to such people. Moreover,
and more surprising, this professor of education thinks the
extra-curricula education, in a large number of instances, as
of even more worth than the subject matter courses. This for
students of average ability. For the exceptional student, pur
schools do not offer "more than a small part of the possible
education that should be given to these young persons at this
time of life."

Professor Snedden thinks the high schools "probably do no
serious harm" to exceptional students, but he advocates a much
better service which might be rendered by shortening the school
year to "perhaps not exceeding thirty weeks," by releasing
students to their homes at the end of a short school-day, by
making provision for extended general reading, for physical
exercises and for excursions. For students of less than average
ability the schools of all grades are equally ill adapted. It is
now a common practice to deny to this class of students all
"academic studies" and to relegate them to what seem to be
to educators "vocational studies." To Professor Snedden these
studies are a sham as both vocational and cultural courses.
Such students are thus deprived of their opportunities for a
broader and richer liberal education which they might gain
from "academic studies" intelligently taught.


The Battle against Disease

THE CONQUEST OF DISEASE, by Thurmon B. Rice, M.D. Macmillan.

363 pp. Price $4.00 postpaid of The Survey.
WHY INFECTIONS? by Nicholas Kopelof, Ph.D. Knopf. 182 pp. Prict

$2.00 postpaid of Tht Survey.

TN time all of us will know what a few know today, namely
that, within certain limits, health, both personal and public,
is purchasable. And when all do know the limits will be ex-
tended, for one of the important limiting factors in the applica-
tion of scientific knowledge to the common welfare lies in the
resistance, or even opposition, of the uninformed and the mis-
informed. Dr. Rice's work is designed chiefly to make widely
available the essential information about those diseases regard-
ing which our knowledge is such as to make our control fairly
complete, or the hope of control reasonable. The book consists
of three main parts of which the first contrasts in broad terms
older conceptions regarding specific diseases with more modern
conceptions and explains the steps by which our scientific knowl-
edge has been attained. Part III discusses the means by which
transmissible diseases are controlled, as vital statistics; segrega-
tion, isolation and quarantine; fumigation and disinfection;
sanitation in relation to epidemic disease; and public health

The bulk of the book, Part II, discusses in detail the trans-
missible diseases and their prevention. They are classified into
four groups: diseases transmitted through intestinal discharges;
saliva-borne diseases; insect-borne diseases; and contact dis-
eases. These classes, while convenient, are not altogether satis-
factory, since they are not always mutually exclusive. The
discussions of the several diseases, however, are reliable and

Dr. Rice has a very happy style which enables him to retain

the interest of the reader even when discussing relatively'
difficult technical topics; indeed, there is occasionally a sug-
gestion that the theme has been somewhat over-simplified.
There is nothing pedantic in the manner, rather an easy-going
familiarity, well-adapted for a wide lay public. There are ex-
cellent diagrams and graphs, and a well-balanced mixture of
basic information with practical advice. There may be some
danger that the lay reader will occasionally appropriate a
practical suggestion intended for the physician or the health
officer. There also appears, throughout, an intimation of the
polemic attitude, as where Dr. Rice steps aside to argue with
the anti-evolutionists or the anti-vaccinationists or the anti-
vivisectionists, who oppose scientific knowledge and the applica-
tion of such knowledge on the basis of sentimental or tradi-
tional prejudices.

This book ought to be of especial value to teachers, profes-
sional health workers, physicians and to lay members of boards
of health, public health associations, hospitals, etc. There is
a good index.

Dr. Kopeloff's little book is an exceptionally well balanced
discussion of the meaning of infection as a source of intoxication
and of tissue destruction; the relation of localized infection
to generalized conditions as well as to specific diseases. The
treatment of focal infection in teeth, the question of removing
tonsils or adenoids, the relationship between rheumatism,
mental disturbance and other non-specific conditions to infec-
tion are discussed with due regard to what we do not know
as well as with moderate emphasis upon what we do know.
Technical terms are adequately explained in the text, which
is supplemented with a glossary. This book furnishes an ex-
cellent summary of subject matter for doctor and dentist, who
have the perennial difficulty of keeping up with the specialists,
as well as for teachers of hygiene, nurses, and the head of the
family, whose children have teeth, tonsils, adenoids, ears, eyes
and other organs commonly found in children.


American Association

for Medical Progress

Interpreters of Social Science

Edward Cary Hayes. Lippincott. 427 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of Tht

Oditm. Holt. 411 pp. Price $4.50 postpaid of The Survey.

THESE books, by a number of men, illustrate a recent
tendency to collaboration in the social sciences. At one
time or another some enthusiast in each of the social sciences
has claimed that his specialty was the only real social science.
Sociologists and economists have perhaps made this claim
oftener than any others, and it is gratifying in late years to
see these two lions lying down among the lambs without at-
tempting to swallow them. If one may judge from the number
of recent books written jointly by men from different fields
of social science, it would seem that active cooperation among
them is about to be achieved.

Recent Developments in the Social Sciences, edited by
Edward Cary Hayes, contains chapters on sociology, anthro-
pology, psychology, cultural geography, economics, political
science, and history, each by a man distinguished in his field.
Ellwood finds four major trends in sociology: the stress upon
th'e mental aspect of social life, interest in a synthetic view
of social life, a composite method of research, and the interest
in social reconstruction based upon scientific analysis. The
aims of anthropology, as Wissler sees them, are to discover
time sequence and distribution of culture and physical traits.
Psychology becomes a social science through its interest in
social control and social progress ; its particular approach to
the study of these is through measurement of intelligence levels
and the analysis of emotional factors. Sauer concludes that
the material of geography is the landscape which includes the
natural area and the cultural additions. Orthodox economics
lias a core of solid truth which persists, but it is greatly en-
riched bv the behavioristic psychology, the institutional viewpoint
and the interest in social welfare. Through the study of actual
political activities, political science is becoming more objective
nnd synthetic; it aspires to experimentation and social control.
The "new history" has become a commonplace, because so many


Inly 15, 1927



lave essayed to tell us about it, but Barnes has written about
t again in a stimulating manner.

American Masters of Social Science, edited by Howard W.
Odum, has chapters on the life and work of Burgess, Ward.
Herbert B. Adams, Dunning, Small, Giddings, Veblen, Turner
and Robinson. Each of these great names has as its interpreter
man who has had special opportunity to know the man and
lis work. The editor has not insisted that his co-authors write
jiography in the narrow sense; they have written as they saw
it, and in all cases an interesting interpretation of the man
and his work has been achieved.

These books might be damned as homeopathic doses of social
science administered by the doctors to unwilling patients, and
the readers of social science in this form might be disposed of
as dilettante. But when Odum informs us that in 1926 the
subject of sociology alone was treated in 544 volumes in the
United States and 848 in Great Britain, it begins to seem that
the general public, and even workers in other social sciences,
would never know what is going on in sociology without reading
a boiled-down edition. The social worker with a day's work
and a few leisure hours to read has to resort to summary state-
ments, and he must read in several different fields, especially
those of sociology, economics, psychology and history; his is a
technology that rests upon these fundamental sciences. He
needs the measuring sticks of science to judge his work, and
he needs also the intellectual horizon which only science can

In getting these books written and published Hayes and Odum
have done social work, as well as social science, a fine service.
The reader of Recent Developments can get a good idea of
what is happening in each social science treated by reading the
chapter devoted to it with the possible exception of the one
on political science, which appears to have been written after
dinner one night or perhaps on the Pullman between New York
and Chicago.

Charity Organization Society
New York



Education and Social Theory

Osborn. Scribner's. 240 pp. Price J2.00 postpaid of The Survey.

PROFESSOR OSBORN has here gathered together the
newspaper and magazine articles he has written during four
years of "running debate" with William Jennings Bryan and
his followers. The dust and clamor of the fundamentalist
controversy, remote from the scenes of a paleontologist's
patient, scientific research, did not trouble Professor Osborn
until the Dayton farce made him feel that the movement had
begun "to interfere with the teachings in our schools and
colleges, to deceive the youth of our country." The spirit and
temper of the book are revealed in the concluding paragraph
of the first essay:

These disputatious essays and addresses are in no way to be
considered as an exposition or defense of evolution. . . . Rather,
they constitute a defense of religion against the attacks of those
who would make religion the consort of ignorance instead of
learning. We may be fairly sure that we are on the right side
of civilization and of human progress if we are on the spiritually
constructive side, the side which alone attracts and inspires the
rising generation.

Hastily written and badly in need of editing as many of the
chapters are, the book as a whole throws into sharp contrast
the narrow, uninformed creed of the fundamentalists and the
high dignity of a scientist's faith in "a continuous creation of
life fitted to a continuously changing world." In so doing he
shows us our "Supreme Kingdoms," "Four Square Gospels"
and anti-evolutionary laws as educational menaces and as
glaring injustices to young minds.

REGIONAL SOCIOLOGY, by Kadhakamal Mukerjee. Century Co.
273 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey.

INTRODUCED by Professor E. A. Ross as the first system-
atic work on regional sociology, this comes very properly, in
view of the diverse sociological conditions of his native land,
from the most eminent living Indian economist. It seeks to
analyse the effects of climate, food, transportation upon race,
social and political development, and to go further and investi-
gate the extent to which man's organization has remade the
"region." H. McD. C.

Warwick & York. 378 pp. Price $2.00 postpaid of The Survey.

Warwick & York. 158 pp. Price $1.80 postpaid of The Survey.

SCHOOL, by Paul W. Terry. Warwick & York. 122 pp. Price $1.60
postpaid of The Survey.

International Affairs

gomery. 367 pp. Henry Holt. Price $3.50 postpaid of The Survey.

THIS inquiry into the functions and international problems of
the modern state as seen through the eyes of a British student
of government is interesting to Americans chiefly as an example
of one current of British political thought. It contributes little
that is novel and adds nothing of moment to the theory of the
state or the present problems confronting the governments of
Europe. But it reflects, especially in the second part dealing
with the immediate international situation, that mixture of
idealism and hard practical diplomacy which characterizes Brit-
ish conduct of foreign affairs. Thus, the author is for the
League of Nations as an instrument of peace, but against the
League when it threatens to encroach upon British sovereignty.
He is outspoken in his criticism of the Geneva protocol, which,
like its predecessor, the Draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance,
he declares "was the finest guarantee of a future world war
yet devised." In the direction of Locarno, however, he sees a
sound road to peace. Only when discussing Russia does the
author reveal a complete lack of knowledge or understanding.

Price $1.30 postpaid of The Survey.

THIS source book was compiled by the Y.W.C.A. as a back-
ground for study and understanding of industrial conditions in
the East, particularly as they affect women. True to its title,
it presents data from official sources and current publications
on a situation far more critical than the average reader on
the Orient is aware. The study is confined to China, Japan
and India. An extensive cross-reference index divides the
material for convenience in contrasting the attitudes of organ-
ized labor, government, and employers on such subjects as
wages, unemployment, health and industry, child labor, work-
ers' education, and special legislation for women. Useful com-
pilations of special material are included ; international effects
of industrialization of the Orient, spiritual factors in the
economic world, evidence of interest in world industrial con-
ditions, and the industrial program of the Y.W.C.A.

HOW BRITAIN IS GOVERNED, by Kate Rosenberg. People's Institutt
Publishing Co. 96 pp. Price $1.00 postpaid of The Suney.

A COMPETENT little book in which the British Constitu-
tion, which ". . .n'exlste point" as de Tocqueville said, and yet
which does exist in sinewy flexibility that contrasts refreshingly
with our American rigidities, is expounded for the casual

WORLD CHANCELLERIES, compiled by Edward P. Bell. Chicago
Daily News. 213 pp.

THIS SERIES of interesting if somewhat superficial inter-
views with leading European and Far Eastern statesmen during
1924 was privately printed and distributed by the Chicago
Daily News.





A Money-raising Plan for Social Agencies


DO you want to know how to secure the renewal
of 85 per cent to 95 per cent of your regular
contributions each year by an automatic process
at a cost which probably will not exceed 2
per cent of the money collected and will pos-
sibly run as low as one-half of i per cent?

A pipe-dream? Not at all. Look over the table
of the results of this system as used in one organiza-
tion and in use today in a score or more effective Chicago
charities. As far back as 1912 I used this system in the
United Charities of Chicago. That was fifteen years ago
and it has been in successful use there ever since. Surely
that proves its efficiency, for in that period of time the
yearly contributions of the United Charities which amount-
ed to approximately $250,000 have much more than
doubled. I have used the same plan in two other or-
ganizations with which I have been connected, successfully
in each case. In my present organization the renewed con-
tributions rose from $5,000 to $25,000 in a few years. Why
on earth money-raising organizations still use the old cum-
bersome heart-breaking, time- and money-wasting method of
a yearly campaign, especially to collect money from previous
givers, is a puzzle to me.

TRAINED HELP: To be successful this plan must
be in the care of one clerk who becomes in" time familiar
with all its details and who keeps his records up to date
daily. This may not take over 15 minutes a day, or it may
take several hours.

LEDGER-CARDS: First have some form of ledger-
card finding-system, either the old 3x5 or 4x6 drawer sys-
tem or some variation like the Rand or Visible Records
Equipment Co., which provides for sheets instead of cards,
arranged in volumes or books with overlapping edges show-
ing names of givers in a visible manner, also visualizing
months in which gifts are due and amounts due, with a
scheme for checking them off when paid.

ADDRESSOGRAPH: In addition you had best put
the names and addresses on addressograph plates. My plan
is to arrange these plates by months a separate drawer for
each month. As soon as one of the givers pays, the amount
is checked off on the visible index sheet, the plate is taken
from in front of the follower block in the addressograph
drawer and placed behind the follower block. To facilitate
this I had our drawers made with two follower blocks each
so as to keep the rear plates upright. Of course, the next
step is to enter the gift in your cash-book and then to enter
it on a work-sheet from which it can be transferred in the
course of time to your record sheet which shows the pulling
power of each letter. Samples of these giving actual figures
from our records are here shown.

NUMBER THE GII'ERS: The number in front of

each contribution on the work-sheet happens to be our con-
tributor's serial number. We assign each new giver a serial
number for convenience in book-keeping and so as to give
us an automatic count of new givers.

FILING PLATES: Let's go back to the addressograph
plates for a moment. Each one has a tab across the top
which records the amount given last year. There are also
signals. A white signal in a certain position (there is a
position for each month) indicates that this contributor also
gives in the month in which the signal is placed. If a giver
gave twelve times a year there would be twelve white sig-
nals, one in each monthly position. Other signals show
which givers contribute $50 and over as these may require
special letters.

COUNTING GIBERS: Each month before the work
of appealing for renewals begins the figures on the tabs
on the plates are added up to ascertain how much is due.
The plates are counted to see how many persons must be
appealed to. These items are entered on the result record-
ing sheet here shown.

As the first of each month rolls around, or whenever a
new batch of reminder letters is ready to go out, the
monthly drawer is taken to the addressograph table and in
ten minutes a batch of envelopes properly addressed, is

In order to set this scheme in motion it is absolutely
necessary to have:

a. An accurate, easily accessible list of yearly contributors.

b. Every contributor should be assumed to be a yearly

c. The addressograph plates should be arranged by months.
THE APPEAL: On the first of the month, exactly a

year from the date of the last gift, the contributor should
be asked to renew his contribution either by letter or pre-
ferably by means of some kind of reminder notice printed
neatly to look important.

RENEWAL MEMORANDUM: By means of this
notice or letter the giver should be thanked for last year's
gift, given some brief reasons for renewal and definitely
asked for a check. Usually a return envelope should be
enclosed, preferably not stamped.

MAILING DAYS: Whatever is mailed to a prospect
should be timed to arrive at his desk on the lightest mail
day of the week. In the middle west this is Tuesday for
then there is no mail from the east. Best of all the letter
should, if possible, be timed to reach your prospect's desk
in the first afternoon mail after he gets back from lunch
and is finishing his after-luncheon smoke.

BUSINESS ADDRESSES: Always use business ad-
dresses of business men if you have them. The check-book
and the cashier or treasurer are at the office and usually


July 15, 1927



contributions are given out of firm money ; and often
checks are made by the cashier on the order of the head
of the firm. Hence the business address is best. Women s
letters can be addressed to the homes unless they are busi-
ness women.

FOLLOW-UP: Exactly t\vo weeks from the day the
first reminder was mailed, send out the second one either
the same form (but do not mark it "2nd reminder",) or a
letter. In the letter do not refer to the fact that the check
has not come in. Write the letter as though it were your
first effort to collect, but write it from a new and fresh
angle. Do not chide }'our giver, ever. If he hasn't re-
newed either he can't afford it or it is your fauJjt for not
selling him the idea.

APPEAL TECHNIQUE: Every two weeks thereafter,
send a letter asking for the renewal. Always continue to
ask for it gently. Do not fall into the error of pleading
for the money with tears splattering over your type because
the treasury is so low, but give excellent reasons always
from a fresh angle, reasons why the giver should be glad to
send a check. Send eight appeals in all counting the first
two printed reminders. That is, send that many to those
who haven't responded to the first seven.

ERRORS: Carefully check out the ones who pay in
answer to your appeals. Do this up to the last minute of
mailing the next appeal so that there'll be no possible chance
of sending an appeal to some one who has just sent a check.

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