Sylvanus Wear.

A second supplement to, and summary of Stewart and Corry's flora of the North-east of Ireland (Volume Sup. 2) online

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With an Introduction by R, Lloyd Praeqer.


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p. xi. Add to List of Contractions : —

D'Arcy— Moat Rev. C. F. D'Arcy, Lord riimate.
Greer— Thomas Greer, Stewartstown.
Porter—W. Porter, iJaliuorMl, Ik'

p. -r.i. After 0//o/>nr/n\- add : -

Anthyllis Vulneraria 1,. Ooniiuon. F/. 38. DO. AN, LD

pp. riG— I'iS. AddtoLidex:-

Aconis, 98.
.ligopodiuni, 48.
Comarum, 33.
Smyrnium, 47.

p. 128. Pyrola : for t_i5 read 67.


STEWART and Corry's /'lora of the North-East of Irtland was published
by the surviving editor, Samuel Alexander Stewart, in 1888. Itgaveforthe
first time a full account of the flora ot the home counties of the north-eastern
botanist (Down, Antrim and Londonderry).

In ISilf) a Supplement to the Flora was published by S. A. Stewart and
R. Lloyd Praeger, in which a considerable number of additional species, and new
localities for rarer species, were given.

The object of the present publication is two-fold. It forms a second Supple-
ment to tiie Flora, detailing the additional information relative to local plant
distribution that has accrued in the twenty-eight years which have elapsed since
the appearance of the tirst Supplemeut. And secondly it is designed to act as a
synopsis of our knowledge of the flora up to date. To effect this, all plants
which oc('ur in the district are included, and to the details of any additional in-
formation relative to each species which may have accrued since the issue of the
first Supplement, a reference is added to the page of the Flora or of the first
Supplement on which earlier information concerning the plant in question is to
be obtained. While the list of plants thus represents the whole Mora as at
present known, the reader, in order to obtain full information as to the distri-
bution of a species, must consult the Ftora and the tirst Supplement at the pages
named, in addition to noting the additional stations given.

The ineparation of the present Supplement was entrusted by the Committee
of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club to a Sub- Committee consisting of S. A.
Bennett, B.Sr., N. Carrothers, 11. Lloyd Praeger, D.Sc, A. W. Steliox. W. J. C.
Tomlinson, Rev. C. H. AYaddell, B.D., and Sylvanus Wear. The labour ot jire-
paring the manuscript from all existing material fell entirely on the last-named;
this task he carried to a successful close, and after a brief illness he died within a
week of its completion ; its thoroughness and accuracy are a fitting memorial of one
of the most careful and industrious of local workers, and one of the most helpful
and most modest of men. Death has been busy among the lanks of local botanists.
The present i)ublication enshrines the last work of Canon I,ett and Mr. Waddell,
both of whom did so much for h-ish botany, and also posthumous notes of W. J.
C. Tomlinson, Rev. S. A. Brenan, Mrs. Leebody and S. A. Stewart. Stewart's
later work was mainly published in the first Supplement in 189"), to which S. A.
Brenan, J. H. Davies, Miss Knowles, Mrs. Leebody, Canon Lett, R. Lloyd
Praeger, and C. 11. Waddell were also extensive contributors. Of those who
■contributed in any material measure to the original Flora published in 1H88,
the present writer is the only one left alive.

Progress of Research.

At the time of its publication, the Flora of the North-East of Ireland
j)resented the most detailed account of plant distribution yet published for any
part of tliis country. The numerous stations for the rai-er plants which it gave
represented the -work of m;iny past and present workers, notably John Tenipleton,
David Moore, William Thompson, G. C. Hyudman, Ralph Tate, George Dickie,
William Milieu, and F. Whitla. But the great bulk of the material represented
S. A. Stewart's own work. He had been collecting information for twenty-five
years, and had been exploring the area systematically during the greater portion
of that period. His co-editor T. H. Corry was di-owned while botanizing on
Lough Gill only a short time after he had joined Stewart in the scheme, which
threw more work still upon that indefatigable botanist. Taking into account
Stewart's limited time and narrow circumstances, and the fact that he was self-
taught in botany as in other things, the Flora is a noble monument to his

But the district was by no means exhausted. The " Supplement," published
seven years later, gives a list of some twenty additions to the Flora, exclusive of
some twenty -five Bramble and Hawkweed segregates, and includes many import-
ant exten.sions of range. The fact that the number of additions is not larger in
spite of active Avork on the part of local botanists shows the thoroughness of
Stewjtrt's work.

Now, thirty-live years have elap?ed since the f'lora was published, and a
much greater advance can be recorded. Exclusive of segregates of Rubus, Rosa,
and Hieracium, the number of species added to the original Flora is about fifty-
flve. of these are wholly new discoveries so far as the North-east is con-
cerned, but some had been, or were supposed to have been, found previously,
but were not admitted to the Fhra on the grounds of being not native nor
naturalized, or wrongly named. These additions include some very interesting
plants, a few of which deserve special mention.

Spiranthes Romanznffiana is the most interesting member of our flora. This
Orchid, widely .spread in northern North America (and just crossing Behring
Straits into Asia) was for eighty-two years (1810-1892) known in Europe only
from a limited area of County Cork. Its discovery in Armagh in 1892 has been
followed by the finding of numerous other stations around Lough Neagh and on
the Upper and Lower Bann ; while confined to the one river system, it is now
known to occur in the Counties of Down, Antrim, Derry, Tyrone, and Armagh,
and in many of its stations it is [jresent in considerable abundance.

And just as our area can now claim to pos.sess one of the American plants
which give an added interest to the flora of Leland, so it can now also show one
of the southern species which are a striking feature of the Irish flora, and whose
mingling with the northern plants in the AVest of Ireland forms one of the most
remarkable phenomena of European vegetation. The grass Glycena trstncae-
formis, found abundantly around Strangford Lough (and also in tlie Shannon
estuary) is elsewhere exclusively Mediterranean in its range.

The Scottish nnd Scandinavi.ui element in tlie Irish flora has its focus in Co.
Antrim, and this featuie has been eni])liftsi>;ed by the finding in that county of
three northern Sedges, dair.v /xnici/Zura, (,'. inli/ua, U. ai/nalilis, (tlie tirst two
contined in Ireland to the Antrim moors), as well us various Hawkwceds. 'J"he
local alpine flora, (whicii is poor in spite of tiie elevated habitats olfered by the
Mourne Mountains) has been enriched by the addition oi ^nKs.iuiea nlpiiia.

(Jn the other hand, work in Co. Down especially has extended into our district
the range of a luiuiber of ])lants whose centre of distribution lies further south in
Ireland. Some of these are seacoast plants — Cuch/raria (otglica (Derry), Trigo-
nella or)iithopodioides (Down), Cnthmum maritimuin (Down, Antrim), Artemisia
maritima (Down), fitatictoccideuddia (Down), Zostrra nana (Down). Others are
characteristic of the Central Plain of Ireland. This is a limestone area with
much water, and the spread of .some of the plants to Co. Down has apparently
been assisted by the disjtersal over the Silurian area during the Ice Age of lime-
stone from Castle Espie near Comber. In Co. Antrim the basalt furnishes a soil
rich in lime, while along the ooast limy sands have allowed the spread of other
calcicole species. The additional plants which are characteristic of the Central
Plain include Ramtuculns circiualits, Stellaria palustris, Orchis pyramidalit,
I'oiamofff'ioii pUiutaginetis, Charu pobjacaiUha.

The finding of Carex ejileusa on Lough Neagh is interesting, adding another
maritime species to the group of seaside plants which form a peculiar feature of
the flora of that lake. This group now includes Viola Ciirtisii, Spergularia
rupestris, Ceraslium semidecaiidrum, C. arvetise, Erodium cicutarium, Trijolium
arveusf, Scirpus mariiimus, S. Taheruaemoittani, Carex extensa. These are in
Ireland all characteristically maritime species, and several of them have no other
inland station in the country.

Othei' interesting additions include Nasturtium sylvestre (Down), characteristic
of the river system of S.E. Ireland; Teesdalia tiudicaulis {Down, also Tyrone)
unknoM-n elsewhere in Ireland ; Galium sylvestre (Antrim), elsewhere in Ireland
contined to the western limestone rocks from Kerry to Leitrim ; Eypochaeris
glabra (Derry). only Irish station ; Allium oleraceum (Antrim), only Irish
station ; and Hordeum sylvaticum (Antrim), only Irish station.

Among critical plants good progress has been made. Thanks mainly to the
work of Canon Lett and Mr. Waddell, the local Brambles are tolerably well
worked out, particularly those of Co. Down. Mr. Waddell also did much useful
work at the Roses, and a number of botanists have collected Hieracia. The
progress made may be rightly measured by a comparison of the number of forms —
species, varieties or hybrids — of each group recorded in the Flora and in the
present publication. In the I'lora Rubi number 34, Kosae 18. Hieracia 19.
The numbers now stand at -Rubi 79, Rosae 55, Hieracia 45.

As regards the e.\tensive section of the flora which is not indigenous to the
country, the new records, so far as naturalised species are concerned, refer less
to new-comers or to plants which have recently been discovered than to others
which, long kno\\n in our area, have increased their hold, and may now be
admitted as established. Many of these are Central or Soutli European plants,
which became established in Southern Ireland before reaching the North : such
are Draba muralis, Lepidium Draba, Lactuca muralis, Erinus alpiuus, Juncus


teiiui.1. Others ;ire Xorth American plants — Senebiera didywa, Matriraria
discoidea, Mimnlus guttatus. Veronica peregn'na, also American, differsfroni
these in havinp; its Irish centre of dispersal in the Xorth. The number of casuals
recorded from our district has been increased largely, and no doubt some of them
will in turn obtain a permanent footing, and be admitted in future Floras as
fully established.

Besides actual additions to the local flora, a large number of very satisfactory
extensions of range of rarer plants is now recorded. In the following list some
of these are given ; and in the figures following the names an indication is shown
of the past and present standing of the plants, the first figure representing the
number of stations (some of whicli have not been verified since) known when the
Flora was published, and the second figure the number of stations discovered
since (?/ meaning locally frequent).


In Flora


Draha incana



Elatlne Hydropiptr



Spergidarm rubra



Hypericxim quadrangulum



Trifolium striatum



Vicia Orobus



Dryas odopetala ...


A rcto.-<t((phylo.<< Ura-tir.-^i



Andromeda polifolia



Pyrola .'<ecimda . . .



Stachy.'i Betonica ...



Utricularia intermedia



Atriplex portulacoidefi



Epipactis paluMi-i-y



Jitncit.'' ohtui<iflorns



C'ladium Jta7'iscus



Carex teretiuscida . . .



C. muricata



C. striata






Poa compressa



Schhrochloa rigida



Lastrea sjjinulosa

'.'.'. I


Missing Plants.

In the first Supplement a list was given of 29 species which at that time had
not been seen in the district for many years, and the re-finding of which was
very desirable. E.xcellent work has been done among these desiderata, and they
may now be re-arranged as follows : —

(1) Refound in the district : —

Sisymbyinm Sophia (casual).

Rhamims cathartimis.

Geranium sanguiueum (escape).

Trifolimn strialmn.

I.ntliyrnx palatflrix.

I'yrus Aria.

A rcto/<laphy/o.s Uia - urxi.

Pyrola secuiida.

Solaniim iii(jn(ni (oasual).

ChtHopodiain nibi-inti.

Ta.ciis haccatu.

Epipactiii paluxlrifi.

E/eoch a ris int iylum is.

Carex ^filiform ix.

C. paludosa.

Galamaip'osli.s Epigcjoa.

Poa nemoralix.

Laxtrea Thelypterix.

(2) I'lants believed extinct or errors : — •

Brassica nigra (extinct casual).
Leontodoii hixpidiim (error) .
Oentiana Amarella (prohahlj- error).
Cephalanthe.ra enxifolia (extinct).
SderocMoa procnuihcnx (extinct casual).
Hordeum pratenxe (extinct)
Tolypella nidijica (specimens doubtful).

(3) Still awaiting re-discovery : -

Carex elongatu (last seen 183S).

Polypodiian Bryopierix ( ,, 1840).

Pihdaria glohidiftra ( ,, 1834-3S).

To the last category a few more plants must now be added, as most of them
have not been seen in the district since the publication of the Flora thirty-
five years ago, and some of them (as shown), for a longer period : —

Subidaria aqiuUica (1870).
Salix nigricaiix (1834-38).
S. phylictfolia (1834-38).
Zannichelliu polycarpa (1890).
Eriophornm latifolium (1834-38).
Carex Buxbaumii (1886).
Equixelum rarirgatum (1834-38).
Jlyiaenophylliiin, tunbridyenxe (1884).

Plants withdraavn from the Flora.

In the 18S5 Supplement, five plants were withdrawn from the I-lora, as given
below, and for the reason shown : —

Ononis spivosa (casual).

Jiosa micranlha (error).

SilituK pralensif! (casual).

Calamintha officinali>^ (casual or error).

Primula i-eris (not established).

The judgment regarding the first four of these still stands, except that the
first was probaldy an error, hut the last may be reinstated, as it is well
established about Rostrevor. A few additional species must now be withdrawn
for the reasons given : —

Fmnaria mnraJix (error).

Ruhuft Chamne.morm (outside our area).

Matricaria Chainomilla (error).

Allium vineale (error).

To these two lists must he added List (2) on p. vii, if the total of plants
withdrawn from the Flora of ihe Nui th'East is to be obtained.


If we view from a topographical standpoint the progress which has been made
since tlie publication of the Flora in 1888, we find that the largest contri-
bution of new plants has come from the exploration of eastern Down. "Work in
the Ards, and in the interesting area lying between Strangford I.ough and
Dundrum Bay, has resulted in many additions to the flora : and the exploration
of the ^loinne ilountains has added some good plants. On the other hand,
central and western Down have never received much attention, and undoubtedly
require further work — their lakes and marshes in particular.

In Antrim, searches on the I.ough Neagh shores have restored to tlie flora
many of the rather numerous plants which for many years eluded rediscovery
there, and have also added some interesting species. The grand clifts and glens
of the eastern coast have yielded some good additions, and the plateau bogs of
Garron and Dunloy have well repaid the work that has been bestowed upon them.
The course of the Lower Bann, and the central parts of the county, are less

J^ondonderry, least known of the three counties when the Flora was
published, still occupies the same position as it did then, the reason being its lesser
accessibility from Belfast. About IMagilligan good work has been done, but
almost all the remainder of the county calls tor exploration— the shores of Lough
Neagh, the valleys of the Bann and Roe, and the mountainous areas in the centre
and west in particular.

Natives and Aliens.

Somf! trouble has l)epn taken in the present compilation with regard to the
difficult question of native and non-native species. Much confusion and want of
uniformity of treatment exist in local Floras on this question, owing partly to its
inherent (lifficulties, hut in great measure to the lack of clear thinking. In
studying vegetation from this standpoint, several courses are open to the botanist.

We may argtie, as Woodruffc Peacock did,' that since man is a j)roduct of
nature, his operations should rank as natural processes, not to be distinguished
as regards plant dispersal from those carried out by the beasts and l)ird8. Pur-
sued to its logical limit, this view would lead us to include in the local flora every
plant gTo\\ ing within the area, from true natives to specimen conifers, potatoes,
and tropical orchids.

A more usual and less e.xtrenie view would take no cognisance of species planted
and maintained by man. such as crop plants and the contents of gardens and
greenhouses, but would include in the flora all casual followers in man's train-
plants introduced in the course of agriculture and commerce, and maintaining
themselves by man's assistance, in the way of keeping down the native vegetation
by cultivation, &c. This is approximately the view of the Moia of Sorth-Eatt
h-eland, in which such dependents as the Poppies and Fumitories are included
in the flora without coninient. In many other works {^e.y. " Cybele Hibernica,"
" Irish Topographical Botany") an attempt is made to go further, by using signs
meaning "possibly introduced," "proi)ably introduced," ' ' certainly introduced,"
&c. But these terms are vague and need clear definition.

When we think how catastrophic has been the influence of man during the last
couple of thousand years upon the pi'eexisting vegetation, biult up by the slow
processes of competition, migration, and secular change, and how unstable and
e])hemeral is the vegetation which occupies the area of his occ\ipation, it seems
desirable from every point of view, and especially from that of the study of plant
geograjihy, to separate, in an analysis and discussion of the flora, so far as we can,
the pre-human flora from that which has resulted from the practice of agriculture.
In countries such as our ow!i, where almost every portion bears the imprint of
man's handiwork, this is not always easy, and can only be attempted with a clear
understanding of the problem, ^^'e aim at leconstructing the aboriginal flora
from a study of that tlora on the area at the present time. What are the tests
to be employed? What do we mean by an aboriginal or truly native plant t' It
has seemed to the writer that the definition of S. T. Dunn,* provides the most
convenient answer to the question :— a native plant is one which has spread by
natural ( \.e. non-human) means from a natural source to a natural habitat. Three
points are thus involved -jiarentage, dispersal, habitat -and human influence on
any one of the three will rule a plant out from ranking as fully indigenous. An
example of failure on each of these three points will make the test clearer.

1 !•;. A. WoodrntTe-Peacock : Nattrenantl Alienn. ".louni. of l!ol.', xlvi. :Mi». 1908.
- .S. T. Duini : Tke Alien Flora i\J' Uiituin, \>.\.

(1) Mimuhit guttatiix is not native bv our mountain streams because, though
it came there by natural seed dispersal, the source of the seed Tvas a garden.

(2) Fiiiffuicula grandiflora is not native in wild ground at Blackstairs, Co-
Wexford, because the roots were brouglit there from KeiTy by a botanist.

(3) Equisetitm variegafiim is not native along the Royal Canal, though it lias
spread there naturally Iroiu native stations, because its habitat there is artificial.

Such tests are often not easy to apply, but it seems certain that the attempt
should be made, for without such inquiry it would be impossil)le to study the
flora in the light of its past histoiy, or to attempt to use the evidence of the
plants for bygone changes in climate or iu the distribution of sea and land.

In the following pages, then, a clear distinction is made between plants
believed to be aboriginal, and those which on any of the above counts owe their
l)resen(e in our district to human influence : the former being printed in Claren-
don type, the latter in Italic. In the case of tlie latter, plants which are con-
sidered as established in the area so long as present conditions (natural or artificial)
remain, appear in italics without brackets ; while the names of those which are
looked on as not established, as well as those which have been recorded in
error, are printed in italic within brackets.

Mosses and Hepatics.

The present publication differs from the Flora and its First Supplement
inasmuch as the Flowering Plants and Pteridophytes alone are dealt with, no
attempt being made to bring up-to-date our knowledge of the Mosses and Hepatics.
The recent death of the leading local workers at these groups. Canon Lett and
Eev. C. H. Waddell, is mainlj' responsible for this. But recent information
respecting the distribution of these plants is available — as regards the Mosses,
in Canon Lett's "Census Catalogue of the Mosses of Ireland" (Proc. R.I.
Academy xxxii. Sect. B, 1915), and as regards the Hepatics in the same writer's
"Catalogue of British Hepatics" (1904) and McArdle's "List of Irish Hepaticae"
(Proc. R.I. Academy ixiv, 1904).


Adams -Joliii Adams. M.A., Antrim, now ol (.'aiittdiaii Dept. of Agriculture.

B.X.F.C.—Procf.ediiiy.t of the, HelfasI Xa/iiraliMs' Field Club.

Bennett -S. A. Bennett, H'.Sc, Campbell College, Belfast.

Brenan — Rev. S. A. Urenan, 15. A., Cushendnn.

Canothers^Xathaniel Carrotliers. Belfast.

Chase - ('apt. C. D. Chase, Campbell College, Belfast.

Carry MS. — Annotated cojiy of Dickie's •• Ftura or Ulster" in Belfast Museum.

Cyb. 1., 11. — " Ci/bele Htbernicu," ed. 1, (180(5), ed. 1, (1898).

Danagh- William Dairagh, Belfast.

Drnce -G. Claridge Druee, M.A., Oxford.

Fl. Belt'.—'" Flora Bel/a.-tUeiidsr by Ralph Tate, iSGIi.

Fl. UU.—'\FloruofUlMer:' by Prof. George Dickie, F.R.S., 18(J4.

Foster — Xevin H. Foster, b'.L.S., Hillsborough.

G.I.T.B. — '"'Gleanings in Iri.'th Topographical Botany " ijy K. LI. Piaeger,

{in Froc. R. I. Academy, x.'civ, Sect. B., 1902).
Hanna — Richard Hanna. Belfast.
Hart— H. C. Hart, B.A., Carrablagh, Co. Donegal.
Henry — James Henry, Colevaine.
Houston — J. D. Houston, Lurgan.
Ir. FL—'' The Iri.-<h Flora ' [by Lady Kane], 1846.
/. N. — ' 'Irish Nat uraliM. ''

I.T.B.—" Irish Topographical /lotaity,'' by R. LI. Praeger, 190L
Kuowles — Miss JL C. Knowles, Ballymena, now of National Museum, Dublin.
Leebody — Mrs. l>eebody, Londonderry.
Lett— Rev. Canon II. W. Lett, M.A.", Loughbrickland.
Lilly— C. J. Lilly, D.L, R.LC, Limavady.
Marshall — H. C. Marshall, Bangor.
Megaw— Rev. W. R. Megaw, B.A., Belfast.
Milligan — Alexander Milligan, Belfast.
Moore — David Moore, Ph.D., F.L.S., Dublin, His MS. Notes are referred to

as "Moore MS.", and his Herbarium, preserved at Glasnevin Gardens

and in the National Museum, as "Herb. Moore."'
More — A. G. More, F.L.S., Dublin.
Praeger — R. LI. I'raeger, D.Sc., DubliTi.
Robinson — Hugh Robinson, Belfast.
Rogers^Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, M.A., Bournemouth.
Stelfox— A. W. Stelfox, Dublin.
Stewart — S. A. Stewart, A.L.S., Belfast. His MS. Notes are referred to as

" Stewart J/ 6'."
Sup. — Supplement to Flora N.E. Ireland, by Stewart & Praeger, 1895.
Sup. Cyb. I. — "Recent Additions to the Flora of Ireland,'' by A. G. More,

(Proc. R.I. Academy, 1872).
Templeton— John Templeton, A.L.S., Belfast. His .MS. "Flora Hidertiica"

is referred to as " Templilon MS."


Tomlinson— TV. J. C. Tomlinson, Belfast.

Waddell— Rev. 0. M. Waddell, B.I)., Saintficld.

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Online LibrarySylvanus WearA second supplement to, and summary of Stewart and Corry's flora of the North-east of Ireland (Volume Sup. 2) → online text (page 1 of 10)