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make people obey Him against their will, nor force them to sin against
their will."

P. 414. The word Mu'tazila. — In the Ghyas-ul-Lughat and the
Farhang (Lucknow) the word J"/** is spelt with a fatha on the
third syllable, which would make it in its English garb Mu'tazala.
The Farhang is the work of three of the most learned Moslem scholars
of India, and is the best and most comprehensive lexicon of its kind,
a real encyclopaedia. In its compilation the authors have used every
existing lexicon, among them the Kashf-ul-Lughdt, the Surdh the
Tdj-ul-'Urus and a number of others, so that it cannot be said they have
decided lightly. In Richardson's Dictionary the word is spelt similarly.

In the Lisdn-ul-' Arab the word is printed with a Kesra under the third
syllable, which would make it read Mu'tazila. And Western Oriental-
ists have almost entirely adopted this view.

The difference, which to an outsider unacquainted with the Arabic
language may sound like a distinction without a difference, arises from
the question, did Wasil bin 'Ata leave the majlis of his own accord, or
was he asked on account of his disagreement with the Imam to with-
draw ? Ibn Khallikan says he was " expelled." In the first case the
active participle would be the right form, and the word would be
mu'tazila ; in the latter case it would be mu'tazala. The Indian Moulvis
hold the opinion that he was asked to leave ; in which they are sup-
ported by Ibn Khallikan. And yet de Slane, the translator of the
Wafi'dt al-Aydn transliterates the word as Mu'tazilite.

In all my previous works I have followed the Ghyds and the Farhang,
but in view of the unanimity among Western Orientalists and in order
to avoid confusing the reader I have decided in this Edition to range
myself with them. This does not, however, alter my adherence to
the scholars of my country.

P. 419. Mu'tazila doctrines. — " The Mu'tazilas are agreed that the
world has a Creator, Eternal, Almighty, Omniscient, Living. He is
neither a body nor an accident nor a substance ; He is self-sufficient.
One, incomprehensible by sense, Just, All- wise, doth no wrong; nor
purposeth any ; He lays duties on human beings by way of indicating
retribution to them. He renders man capable of action, removes
hindrance out of the way, and retribution is absolutely necessary ;
further, they agree upon the necessity of the sending of a Prophet when
a sending is desirable, and that the Prophet must bring a new law or
revive one of which no trace is left, or provide some new life to human-
ity ; and they are agreed that the last of the Prophets is Mohammed ;
and that faith is a declaration and knowledge and action. And they
agree that man's action is not created in him ; they agree in having
friendly feelings towards the Companions of the Prophet, but they
disagree about Osman after the events that he brought about ; most



494 THE SPIRIT OF ISLAM

of them, however, have friendly feelings towards him and offer explana-
tions for his conduct. And most of them are agreed about standing
aloof from Mu'awiyah and 'Amr ibn al-'As and they are agreed upon the
necessity of enjoining good acts and the forbidding of evil."

P. 472. Ameer Khusru, although he has been accorded a place
amongst the Awlia (the Sufi saints), was certainly not a professed Sufi.
Most of the Moslem poets of India bear more than a tinge of mysticism,
and have given expression to it in their poetry. I have already
mentioned Dabir {ante, p. 460). The three brothers, Anis, Munis, and
Uns (noms de plume derived from one and the same root), were con-
temporaries of Dabfr and their thoughts run in the same channel.
Altai Husain Khan Hdli and Asad ullah Khan Ghdlib, like the un-
fortunate Bahadur Shah, the last titular King of Delhi, who was
deported by the British to Rangoon after the Mutiny, were " intuitional-
ists " In one of his finest poems Ghalib speaks of Bahadur Shah
in these terms :

Shah-i-roushan dil Bah&dur Shah kehai
Rdz-i-hasti uspeh sar-ta-sar khula.
The King Bahadur Shah of the illumined heart,
He has had opened to him fully the mysteries of existence.
P. 472. Sennusi. — The Sennusiya order, if it can be so called, was
founded by Mohammed bin Ali as-Sennusi al-Idrisi. He was a descend-
ant of the Prophet through Idris, who had escaped into the Maghrib
(West Africa) from the massacre in Medina by Yezid's troops. He was
born in a place called Mustaghanem in Algeria in 1787. He appears to
have been a man of a particularly virile character. He travelled much
in the Islamic countries which were easy of access, and noted the
deterioration in morals which resulted to the Arabs and other Moslems
of North Africa from contact with the peoples of the Mediterranean
littoral. He also observed how the Moslems had fallen away from the
old teachings, and how lethargic and fatalistic they had become. He
uplifted them by directing their energies to such industries as conduced
to material prosperity and their minds to the duties imposed by their
religion.

Sidi Mohammed bin Ali, before his death in 1859, had founded numbers
of zavias or lodges in the Hijaz and Yemen, in the Libyan Oases, in
Cyrenaica and Algeria. And those lodges, in mid-Africa at least, exer-
cised considerable moral influence. In Morocco his disciples, who are
usually called Brothers (" Ikhwan "), made little or no progress in
consequence of the old established Moulai Tyyib order. Sidi Mohammed
was succeeded by his son Mohammed al-Mahdi as the head of the
fraternity.

P. 473. I am quoting from memory —

Kajkol ko tdj khusrawdni sahmjhai

Aur dunyd dani ko fdni samjhai

Dariai Hakikat wahi jawai pair

Jo Kisai 'umar ko kahdni samjhai.



APPENDIX III 495

Apostasy. — The punishment for apostasy provided by the ecclesiastical
laws of Islam has recently caused some amount of perturbation among
politicians and others in England. " Apostasy " has always from the
earliest times been regarded as a capital offence in all the religious
and civil systems of the world, as it formed a breach of loyalty to
established order. The Romans condemned the early Christians to
death because they had set themselves up against the government and
the State-religion. The Christians, when they obtained supremacy,
followed the Roman example. The Romish Church burnt apostates,
heretics, men, women and even children, without mercy all over the
globe. The Reformed Churches were not lacking in ardour in the
cause of orthodoxy and maintenance of conformity. Apostates were
subject to the penalty of death up to very recent times in England.
At the present time a person renouncing Christianity is not put to
death, but is subject to social and civil ostracism. The Prophet of
Islam never condemned freedom of conscience, but treason to the
Commonwealth was punished with death. It was frequently the case
that the Meccans made a profession of the faith in order to get into the
city of Medina, and after obtaining all the information connected
with the security of the little Moslem State returned to Mecca and
threw off Islam. When captured they were condemned to execution.
Treason is still in our own days, throughout the world, punishable
with death, and no objection can be taken to these executions. The
Moslem ecclesiastical law that an apostate must undergo the penalty
of death is based on this rule. But women are not punishable with
death, they are only imprisoned ; nor is any child subject to that
penalty. This is the difference between Islam and Christianity in the
matter of humanity and freedom of conscience. If I am not mistaken,
the penalty of death for "apostasy" was abolished in Turkey in the
reign of Sultan Selim II. towards the end of the eighteenth century.



APPENDIX IV

For the Genealogical Tables of the Saracenic Caliphs and Sovereigns
see my Short History of the Saracens. I give here the names of the
Ommeyyade Caliphs of Damascus and Spain, of the Abbaside Caliphs
of Bagdad and the Fatimide Caliphs of Cairo, with the dates of their
accession to make the text intelligible.

THE RASHIDtN CALIPHS.

A.H. A.C.

i. Abu Bakr - - - - 11= 632

2. Omar 13= 634

3. Osman 2 3= 644

4- Ali 35 = 656



THE OMMEYYADE SOVEREIGNS OF DAMASCUS.

A.H. A.C.

i. Mu'awiyah I. __.__-_ 41= 661

2. Yezid __- 61 = 681

3. Muawiya'i II. - - - - 64 = 683

4. Merwan I. - 65= 684

5. Abdul Malik - - - - 65 = 685

6. Walid I. 86 = 705

7. Sulaiman - - - - 96= 715

8. Omar bin Abdul Aziz 99 = 717

9. Yezid II. - - - 101 = 720

10. Hisham 105 = 724

11. Walid II. - - - - - - - - 125 = 743

12. Yezid III. - - - - I2 6 = 744

13. Ibrahim - - 126 = 744

14. Merwan II. 127 = 745



THE ABBASIDE CALIPHS OF BAGDAD.

A.H. A.C.

i. As-Saff ah, Abu' I Abb ds (Abdullah)- - - - 132 = 750

2. Al-Mansur, Abd J a' jar - - -, 136 = 754

496



APPENDIX IV



497



A.H. A.C.

3. Al-Mahdi (Mohammed) 158 = 775

4. Al-Hadi (Musa) 168 = 785

5. Ar-Rashid (Harun) 170= 786

6. Al-Amin (Mohammed) 193= 809

N >7. Al-Mamun (Abdullah) 198 = 813

8. Al-Mu'tasim b'lllah (Abu Ishak Mohammed) - - 218 = 833

9. Al-Wasik b'lllah (Abu Jaafar Harun) - - - 227 = 842

10. Al-Mutawakkil 'ala-Illah (Jaafar) - - - - 232 = 847

11. Al-Muntasir b'lllah (Mohammed) - 247 = 861

12. Al-Mustain b'lllah (Ahmed) - - - 248 = 862

13. Al-Mu'tazz b'lllah (Mohammed) - 252 = 866

14. Al-Muhtadi b'lllah (Mohammed Abu Ishak) - - 255 = 869

15. Al-Mu'tamid al'-Allah (Ahmed, Abii'1 Abbas) - 256 = 870

16. Al-Mutazid b'lllah (Ahmed, Abu'l Abbas) - - 279 = 892

17. Al-Muktafi b'lllah (Ali, Abu Mohammed) - - 289 = 902

18. Al-Muktadir b'lllah (Ja'far, Abu'l Fazl) - - 295 = 908

19. Al-Kahir b'lllah (Mohammed, Abu Mansur) - - 320 = 932

20. Ar-Razi b'lllah (Mohammed Abu'l Abbas) - - 322 = 934

21. Al-Muttaki b'lllah (Ibrahim, Abu'l Ishak) - - 329 = 940

22. Al-Mustakfi b'lllah (Abdullah, Abu'l Kasim) - 333 = 944

23. Al-Muti 'Ullah (Fazl, Abul Kasim) - - - 334 = 946

24. At-Tai b'lllah (Abdul Karim, Abu Bakr) - - 363 = 974

25. Al-Kadir b'lllah (Ahmed, Abu'l Abbas) - - - 381 = 991

26. Al-Kaim biamr Illah (Abdullah, Abu Jaafar) - - 422 = 103 1

27. Al-Muktadi bi'amr-Illah (Abdullah, Abu'l Kasim) - 467 = 1075

28. Al-Mustazhir b'lllah (Ahmed, Abu'l Abbas) - - 487 = 1094

29. Al-Mustarshid b'lllah (Fazl, Abu'l Mansur) - - 512 =1118

30. Ar-Rashid b'lllah (Mansur, Abu Jaafar) - - 529 = 1135

31. Al-Muktafi bi'amr-Illah (Mohammed, Abu Abdullah) 530 = 1136

32. Al-Mustanjid b'lllah (Yusuf, Abu'l Muzaffar) - 555 = 1160

33. Al-Mustazii bi'amr-Illah (Hasan, Abu Mohammed) 566 = 1170

34. An-Nasir Ji-din-Illah (Ahmed, Abu'l Abbas) - - 575 = 1180

35. Az-Zahir bi'amr-Illah (Mohammed, Abfi Nasr) - 622 = 1225

36. Al-Mustansir b'lllah (Mansur, Abu Ja'far) - - 623 = 1226

37. Al-Musta'sim b'lllah (Abdullah, Abu Ahmed) - 640 = 1242



THE FATIMIDE CALIPHS OF EGYPT

A.H. A.C.

i. Al-Mahdi, Obaidullah - 296 = 908

2. Al-Kaim bi-amr-Illah - - - - - - 322 ^ 934

3. Al-Mansur bi-amr-Illah 334 = 945

4. Al-Muizz li-din-Illah i— - - - - - 341 = 953

5. Al-Aziz b'lllah - - 365 = 975

6. Al-Hakim bi-amr-Illah 386 = 996

7. Az-Zahir l'-azaz-din-Illah 411 = 1021

8. Al-Mustansir b'lllah 4 2 7 = io 3 6

s.i. 2 1



49 8



THE SPIRIT OF ISLAM



9. Al-Musta'li b'lllah -

10. Al-'Amir bi-Ahkam-Illah

11. Al-Hafiz li-din-Illah

12. Az-Zaiir bi-amr-IUah

13. Al-Faiz bi-amr-Illah

14. Al-'Azid-li-din-Illah



A.H.




A.C.


487


=


IO94


494


=


IIOI


523


=


1 1 30


544


=


1149


549


=


1154


555


=


116a



THE OMMEYYADE CALIPHS OF CORDOVA.

I38-422, 756-IO3I A.C.

A.H. A.C.

Abdur Rahman I. {ad Ddkhil) - - - 138 = 756

Hisham I. (Abu'l Walid) - - - - - - 172 = 788

Hakam I., al-Muntasir 180= 796

Abdur Rahman II. (al-Ausat) - - - 206 = 822

Mohammed I. - - - 238 = 852

Munzir - 273 = 886

Abdullah 275 = 888

An-Nasir li-din-Illah, Abdur Rahman III. - - - 300 = 912

Al-Mustansir b'lllah, Hakam II. 350 = 961

Al-Muwayyid b'lllah, Hisham II. - - - - 366 = 976

Al-Mahdi, Mohammed II. 399 = 1009

Al-Musta*in b'lllah, Sulaiman - - - 400 = 1009

Mohammed II (again) - - - - 400 =1010

Hisham II. (again) - - - - 400 = 1010

Sulaiman (again) 403 = 1013

Ali bin Hamud (An-Ndsir the Idriside) - 407 = 1016

Abdur Rahman IV [al-Murtaza) - - - 408 =1018

Kasim bin Hamud {al-Mdmun) - - - 408 =1018

Yahya bin Ali bin Hamud (al-Mnsta'li) - - - 412 = 1021

Kasim bin Hamud (again) - - - - - - 413 = 1022

Abdur Rahman V. {al-Mustazhir b'llldh) - - - 414 = 1023

Mohammed III. (al-Mustakfi b'llldh) - 414 = 1024

Yahya bin Ali bin Hamud (again) - - - - 416=1 02 5

Hisham III. {al-Mu'tazz b'llldh) - - - - 418 = 1027



GENERAL INDEX.

N.B. — In the following index the definite article al before proper names
is disregarded, while the prefix Banu or Bani (" sons of . . . ") before the
names of tribes is omitted ; al-Hallaj, e.g. should be sought under H, and
Banu-Abbas under A.

The letter b. between two names stands for ibn (" son of . . . "), and n
for note.



Abbas, uncle of the Prophet, 6, 7, 9 n,

14, 44, 113, 128, 305-6.
Abbas II., Shah of Persia, 451.
Abbasides (Banu-Abbas), 276, 283-4,

285, 304. 305. 307-13. 315. 3i6, 324,

325. 326, 339. 367. 37i. 372. 389-
Abdullah, father of the Prophet, 7, 8,

128.
Abdullah Abu'l Abbas, see Saffah.
Abdullah Abu Ja'far, see Mansur

(Caliph).
Abdullah b. Abbas, 237, 274, 296, 306,

363. 436.
Abdullah b. Abu Kuhafa, see Abu

Bakr.
Abdullah b. Ahmed b. Ali al-Beithar,

386.
Abdullah b. Juda'an, 13.
Abdullah b. Maimun al-Kaddah, 326,

33o-5. 336, 337-
Abdullah b. Sa'd b. Surrah, 295.
Abdullah b. Ubayy, 57, 60, 68, 76,

103, 115 n.
Abdullah b. Zubair, 7 n.
Abd ud-Dar b. Kosayy, 4, 5.
Abd ul-Halim Sharar, Moulvi, 494.
Abd ul-Kabir, a friend of Ibn-Rushd,

431-

Abd ul-Kadir Ghilani, Sheikh, 343 n,

369. 472-
Abd ul-Kais, tribe of, lxvi.
Abd ul-Malik b. Merwan, 128, 254,

303 ». 355-

Abd ul-Malik II., Caliph, 3 n.



Abd(u) Manaf, see Abu Talib.

Abd(u) Manaf b. Kosayy, 4, 5 n.

Abd ul-Muttalib, grandfather of the
Prophet, Ixviii, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13,
128.

Abd ur-Rahman b. 'Auf, 21.

Abd ur-Rahman al-Hazini, astrono-
mer, 381.

Abd ur-Rahman Sufi, physicist, 376.

Abd ur-Razzak b. Ali b. Hasan
al-Lahiji, 451, 452.

Abd us-Salam ar-Rukn, physician,

45°-
Abd ush- Shams b. Abd(u) Manaf, 4,

5 «•
Abd ush-Shams, surnamed ' Saba,'

lxii-lxiii.
Abd ul-'Uzza, see Abu Lahab.
Abelard, 397.
Aben-Bethar, see Abdullah b. Ahmed

b. Ali al-Beithar.
Abraha al-Ashram, lxiii n, 7-8.
Abraham, lxiv, lxx, 20.
Abu'l Abbas, see Saffah.
Abu Abdullah b. al-Mubarak, 351.
Abu Abdullah Mohammed b. Karram,

443-

Abu Abdullah Mohammed b. Sa'id,

poet, 107 n.
Abu Ali Mohammed al-Jubbai, 415,

420, 452.
Abu Bakr, Caliph, 6, 21, 26, 27, 38, 46,

47, 48, 69, 86, 103, 116, 122, 126,

127, 234, 264, 278, 280, 293, 294,

323. 460.



499



500



GENERAL INDEX



Abu Bakr Mohammed b. Yahya, see

Ibn-Baja.
Abu Bakr Mohammed b. Zakaria

ar-Razi, 385.
Abucara, Theodorus, 365.
Abu'l Feda, geographer, 384, 390, 391.
Abu Hanifa, Imam, 186, 351, 369,

436-7. 438, 444- 445. 4 6 9-
Abu'l Hasan, optician, 375.
Abu'l Hasan, see Asha'ri.
Abu'l Hasan b. Tilmiz, physician,

386 n.
Abu'l Hasan AH b. Amajur, astrono-
mer, 375.
Abu Hashim Khalid b. Yazid, 364.
Abu Huraira, 120, 199.
Abu'l Huzail Hamdan, 415, 419.
Abu Ja'far Ahmed b. Mohammed

at-Talib, physician, 386 n.
Abu Jahl, uncle of the Prophet, 7 n,

47, 61, 62.
Abu Jariya, 55.
Abu'l Kasim Ahmed, 1st Abbaside

Caliph in Egypt, 130.
Abu'l Kasim Kinderski, 486.
Abu Lahab, uncle of the Prophet, 7 n,

37. 39-
Abu'l Ma'ali al-Juwaini, 420, 421.
Abu Ma'shar, astronomer, 374.
Abu Mohammed Abdullah, founder

of the Fatimide dynasty, see

Obaidullah.
Abu Mughais b. Mansur, see al-

Hallaj.
Abu Musa al- Asha'ri, 298, 355, 441.
Abu Musa Jabir, chemist, 384, 484.
Abu Muslim Khorasani, 308, 309,

311-12.
Abu Nasr Farabi, see al-Farabi.
Abu Nasr as-Sarraj, 460, 461, 463,

473. 474-
Abu Noumy, son of the Sherif of

Mecca, 132.
Abu Obaidah, 279.
Abu Raf'e Sallam b. Abu'l Hukaik, 73.
Abu Sa'id b. Abi'l Khair, 459 n.
Abu Salma Ja'far b. Sulaiman al-

Khallal, 309-10.
Abu Sufian, 6, 57, 67, 68, 69 n, 71, 78,

79, 90, 105, 299.
Abu Talib, uncle of the Prophet, 6,

7 n, 9 n, 10, 14, 20-21, 23, 26, 36-37,

39, 41, 128.
Abu Thumama Haran b. Habib, see

Mosailima.



Abu'l Ula, poet, 395.

Abu 'Uzza, poet, 73 n.

Abu'l Wafa, mathematician, 376.

Abu Ya'kub Yusuf, Almohade, 429.

Abu Yusuf, Imam, 186, 273, 437, 491.

Abyssinia, 29, 38.

Accadians, the, xix, xxxi.

'Ad, tribe of, lix, lx, lxx, 25.

'Adi b. Hatim, 106.

'Adi b. Ka'b, family of, 37.

'adl, doctrine of, 418, 419.

'Adnan, progenitor of the Koreish, 2.

Aelia, 492.

Afghanistan, 343, 344.

Afrasiab, xxx.

Afshanah, near Bokhara, 387.

Aghlabites, the, 324, 375.

Agricola, Johannes, 461.

Ahirman, Persian god, xxx, 192.

Ahmed b. Hait, 415.

Ahmed b. Mohammed, poet, 396.

Ahmed b. Mohammed an-Nehavendi,

astronomer, 373-4.
Ajarida, the, 356.
'Ajlan, tribe of, 65.
Ajmere, 472.
Ajnadin, battle of, 276.
'Akaba, hill of, 43, 45.
Akbar, the Moghul Emperor, xl,

472 n.
Akhbaris, the, 346-9.
'Akil b. Abu Talib, 14.
'Ala ud-Dowla, Ameer of Isfahan,

387.

'alam ul-jabarM, 473, 474.

'alani nl-malakUt, 474.

'Mam nl-mulk, 473.

Alamut, 340, 342.

Albigenses, the, 80, 220, 313, 397, 398.

Albucasis, physician, 385, 386.

Alexander the Great, xxxiv, xxxv, 1,
liii, lxiii n.

Alexander VI., Pope, 339 n.

Alexandria, 75, 140, 482.

Algeria, 497.

Alhazen, see Hasan b. Haitham.

Ali, Caliph, 14, 20-21, 23, 38, 46, 47,
49, 62, 67 n, 68 «, 69, 70, 97, 103,
104, 106, 108, 115, 117, 122-3, 12 6,
127, 128, 132, 163, 166, 234, 250,
254, 274, 280, 281, 283, 293, 295,
296-7, 298, 303, 306, 307, 308, 321,
323, 328, 345, 354, 355, 362, 363,
409, 414, 416, 436, 440, 458, 459,
460, 472 n, 484, 492, 495.



GENERAL INDEX



50i



Ali II. (Zain ul-'Abidin), 302, 307,

321, 345, 458.
Ali b. Abbas, physician, 385.
Ali b. Abdullah b. Abbas, 306.
Ali b. Amajur, astronomer, 375.
Ali Mohammed, the Bab, 358.
Ali b. Musa Riza, Imam, 312, 345,

352, 412, 461 n, 464 «, 494.
Ali Naki, Imam, 346.
Ali Shah al-Bokhari, philosopher, 382.
Ali Sher Ameer, 383.
Ali b. Yunus, astronomer, see Ibn-

Yunus.
Almagest, the, 374.
Almeria, 392.

Almohades, the 129, 400 n.
Almoravides, the, 129, 400 n.

Alp Arslan, Sultan, 444.

Altai Husain Hali, poet, 497.

'Amalekites, the, lix, lx, lxi, 53.

Ameer Khusru, poet, 472, 497.

Amina, mother of the Prophet, 7, 9.

'Amir, tribe of, 71.

'Ammar b. Yasar, 27.

Ammonius Saccas, xlv, xlvi.

'Amr, the Ghassanide, 14.

*Amr b. al-'As (Amru), liii, 94 n, 297,
298, 497-

'Amr b. 'Auf, clan of, 49.

Anabaptists, 219.

Anas, servant of the Prophet, 119.

Anis, Indian poet, 497.

'Antar, the hero, 254.

Anushirvan the Just, xxxvii, lxiii n,
lxix, 8 n, 218, 326, 327, 367.

Anwari, poet, 368, 396.

Aquinas, Thomas, 185.

Arabia, xxxi, lvi, lxiv, 53, 290.

Arcadius, Emperor, 226.

Ardeshir Babekan, xxxv, xxxvi.

Arians and Arianism, 1, 219, 220, 277,

327-
Aristotle, xxxiv, 181.
Arius, 1.

Arnold, Matthew, 141.
Arnold, Sir Thomas, 491.
Arphaxad, ancestor of Kahtan, lix.
Arslan al-Basasiri, 315 n.
Artaxerxes Mnemon, xxxiii.
Arthur, the Knight, 252.
Arvenius, patriarch, 377 n.
Arwa, daughter of Abd ul-Muttalib,

7 n.
Aryans, the, xxi, xxn, xxix.
Aryat, the Abyssinian general, lxiii n.



Asad, tribe of, lxvi.

Asad ullah Khan Ghalib, poet, 497.

Asha'ri and Asha'rism, 441-8, 452,

453. 462, 465, 467, 473, 474, 476,

486, 487.
Ashtaroth, goddess, xix, 187.
Asia Minor, 330.
Asoka, Emperor, m«.
Asshur, religion of, xxx, xxxi.
Assyria, xxxi.
Aswad, of the house of Abd ul-'Uzza,

6.
al-Aswad, 'Ayhala b. Ka'b, 11 5-6.
Asyr, border of Yemen, lvii.
Athenians, the, 223, 242, 248.
'Atika, daughter of Abd ul-Muttalib,

7».
Attila, 402.
Augustine, St., 225.
Augustus Caesar, 372.
Aurungzeb, Emperor, 315.
Aus, tribe of, 53, 58, 74, 205.
Autas, valley of, 98.
Avenpace, see Ibn-Baja.
Aven-Zoar, see Ibn-Zuhr.
Averroes, see Ibn-Rushd.
Avicenna, see Ibn-Sina.
Awwam, 7 n.
'Ayesha, wife of the Prophet, 117,

234, 250, 296-7.
'Ayhala b. Ka'b, see al-Aswad.
ayydm nl-mina, the, 4.
Ayyubides, the, 284, 445.
Azar, father of Abraham, xx n.
Azarbaijan, xix.
Azarika, the, 356-7.
al-'Azid, Fatimide Caliph, 487.
Aziz b'illah, Fatimide Caliph, 377.
azlam, the, 7.
Aztecs, the, 398.

'Azud ud-Dowla, the Buyide, 376,
386 n, 444.

B.

Baal, god, xix, 187.

Babek Khurrami, 327.

Babis and Babiism, 357-8, 482, 494.

Babylon, Babylonia and Babylonians,

xix, xxxi, xxxii, 248.
Bactria, xix, xxxiv.
Badakhshan, xx.

Badr, battle of, 61-63, 66 - 73. 279-
Badr ud-Din Chach, poet, 131.
Bagdad, 129, 130, 131, 362, 367-70,

37 1 . 397- 4° 2 «. 44°. 4 6 5. 4 68 . 4 8 7-



502



GENERAL INDEX



Bahadur Shah, last King of Delhi,

497-
Bahaism, 359 n.

Bahmani sovereigns of India, 315.
al-Bahrain, lvii, 336, 355.
Baibars, Sultan, 130.
Baki, suburb of Medina, 68 n.
Bakr, tribe of, 95.
Balazuri, historian, 389.
Balkh, xx.
Balkis, lxiii.

Barbarossa, Frederick, 342 n.
Barcelona, 392.
Barmekides, the, 312.
Barra, daughter of Abd ul-Muttalib,

7».
Basra, 11 n, 55, 296, 367, 432, 441,

485. 487-
al-Batani, mathematician, 375.
Batha, near Mecca, 27, 40.
Batinias, the, 344.
Bayezid Bistami, 461, 470.
Bayezid, founder of the Roushenia

order, 343-4, 47 1 -
Bazan, governor of Yemen, lxiii n,

116.
al-Beiruni, astronomer and historian,

380, 384, 390.
Beltis, goddess, xix.
Beyrout, 494.

Bhagavad Gita, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, 455.
Bibi Khanum, Timur's Consort, 383.
Bibi Pakdaman, 461 n.
Bila.1, the Muezzin, 27.
Bir-Ma'una, 71.

Blagovestchenk, in Manchuria, 87 n
Boccaccio, 254.
Bokhara, 382, 484.
Bombay, 494.

Brahe, Tycho, mathematician, 376.
Brahmanism, xxvii, 160.
Brockelmann, C, 492, 493.
Buddhism, xxvi, xxvii.
Bundehesh, the, 191.
Buran, wife of Mamun, 255.
Burhan ud-Din, saint, 472.
Busra, near Damascus, 90.
Buyides, the, 284, 376, 444, 447-8.



Cadiz, 392.

Cairo, 129, 130, 131, 324, 337, 340,
362, 371, 372, 375, 376, 393 n, 440.
Calcutta, 494.
Caliphate, theory of, 122-8.



Calvin, 211 n, 330, 454.

Cansoya, 193 n.

Carthagena, 392.

Catherine, St., Monastery of, 84.

Catholics and Catholicism, 219, 454.

Caussin de Perceval, 8, 40, 49, 70 w,
72 n, 95 n.

Celts, the, xx.

Cerinthus, xlv.

Chalcedon, Council of, li.

Charlemagne, 211, 220.

Charles Martel, 398.

Chaucer, 254.

Chedorlaomer, lxi.

Chengiz, 368, 382.

China, 249, 381, 482.

Chinevad, the bridge in Hell, 191, 192.

Chiragh Ali, Moulvi, 230 n.

Chrysostom, St., 251.

Chyroseir the Paulician, 330, 336.

Clovis, Christian, 220.

Clytus, xxxiv.

Co-Cheou-King, Chinese mathe-
matician, 383.

Collyridians, the, 142.

Conrad of Montferrat, 342 n.

Constantine, xli, 1, lii, lxiii n, 66, 111 n,
212, 221, 226, 372.

Constantinople, liv, lxix, 132-3, 392,
398, 399-

Cordova, 129, 362, 371, 378-9, 392,
397. 470. 4 8 4-

Corea, 249.

Corsairs, the, 400.

Cromwell [Oliver], 81, 265 n.

Cybele, Egyptian god, xl.

Cyrenaica, 497.

Cyril, St., li, 255.

Cyrus, xxxi, xxxii.

D.
Dabir, Indian poet, 497.
Dahna, desert of, lviii.
Dakiki, poet, 380.
Damascus, 11 n, 365, 367, 397.
ad-Damiri, zoologist, 387.
Daniel, 190.

Darius Hystaspes, xxii, xxxii.
Ddr un-Nadwa, the, 3, 46.
David, 47, 81, 240.
Deccan, the, 470.
Demeter, god, xl, xli.
Demiurge, deity, xlvi, xlvii.
Demosthenes, 223.
Derenbourg, Hartwig, 492.



GENERAL INDEX



503



Dhirar b. Abd ul-Muttalib, 7 n.

Diocletian, xxxiii.

Dionysus, god, xl, xli.

Dioscorides, 385, 387.

Dives, xlii.

diyat, 6.

Docetes, the, xxxix, lxx.

Dominicans, the, 342.

Drogheda, 81, 265 n.

Duff, Gordon, Lad} r , 230.

Dumat ul-Jandal, lxvi, 77 n, 86, 298,

355-
Durthur, a Bedouin warrior, 67.

E.

Eber, ancestor of Kahtan, lix.

Ebionites, the, xxxix.

Eckhart, 456.

Edessa, 365.

Edom, lxi.

Edomites, the, lxi.

Egypt, lv, lx, lxix, 324, 438, 445, 487.

Elephant, year of the, 8.

Elijah, 44 n, 192 n.

England, 219, 256, 498.

Ephesus, 336.

, Council of, li.

Epiphanes, Antiochus, xxxv.

Essenians, the, xxxvii, 168, 224.

Etruscans, the, 223, 248.

Ezekiel, 190.

Ezra, 140, 151.

F.

Fakhr ud-Din 'Isa b. Ibrahim, Ameer
of Mosul, 288, 493.

Fakhr ud-Din al-Maraghi, philo-
sopher, 382.

Fakhr ud-Din Razi, Imam, 341 n,

492-3-

Fakhr ul-Mulk b. Nizam ul-Mulk, 466,
469.

fakirs, the, 471.

fand f'illah, doctrine of, 474.

al-Farabi, 425, 426, 433, 449, 474, 485.

Farid ud-Din 'Attar, 396, 457, 460,
467, 470, 477.



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