Syed Ameer Ali.

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Faridun, xxx n.

Fath b. Nabeghah Khakani, philo-
sopher, 382.

Fatima, daughter of the Prophet, 14,
68 n, 122, 123, 126, 250, 393 n, 458.

Fatima, daughter of 'Amr Makhrumi,

7»-

Fatimides, the, 312, 314, 315, 324,

325. 326, 332. 336, 339. 375. 376.



Fazal, of Jurhum, 13.
Fazl, of Jurhum, 13.
Fazl b. 'Abbas, 117, 306.
Fazl al-Hadathi, 415.
Fez, 322, 375, 400.
Fidak, 53.

Fihr (also called Koreish), 2.
Firdousi, 380, 396, 464 n.
Fizara, tribe of, 84, 92.
Franciscans, the, 342.
Frisians, the, 220.
Fuzail, of Jurhum, 13.

G.

Galileo, 483.

Gautama, xxvi.

Geber the chemist, see Abu Musa

Jabir.
Ghailan Dimishki, 413.
Ghair-Mukallidism, 353.
Ghassanides, the, lxvi, lxix.
Ghatafan, tribe of, 73, 84, 92.
Ghazza (or Gaza), in Syria, 5, 90.
al-Ghazzali, Imam, 166, 167, 199,

448-469, 470, 473-4, 475, 476, 486.
Ghilan, xix.

Ghulat (or Ghallia), the, 343.
Giralda (tower of Seville), 379.
Goths, the, 401.
Granada, 392, 397.
Greece, xxxiii, xxxiv.
Gregory the Great, Pope, 372.
Grotius, 211 n.

H.

Habrar, a Koreishite, 85.

Hadrian, xxxvii, xlv, 260.

Hafiz, poet, 396, 457, 475.

Hafsa, wife of the Prophet, 234-5.

Hajjaj b. Yusuf, 310, 357.

Hakim bi Amr'illah, Fatimide, 339 «,

377-
Hakim b. Hashim al-Mokanna, 327.
hal, Sufi doctrine of, 475.
Hala, wife of Abd ul-Muttalib, 7 n.
al-Hallaj, 141, 142, 469.
Hamadan, xix.
Hamadani, historian, 389.
Hamid b. Sulaiman, 351.
Hamza b. Abd ul-Muttalib, 7 n, 25,

38, 62, 69, 70.
Hanifa, tribe of, lxviii, 85.
Hanzala, poet, 13.
Harith b. Abd ul-Muttalib, 7 n.
Harith b. Abu-Zirar, 87.



504



GENERAL INDEX



Harith b. *Amr, 6, 9 n.

Harith b. Ka'b, Christian tribe, lxvi,

lxviii.
Harith b. Kais, 7.
Harun, Abbaside Caliph, 312, 314,

345. 439. 491-
Hasan, Imam, 128, 298-9, 300, 345.
Hasan al-'Askari, Imam, 123, 346.
Hasan al-Basri, 414, 460, 472 n.
Hasan b. Haitham, mathematician,

377- 424-
Hasan b. Ka'b, house of, 7.
Hasan b. Kahtaba, 309.
Hasan b. Mohammed of Alamut, 341.
Hasan Sabbah, 316, 339-41. 462, 469,

494-
Hashim, ancestor of the Prophet, 4, 5,

6, 10.
, Family of, 13, 37, 38, 39, 41,

128, 281-2, 292, 293, 366.
Hashim b. Mohammed al-Hanafiya,

3°7-
Hashimias, the, 343.
Hawazin, tribe of, lxvi, 97-8.
Hazramaut, lvii.
Heraclius, Emperor, lii, 90, 102.
Hibatullah, physician, 386 n.
hijdbat, office of, 4, 5.
Hijaz, lvii, lx, lxii, lxiii n, lxiv, lxviii,

497-
Hijr, in Yemen, lvii, lxi.
hilf ul-fuzM, 13.
Hillel, school of, 242.
Himyar b. Saba, lxiii.
Hind, wife of Abu Sufian, 70.
Hind Umm-Salma, wife of the

Prophet, 235.
Hira, mount, 15.
Hira, lxix, 216, 273, 362.
Hisham, uncle of Osman, 294.
Hisham b. Abd ul-Malik, Caliph, 321.
Hisham b. 'Amr, 39.
Hobal, pagan god, lxiv.
Holayl, Khuzaite chief, 2.
Honorius, Emperor, 226.
Horus Happocrates, xl, xli.
Hoshang, Persian king, xxi.
Hroswitha, nun, 378.
Hue, Abbe, 230.
Hudaibiya, peace of, 89, 95.
Huguenots, the, 220, 313, 326, 398
Hulaku, 313, 342.
hulAl, Sufi doctrine of, 474.
Humaida, wife of Faruk, 254-5.
Humayun, Emperor, 254 n.



Hunain, battle of, 98, 105.

Husain, Imam, 177, 275, 300-2, 313,

345-
Huss, 330.

Huzail, tribe of, 114 11.
huz&ri, Sufi doctrine, 475.
Huksos, the, lx.
Hypatia, liii, 255.

I.

'Ibad, the, lxvi.

'Ibadhia, the, 356, 357.

Ibn abi'l Hadid, 458 n.

Ibn 'Asakir, 443, 445, 446.

Ibn ul-Athir, 390, 391, 485.

Ibn-Baja, 397, 425, 428.

Ibn-Bakillani, 444 n.

Ibn-Bash-kuwal, 485.

Ibn-Batuta, 393.

Ibn-Duraid, poet, 395.

Ibn ul-Faridh, poet, 395.

Ibn-Gebrol, lvi.

Ibn-Hanbal, Imam, 352, 438, 445,
487.

Ibn-Haukal, 384.

Ibn-Hisham, biographer of the Pro-
phet, 8, 58.

Ibn-Khaldun, 123, 126-7, 172 «, 319 «,
33L 390, 39i. 4 8 5-

Ibn-Khallikan, 496.

Ibn un-Nabdi, mathematician, 377.

Ibn-Rabi'a b. Harith, 114.

Ibn-Rushd, 289, 379, 386, 397, 399,
425, 429-31, 476, 478, 483.

Ibn-Sa'ud of Najd, 126.

Ibn-Shathir, mathematician, 383.

Ibn-Sina, 349, 382, 385, 386-7, 425,
426-8, 431, 433, 449, 47 6 . 4 86 -

Ibn ut-Tiktaka, historian, 288,

492-3-
Ibn-Tufail, 425, 429, 456, 485.
Ibn-Tumart, 445.
Ibn ul-Wardi, geographer, 384.
Ibn-Yunus, astronomer, 377, 482,

484.
Ibn-Zuhr, physician, 386.
Ibrahim b. Abdullah, brother of

an-Nafs uz-Zakiya, 322.
Ibrahim b. Adham, 461, 472 n.
Ibrahim b. Mohammed b. Ali, 308,

309-
Ibrahim b. Sayyar an-Nazzam, 415,

419.
Idris, founder of the Idriside Dynasty,

322, 497.



GENERAL INDEX



505



Idrisides, the, 372, 375, 422.

al-Idrisi, geographer, 384.

ikhtidr, doctrine of, 411.

Ikhwan us-Safa, the, 432-4, 466.

'Ikrama b. Abu Jahl, 86, 95.

'Imad ud-Din Zangi, 477.

Imamate, theory of, 122-8.

Imam ul-Haramain, 461, 464.

Incas, the, 398.

India, xxii, xxxiv, 470.

'Irak, lviii, lx, lxii, 445, 470.

Irving, Washington, 67.

'Isa, nephew of the Caliph Mansur,

322.
Ishak b. as-Sabbah, father of al-Kindi,

425-
Ishakias, the, 343.
Isis, Egyptian god, xl, xli, xlii, xliii.
Isma'il, Shah of Persia, 132, 314, 494.
Isma'il b. Ja'far as-Sadik, 323.
Ismailias and Ismailism, xlviii, 323,

335. 336, 344-
Isna-'Ashariaism, 314, 344, 346.
Israelites, the, xxxii, xxxvii, 222, 259.
al-Istakhri, geographer, 384.
Ivan the Terrible, 339 n.

J-
Jabala, the Ghassanide, 279.
Jabir b. Afiah, mathematician, 379.
jabr, doctrine of, 41 1-2, 453.
Jabria, the, 412-3.
Jacob, bishop of Edessa, li.
Jacobites, the, lxvi.
Jadis, tribe of, lix.

Ja'far b. Abu Talib, 14, 29, 90, 95 n.
Ja'far b. al-Muktafi, 376.
Ja'far al-Musaddak, Imam, 323.
Ja'far as-Sadik, Imam, 267, 309, 322,

323. 345. 35L 364. 365, 366, 411,

436, 437- 46°. 4 8 4-
al-Jahiz, Abu Osman 'Amr, 484.
Jahm b. Safwan, 412.
Jahmia, the, 413.
Jainism, xxvi.
Jalal ud-Din Rumi, 1 79, 396, 425, 427,

457- 472. 477. 486.
Jamil ud-Din, Sheikh, 482, 483.
Jami, poet, 383.
Jarudias, the, 322.
Java, 250 n.
Jazima, tribe of, 97.
Jeddah, lvii,

Jeremiah, patriarch, 377 n.
Jerusalem, xlv, li, 44 n, 220, 465, 492.



Jesus, xxxvi, xxxviii, xl, xlv, xlvi.

xlvii, xlix, lxx, 16, 27, 31, 44 n, 46,

64, in, 140, 141, 142, 151, 162, 168,

173. 179. 192, 193-4. 195. 196, 200,

207-8, 213, 225, 238, 239, 240, 243,

252, 259, 459.
Jews, the, xxxvii, lvi, 219, 227, 271,

276, 287.
Jews of Medina, 53, 57-60, 72-82.
Jodham, tribe of, lxvi.
Johannes Damascenus, 365.
John the Baptist, xliii, 471.
John, King of England, 339 n.
Joshua, in n.
Jouhar, general of the Caliph al-

Mu'izz, 324.
Judaea, xxxi.
Julian, Emperor, lii n.
Julius Caesar, 381.
Junaid, Sheikh, 369, 460, 461, 470,

472 n.
Jurhumites, the, lx, lxi, lxii, 2, 13.
Justinian, Emperor, liii, liv, 220, 224,

226.
Juwairiya, wife of the Prophet, 87,

236-7.

K.
Kaaba, lxiv, lxvii, lxviii, 2, 3, 14, 36,

38, 88, 107, 132, 139, 167.
Ka'b b. Ashraf, 73.
Ka'b b. Zuhair, poet, 106-7.
Kadesia, battle of, 217, 276, 308.
Kadir b'illah, Caliph, 324, 325.
Kadiria order of Sufis, 472.
Kahtan, lix, lxii.

, children of, lxi.

Kai-Kaus, xxx.

Kaim bi Amr'illah, Caliph, 315 n.

Kainuka', tribe of, 53, 59, 74-76, 80.

Kairowan, 375.

Kaisanias, the, 343.

Kais-'Aylan, tribe of, lxvi, 10.

Kaithan b. 'Abbas, 306.

Kaiumurs, ancient king of Persia, xxi.

Kalb, Christian tribe, lxvi. 86.

al-Kamus, fortress of, 92, 93.

Kanguedez (in Khorasan), 193 n.

Karaites, the, 222.

kardmat, 470.

Karmath and Karmathites, 334, 336.

Kazwan (in Yemen), 5.

Kazwini, geographer, 384.

Kepler, astronomer, 383.

Kerbela, 301.



506



GENERAL INDEX



Khadijah, wife of the Prophet, 12, 14,

15, 18, 20, 39, 233.
Khaibar, lxvi, 53, 73, 77, 86, 92-3,

115.

khaimmeh, office of, 6.

Khakani, poet, 396, 457.

Khalid b. Abd ul-Malik, astronomer,

374-
Khalid b. Walid, 6, 69, 94 n, 97, 216,

237. 273-
Khalil b. Ahmad, grammarian, 485.
Khalil b. Ishak, jurist, 126 n.
khankahs, the, 468.
Khawarij and Khawarijism, 314,

354-5-

khazina, office of, 6.

Khazraj, tribe of, 53, 58, 74, 205.

Khitabias, the, 343.

Khizr, the Prophet, 123.

Khobaib b. 'Adi, 27 n.

Khoda-Bendah, Sultan, 382.

Khojas of India, 342.

Khoraiba, 297.

Khorasan, 123, 308, 309, 344.

Khui, in Persia, 340.

Khumm, near Mecca, 293.

Khusru Parviz, lxiii n, 90.

Khuza'a, tribe of, 2, 3 n, 95.

Kinana, tribe of, lxvi, 10, 68.

Kinana the Jew, 93 n.

Kindah, tribes of, lxvi, no, 228.

al-Kindi, philosopher, 374, 425, 484.

Koba, near Medina, 48.

Kodayd, lxvii n.

al-Kohi, astronomer, 376.

Koreish, tribe of, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12,
22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 34, 36-7,
39. 41. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 53. 57. 60,
62, 69, 70, 73, 78, 79, 88, 89, 94, 95,
no, 127, 128, 228.

Kosayy, founder of Mecca, 2-4.

Kubilai, Mongol Emperor, 382.

Kufa, 128, 296, 298, 300, 309, 310,

355. 367. 437-
Kuhlan b. Saba, lxiii.
al-Kumi, geographer, 384.
Kuraizha, Jewish tribe, lxvi, 53, 59,

72, 76, 78, 79-82, 92.
Kurrat ul-'Ayn, Babi heroine, 358.
al-Kushairi, 463.
Kutb ud-Din, Emperor of Delhi, 264.



Lactantius, St., 87.
Laith, tribe of, 114 n.



al-Lat, goddess, lxvi, 34, 36, 101.

Lazarus, xlii.

Libyan Oases, the, 497.

Lihyan, tribe of, 83.

liwd, office of, 3, 4, 6.

Lollards, the, 330.

Loyola, Ignatius, 342.

Luther [Martin], 330, 344, 454.

Lydians, the, 223.

M.
Ma'add b. 'Adnan, 2.
Ma'bad al-Juhani, 413.
Madain (Ctesiphon), lxix, 217.
Ma'di Karib b. Saif Zu'l Yezen,

lxiii n.
Magdeburg, sack of, 220.
Mahavira, founder of Jainism, xxvi.
Mahdi, the, 123-4.
al-Mahdi, Caliph, 327, 368.
Mahdieh, 324, 338.
Mahmud of Ghazni, 264, 380, 387.
Mahmud, Ottoman Sultan, 498.
Mahra, district of, lvii.
Maimonides, Ivi.

Maimuna, wife of the Prophet, 237.
Majna, near Mecca, 10.
al-Makin, historian, 391.
Makkari, historian, 390.
Makrizi, historian, 325, 326 n, 384,

390. 39i.
Malaga, 392, 397.
Malek al-Ashtar, 297, 298, 299.
Malik b. Anas, Imam, 304 n, 352, 436,

437-
Malik Shah the Seljuk, 381, 465.
Malik Zahir, 107 n.
Mameluke Sultans, 131, 132, 445.
al-Mamun, Caliph, 229, 274, 284, 286,

312, 316, 370, 373, 374, 384, 422,

439. 444-
Manat, goddess, lxvi, 34, 36, 101.
Mani, xlviii, xlix, 329, 332, 335 n.
Manicheism, lxx, 328, 332.
Mansur, Caliph, 129, 284, 308, 314,

322, 345. 367. 37°. 422.
al-Mansur, the chancellor in Spain,

448.
Mansur, see al-Hallaj .
Mansurieh, 368.

Manu, Code of, xxviii, xxix, xxxiii.
Maragha, 375.
Marcionites, the, xxxix, xlvi, xlvii,

lxx, 343.
Mariolatry, cult of, 251, 252, 329.






GENERAL INDEX



507



Marr uz-Zuhran, near Mecca, 10.

Ma'ruf Karkhi, 461.

Mary the Copt, wife of the Prophet,
235-

Mary the Virgin, xliii, 142, 143.

Marzbana, wife of Shahr, 116.

Mashallah, astronomer, 373.

Maslamah, invader of Constantinople,
399-

Mas'udi, historian, 384, 390, 485.

Maurice, Emperor, liv.

Mauritania, 322.

al-Mawardi, politician, 485.

Maxentius, 66 n.

Maximilla, prophetess, xlvii,

Mazdak and Mazdakism, xxxvi, 327.

Mecca, lvii, lviii, lxiv, Ixvi, 1, 2, 3-4, 5,
8, 39. 4°. 41. 42, 46, 49. 52, 85, 94,
95-7, 113, 132, 167, 213, 282, 303,
360, 498.

Media, xxx.

Medina, lvii, 52-3, 56, 60, 61, 67, 68,
69 n, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79, 87,
101, 109, 123, 132, 303, 360, 365,
410, 436, 497, 498. See also
Yathrib.

Meghass b. 'Amr, the Jurhumite
chief, lxiv.

Merv, 309.

Merwan I., Caliph, 128.

Merwan II., 128, 308, 309, 355, 356.

Merwan b. Hisham, Osman's cousin,
294.

Meshed, 491.

Mesopotamia, lxii, 115, 438.

Messiah, the, 124, 192, 193, 195, 205.

Miknasa, 375.

Milman [H. H.], 22, 193.

Milvian Bridge, 66.

Mina, suburb of Mecca, 4.

Mirkhond, historian, 390.

mizan, the, 474.

Mohammed the Prophet ; is called
al-amin, 1, 14; birth of, 8; loses
his parents, 9 ; taken charge of by
Abu Talib, 10 ; journeys to Syria,
11 ; marries Khadija, 12 ; joins
the hilf ul-fuzAl, 1 3 ; settles a dis-
pute at the reconstruction of the
Kaaba, 14 ; takes charge of 'Ali,
14 ; gives himself up to solitude
and meditation, 15-16 ; receives
his first revelation, 17-18 ; com-
mencement of his ministry, 19-20 ;
his first converts, 20-21 ; his



sincerity, 21-2 ; he is firm in his
teaching, 22-3 ; is persecuted by
the Koreish along with his dis-
ciples, 24-7 ; is tempted by the
Koreish, 27, 30 ; moral evidences
of his mission, 31-2 ; his appeal to
reason, 33 ; is tempted to com-
promise with the Koreish, 34-6 ;
Koreishite league against him,
37-9 ; visits Tayef, 41-2 ; takes
the pledge of 'Akaba, 42-3, 45 ; his
vision of the Ascension, 44 ; plot of
his assassination by the Koreish,
46-7 ; his flight to Medina, 47-9 ;
his character, 51-2, 117-121 ; his
teachings at Medina, 54-5 ; his
treatment of the Jews, 57-60,
72-82 ; calumnies against him, 65 ;
clemency of his nature, 85-7 ; his
messages to Heraclius and Parviz,
90-91 ; conquers Mecca, 95-7 ; suc-
cess of his mission, 109-112; his
last days and death, n 3-7; his
marriages examined, 232-8.

Mohammed b. Abdullah, an-Nafs
uz-Zakiya, 322.

Mohammed b. Abu Bakr, 295, 492.

Mohammed Abu'l Barakat, Sherif of
Mecca, 132.

Mohammed b. Ali b. Abdullah, 307,
308, 309.

Mohammed b. Ali as-Sennusi, 497.

Mohammed al-Bakir, Imam, 321, 345,
366.

Mohammed al-Habib, Imam, 323.

Mohammed b. al-Hanafiyah, 307.

Mohammed b. 'Isa, astronomer, 375.

Mohammed J una Khan Tughlak, 131.

Mohammed al-Mahdi, Imam, 123,
346.

Mohammed al-Mahdi, son of as-
Sennusi. 497.

Mohammed al-Maktum, 323.

Mohammed b. Mubashshir, philo-
sopher, 382.

Mohammed b. Musa al-Khwarazmi,
mathematician, 374.

Mohammed Shah Kajar, 357.

Mohammed ash-Shaibani, Imam, 186,

437-

Mohammed Taki, Imam, 346.

Mohyi ud-Din al-Maghribi, philo-
sopher, 382.

Moloch, god, xix, 187.

Mongols, the, 130, 402 n, 464.






5o8



GENERAL INDEX



Monophysites, the, li.

Monoth elites, the, lii.

Montanus, xlvii, lv.

Montanists, the, xlvii, 327.

Morocco, 129.

Mosailima, the false prophet, 116.

Moses, 104, in, 140, 222, 237, 240.

Moulai Tayyib order, the, 497.

Moulaviya order of dervishes, 472.

Mu'ammar b. 'Abbad as-Sulami, 419,
420.

Mu'awiyah, 105, 107, 127-8, 267,
280 n, 283, 294, 295, 297, 298,
299-300, 313, 314, 355, 414, 430,

497-
Mu'az b. Jabal, 115, 183.
Mubashshar b. Ahmad, philosopher,

382.
Mufazzal of Jurhum, 13.
Mughira, nephew of Orwa of Tayef,

105.
Mu'in ud-Din Chishti, 471.
Muir, Sir William, 40, 43, 72 n.
al-Mu'izz li Din'illah, founder of

Cairo, 324, 339, 372.
Mu'izz ud-Dowla Deilemite, 312-3.
mujdhada, Sufi doctrine, 475.
mukdshafa, Sufi doctrine, 475.
Mukawwim b. Abd ul-Muttalib, 7 n.
Muktadi, Caliph, 129.
Munis, Indian poet, 497.
Muntasir, Caliph, 312, 319 n.
Munzirs, dynasty of, 216.
Murcia, in Spain, 392.
murid, a Sufi term, 471.
murshid, a Sufi term, 471.
Musa al-Kazim, Imam, 323, 345, 369,

494-
Musa b. Shakir, sons of, 374.
Muselo, in Algeria, 497.
Mushabbihas, the, 414.
mushdhada, Sufi doctrine, 475.
Muslimah al-Maghribi, physicist, 379.
Mustaghanem, in Algeria, 497.
Mustalik, tribe of, 87, 236-7.
Mustaniid, Caliph, 434, 450.
Mustansarieh, 370.
Mustansir b'illah, Fatimide Caliph,

34i. 440-
Mustansir b'illah, Abbaside Caliph,

37°-
Musta'sim b'illah, Caliph, 130, 313,

495-
Mustazhir, Caliph, 129.
Mustazii, Caliph, 487.



Muta, battle of, 95, 115, 214.
Mu'tamid, Caliph, 123.
Mutanabbi, poet, 395.
Mu'tasim b'illah, Caliph, 312, 327,

346, 422, 439.
Mutawakkil, Caliph, 123, 230, 275,

312, 319 n, 346, 435, 439-4°-
al-Mutawakkil 'ala-Allah, the last

Abbaside Caliph in Egypt, 132.
Mu'tazid b'illah, Saffah II., 323, 336,

370. 44°-
Mu'tazila and Mu'tazilaism, 414-5,

416-8, 421, 422, 424, 441, 444,

445-6, 447-8, 452, 453, 454, 496.
Muti', Caliph, 313.
Muttalib, brother of Hashim, 5.

, family of, 13, 37, 38, 39.

Muwaffak ud-Din, Imam, 494.
Muwaid ud-Din al-Orezi, philosopher,

382.
Mythra, the sun-god, xxxiii, xli, xlii.

N.
Nadir Shah, 401.

nadwa (council-hall at Mecca), 3, 4, 6.
Nahrwan, 354, 355.
an-Nairezi, astronomer, 375.
Naishapur, 464, 468.
Najd, lvii, lviii, lxii, 2, 102, 125.
Najjaria, the, 413.
Najran, Christians of, lxvi, 271, 273.
Nakhla near Mecca, lxvi, 10.
Nakshbandia order of Sufis, 472.
Nar, tribe of, 65.
Narses, lv.

nasi (shifting of months), 50.
Nasir ud-Din Tusi, 377, 382.
Naufal b. Abd(u) Manaf, 5 n, 6, 9 n.
Nazir, Jewish tribe, lxvi, 53, 59, 72,

73. 74- 76-7. 80, 92.
Nazr b. Harith, 62 «.
Nebuchadnezzar, xxxi, xxxii, lxiv.
Negus, 29.
Nehavend, 217.
Nejdat-Azarika, the, 356.
Neo-Platonism, 456.
Nestorius, li.
Nestorians, the, li, lv, lxvi, 219, 365,

366.
Nice, Council of, xl, 1, 141, 142.
Nikophoros, Byzantine Emperor, 491.
Nineveh, xxx n, xxxi.
Nisibis, 365.

niyyat (" intention "), 475.
Nizami, poet, 396, 457.



GENERAL INDEX



509



Nizamieh, the, 370.

Nizam ud-Din Awliya, 471-2.

Nizam ul-Mulk, 340, 370, 381, 444,

464, 465, 494.
Nizar, Fatimide Caliph, 462.
Noah, 25.
Normans, the, 287.
Noubakht, astronomer, 369.
Nu'manias, the, 343.
Nusairis, the, 343.
Nutayla, wife of 'Abd ul-Muttalib,

7 n.
Nuvvairi, historian, 390.

O.

Obaidah, 62.

Obaidullah b. Abbas, 306.

Obaidullah al-Mahdi, 323, 324, 325,
332 n, 336.

Obaidullah b. Ziyad, 301, 302.

Ohod, battle of, 68-71, 73, 279.

Okba b. Abu Mu'ait, 65.

Oman, 355, 356, 357.

Omar b. Abdul Aziz, Caliph, 303,
458 n.

Omar b. Khaldun, physicist, 379.

Omar b. al-Khattab, Caliph, 6, 37-8,
49, 69, 115 n, 122, 127, 216, 220,
234, 274, 275 n, 278, 279, 280, 281,
294. 321, 323. 355. 492, 495-

Omar Khayyam, 340, 377, 381, 494.

Omayma, daughter of Abd ul-Mut-
talib, 7 «.

Omeyya b. Khalaf, 27.

Omeyyades, lxv n, 41, 128, 281-3, 295,
302-5, 307, 308, 314, 316, 326,
363-4. 365. 366, 371, 412, 436.

Ophites, the, xlvii.

Origen, xlvi, xlix.

Ormuzd, god, xxx, xxxiii, 161, 191,
192.

Orphics, the, xliii.

'Orwa, the Tayefite chief, 104-5.

Osama, poet, 485.

Osama b. Zaid, 115, 264.

Oscheder Bami, prophet, 192 n.

Oschedermah, prophet, 192 n.

Osiris, Egyptian god, xl, 189.

Osman b. 'Affan, Caliph, 21, 67, 88 n,
103, 122, 127, 234, 274, 282-3, 293,
294-6, 297, 323, 363, 366, 492, 496.

Osman b. Huwairith, 13, 14.

Osman b. Mahzun, 67 n.

Osman b. Talha, 5.

Otba b. Rabi'a, 27-8, 46.



Paine, Tom, 440.

Parmenio, xxxiv.

Parthians, the, xxxv, lv.

Patripassians, the, xxxix.

Paul, St., xxxviii, xxxix, 239.

Paul, Pope, 339 «.

Paulicians, the, 220, 330, 332.

, Manichaean, 327, 329.

Pelasgians, the, xx, 223, 277.

Perishek Khanum, secretary to Sul-
tan Mustafa, 393 n.

Persepolis, xxxiv.

Persia, xxix, xxxiv, liv, lxiii n, 227,
232, 470.

Peter, St., xxxix.

Petrarch, 254.

Philotas, xxxiv.

Pilate, lxx.

Plato, in, 181.

Praxeus, xlvii.

Presbyterians, the, 219,

Priscilla, prophetess, xlvii.

Pythagoreans, the, xliii.

R.
rabdts, the, 468.
Rabi'a al-Basri, 229, 461.
Rabi'a b. Nizar, family of, lxvi.
Rabi'a b. Omeyya b. Khalaf, 114 H.
Raihana, wife of the Prophet, 82.
Ramdha, hill of, 27.
Renan, M., 482, 484.
Richard, King of England, 339 ».

342 n.
rifdda, a kind of poor-tax, 3, 4, 5, 6,

9 n.
Rigaud, Archbishop, 252.
Roderick the Goth, 287.
Rodha, in Najd, lxvii n.
Roland, the Knight, 252.
Rome, sack of, 220, 303.
Roushan Bayezid, see Bayezid.
Roushenias, the, 343.
Rukaiya, daughter of the Prophet, 67.
Rustam, family of, 375.

S.
Sabellians, the, xlix.
Sa'd, tribe of, 9.
Sa'd b. AbiWakkas, 21.
Sa'd b. Mu'az, 78, 79-80, 81.
Sa'd b. 'Ubada, 78.
Sadducees, the, xxxvii.
Sa'di, poet, 106 w, 396, 457, 491. 495-



5io



GENERAL INDEX



Sadra, Mulla, 349, 451.

Sadr ud-Din, Pir, 343.

Safa, hill of, 23, 96.

Safawis, the, 400, 451.

Saffah, Abbaside Caliph, 128-9, 308,

309, 310-11, 315, 367.
Safi ud-Din, ancestor of the Safawis,

494-
Safiya, daughter of Abd al-Muttalib,

7 n.
Safiya, wife of the Prophet, 237.
Safra, 65.

Safwan, brother of Abu Sufian, 7.
Safwan b. Omeyya, 95.
Saif b. Zu'l Yezen, 10.
Saif ud-Dowla, prince of Aleppo, 395,

426.
sajj&danashins, the, 471.
Sakina, daughter of Imam Husain,

255-
Sakran, former husband of Sauda,

233-
Sakya-Muni (Buddha), in.
Saladin, 221, 314, 381, 448, 477, 487.
Salehias, the, 322-3.
Salerno, 362, 397.
Salibah, in Spain, 392.
Salma, wife of Hashim, 5.
Salman the Persian, 186 n, 308.
Samanides, the, 284, 376.
Samarcand, 382, 383, 484.
Samarra, 123.
Samiya, wife of Yasar, 27.
Samuel, the prophet, 16, 87.
San'a, in Yemen, 7, 8, 9, 116.
Sanai, Persian poet, 40, 47 n, 199,

313 n, 396, 43i. 457. 467. 477- 486.
Sanjar, Sultan, 466.
Sardinia, 324.
Sarraj, see Abu Nasr.
Sassanides, the, xxxv, xxxvi, 326.
Sauda, wife of the Prophet, 233.
Sauda, Indian poet, 396 n.
Saxons, the, 220.
scholasticism, 422, 424.
Scotland, 219.
Scotus, Johannes, 456.
Sedillot, historian, 244.
Segelmessa, 375.
Seir, mount, lxi.
Seleucida?, xxxv.
Selim Chishti, sheikh, 472 n.
Selim I., Sultan, 132, 133, 313 n, 401.
Seljukides, the, 284, 381, 465.
Send b. Ali, astronomer, 374.



Sennacherib, 8.

Sennusiya order, the, 497.

Serapis, god, xl, xlii.

Servetus, 211 n.

Seville, 392, 484.

Sforza, Galeazzo Maria, 339 n.

Shaddad, King, lx, lxiii n, lxix.

Shafei, Imam, 352, 437.

Shah Kabir Dervish, 472.

Shahr b. Bazan, governor of Yemen,

116.
Shah Rukh Mirza, Timur's son, 383.
Shammaites, the, 139, 242.
Shams ud-Dowla, Ameer of Hama-

dan, 387.
Sharif al-Murtaza, 485.
Shayba b. Hashim, see Abd ul-

Muttalib.
Sheikha Shuhda, 255.
Shiahism, 329.
Shibli, Sheikh, 369.
Shihab ud-Din Suhrwardi, 434.
Sicily, 324.

Siculus, Diodorus, lxi.
Siddhanta, the, 374.
sifdrat, office of, 6.
Sifatias, the, 413, 418.
Siffin, battle of, 297, 354.
sihdya, office of, 4, 5, 6, 9 n.
Silman, in Irak, 5 n.
Sisebut, the Visigoth, lvi.
Socinus of Sienna, 1 n.
Solon, 74 n.

Solyman the Magnificent, 133, 401.
Sophia, xlvii.

Sophronius, patriarch, 220.
Sosiosch, prophet, 123, 192 n.
Soter, Ptolemy, xl.
Spain, 1, 219, 286, 287, 292, 320, 375,

378, 392, 398, 400, 422, 448.
Spartans, the, 223.
Stagyrite, the, 434.
Sufana, daughter of Hatim, 106 n.
Sufaruz Ziadia, the, 356.
Suhaili, poet, 383.
Sulaim, tribe of, 71, 73.
Sulaiman b. Jaris, 322.
Sulaimanias, the, 322-3.
Surra-man-raa, 346.
Surush, the angel, xxxix.
Susiana, xxx.
Suwailim the Jew, 103 n.
Suwayka, near Medina, 67 n.
Suzeni, poet, 396.
Syed Ahmad Khan, 44 n.






GENERAL INDEX



5ii



Sylvanus, Constantine, 329.
Sylvester II., Pope, 371 n.
Syria, lx, 5, II, 15, 77 n, 102, 115,
128, 324, 438, 445.



«7.



Tabari, historian, 42, 96, 390-1.

Tabaristan, 322.

Tabuk, expedition of, 104.

Tacitus, 225.

tafwiz, doctrine of, 411-2, 413, 453.

Taghlibites, the, lxvi.

Tahart, 375.

Taherides of Khorasan, 375.

Taj ud-Din, Kazi of Cairo, 130.

takeyya, practice of, 335-6.

Talha, companion of the Prophet,

296.
Talha, standard bearer of the Koreish,

69 n.
Talmud, the, 222.
Tantarani, poet, 395.
tashbih, doctrine of, 412.
Tasso, 254.

tauba, doctrine of, 475.
tauhid, doctrine of, 417, 423.
tawdf (circumambulation of the

Kaaba), 3.
Tay, tribe of, lxvi, Ixviii, 106.
Tayef, lxvi, 10, 41, 98, 104.
Taym, family of, 13.
Taym b. Murra, 6.
Teraphim, the, 140, 151.
Tertullian, St., xxix, 251.
Thakif, tribe of, 41, 97-8, 99. i°5 «•
Thamud, tribe of, lix, lx, lxx, 25.
Thaur, mount, 47.
Theodora, liii, 330 n.
Thompson, Joseph, African traveller,

266 n.
Thracians, the, 223.
Thumama b. Uthal, 85.
Tihama, lvii, lxii, 68.
Timur, 383.
Titus, xxx vii.
Tlemcen, 375.
Toledo, 392.

Tours, in France, 69, 292.
Treitheism, doctrine of, xlix-1.
Tughlakabad, 131.
Tughril, Sultan, 315 n, 444.
Tulaiha b. Khuwailid, 116.
Turanians, the, xix, xxx.
Tus, 464, 469.
Tyre, sack of, xxxiv.



U.

'Ukaz, fair of, lviii, 10-11, 12.
Ulugh Beg, Shah Rukh's son, 383.
Umm ul-Fazl, Mamun's sister, 255,

312, 345.
Umm ul-Habib, Mamun's daughter,

255. 346.
Umm-Habiba, wife of the Prophet,

235-
Umm-Hakim, daughter of Abd ul-

Muttalib, 7 «.
Umm ul-Jamil, wife of Abu Lahab,

24-
Uns, Indian poet, 497.
'Unsuri, poet, 380.
Upanishads, the, xxii, xxiii.
Ur, in Chaldam, xx,
Usulis, the, 346-9.
Uzbegs, the, 400, 402.
al-'Uzza, goddess, lxvi, 34, 36, 101.



Valentinian, Emperor, 226.
Valentinians, the, xlvii, lxx, 343.
Vandals, the, 401.
Vasudeva- Krishna, xxiv, xxv.
Vendidad, the, 191.

W.
Wahabis and Wahabism, 125-6, 353,

356, 357-
Wahb, grandfather of the Prophet, 7.
Wahraz, Marzban of Yemen, Ixiii n.
wajd, a Sufi term, 476.
Walid, Caliph, 128, 319 n.
Walid, Osman's uterine brother, 295.
waits, the, 470.

Waraka b. Naufal, 15 n, 18, 19.
Wasil b. 'Ata al-Ghazzal, 414-5. 496.
Wathik, Caliph, 312, 422, 439.
Watwat, poet, 396.
Wellington, Duke of, 80.
wisdl, a Sufi term, 474.
Wycliffe, 397.



X.



Xerxes, 68.



Yahya, grandson of Zain ul-'Abidin,

308, 322.



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