S[ylvester] Heath.

The institute review for use in county normal institute online

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Institute R^L/isv/

For Use In



By Teachers in Revievv^ing and Preparing for
an Examination in the Following Branches.



S. yv . HEATH, County Superintendent.


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Institute RsuiBv/

For Use In


By Teachers in Reviewing and Preparing for
an Examination in the Follo^A^ing Branches.



S. W. HEATH, County Superintendent.




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The Author's aim in this Review is to present the essential facts of
each subject in the most convenient fm^ija for a rapid review, by teaehers
and Institute classes.

The time of the Institute being very limited, only essentials can re-
ceive any attention; and much time is necessary when using outlines, to
look up the different facts suggested; and there is usually a failure to
sufficiently impress the fact on the mind for want of repetition, the most
essential factor of the memory.

Few teachers or pupils master all the essential facts of the different
subjects, because the matter is so spread out in text books that it is diffi-
cult to condense and select the essentials. Each subject is couched in a
few terms, containing the essence of the subject. These terms must be
comprehended before much successful work can be done towards mas-
tering the details, or making a practical application of the subject.

The method of reviewing should be to read each statement separate-
ly and pause long enough to consider it; as to its meaning and what it
includes; as to its position and relation to other parts of the subject; and
its relation to the subject as a whole.

Instructors using the Review in Institute classes, should follow the
foregoing suggestions in assigning the coming lesson. Teaching should
"be done when the lesson is being assigned. Never say "take to para-
graph so and so for next lesson;" but have the class take what you
teach. Have the lesson read and discussed by sentences; assigning such
matters to be looked up as may be necessary; but don't fail to call up the
questions assigned.

At the beginning of the recitation, key words, which are usually
printed in italics in the Review, should be written on the board and
members called by name or number to discuss them in their order, with-
out being questioned, as questions suggest answers. This plan will test
their knowledge of the subject, and avoid confusion or embarrassment.

Pupils and teachers can answer a great number of questions which

they have learned, i)arrot-like, without much knowledge of the subject.

: We have observed during several years' experience in marking

: teachers and pupils manuscripts, that there are more failures in defining

terms of a subject than in any other point. The remedy is plain.

In the preparation of this help we have consulted various authors on
I each subject and reduced their pages to paragraphs, and paragraphs to
sentences; giving only the essential points.

Such as the Review is, it is submitted to teachers and those prepar-
ing to teach, with the hope that it may prove of some help in the hands
' of those willing to follow the suggestions in its use.


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Your scholarship is more often judged by your spelling than by a,nj
other branch. No subject is more difficult to master. It is largely a
matter of memory, and requires concentrated thought. Look at, spell,
and write from memory; rewriting misspelled words frequently. In ad-
dition to the spelling, studj^ the orthographic terms, sounds, letters, dia-
critical marks and word analj^sis.

The following definitions are intended for a short review:

OirnioGiiAPHY is that branch of language, which treats of elemen-
tary sounils, letters, syllables, words and spelling.

Oktuoepi' treats of articulate sounds and the pronunciation of words.

Okgaxs of Speech are the articulatory, vocal and respiratory.

Elemen'taky Sounds are simple sounds of the voice, u.sed in the for-
mation of spoken words. There are forty-three in the English language,
represented bj^ twenty-six letters, called the alphabet. The elementary
sounds are divided into vocals, sub-vocals and aspirates. ,

Vocals are unobstructed tones of the voice. There are eighteen
and are represented by five vowel letters. They are A in ale, at, air,
rtsk, arm: E in me, met, her; I infaie, it; O in old, odd, or; U in Mse, rw-de,
wp, f«ll.

Sl'BVOCAls are sounds of the voice, modified by the organs of articu-
lation. There are fifteen in the following kej" words: Md, did, go, Jug,
lull, 7»an, 7io, ]ong, ?-un, is, tins, vine, wet, yes, vision.

Aspirates are emissions of breath, modified bj' the organs of articu-
lation. There are ten, represented hj consonant letters. The following-
are the key words: ^ine, cAin, hay, think, A;ite, put, it, s/ieep, see, what.

A Letter is a character representing an elementary sound. The
power of a letter is the sound it represents.

A VovA'^EL is a letter, which represents a vocal sound. There are five
regular; a, e, i, o, u, and two irregular, w and y.

A Consonant is a letter representing subvocal and aspirate sounds.
They include all letters not vowels.

Semivowels represent sounds which may be prolonged without the
aid of a vowel. They are f, h, j, 1, m, n, r, s, v, z, c and g soft, w. y, th,
ch, sh, gh, wh, and ng. The vowel usually precedes in their name.

Aptiiong is a letter representing no sound, but modifying the sound
of another letter, or in some way distinguishing the word; short to long
sound; as e in fade, g in sign; determines the signification; as w in wright,
b in plumb.


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Diphthong is a union of two vowels, sounded or written together in
the same syllable; as ou in our, oi in oil and ow in now.

Tkiphthong is three vowels in the same syllable: as eau in beau,

Digraph consists of two letters representing a single sound; ea as in
bread, ch in church. They are disjoined when one or more letters come
between them; as oe in home.

Trigraph is the union of three letters representing a single sound;
as ieu in adieu, ght in might.

Double Consonants are two consonant letters together, representing
a single elementary sound; as sh in hash, ss in hissing.

Liquids are consonants, whose sounds readily unite with the sounds
of other consonant letters. They are 1, m, n, r, and ng.

Properties of Vowels. — 1. They generally have their long
sounds, when they end on accented syllable, or followed by a consonant
and final e silent; as a in paper; e in material; i in compliance; o in no-
tion; u in dwty, vaute; and y in %.

2. They have their short sound generallj^ when followed by one or
more consonants in the same syllable, except r and sometimes 1 and s; as
a in pacify; e in met; i in it; o in ox; u in dun; and y in s?/stem.

3. Vowels have their medial sound when followed by r; as a in bear,
by 11; as u in pwll. Italian a before h or r followed by a consonant, as in

4. Vowels are obscure when followed by two consonants in the
same syllable; a in clasp, pass; e in fern, y in n?/mph.

5. A is broad when followed by 11; as in ball; au in taught; aw in
law. O is slender in to, oo in moon. I is a consonant, when it begins a syl-
lable and is immediately followed by a vowel sounded in the same sylla-
ble; as ah'en, omon.

6. W is a vowel only in combination; as in cow, new, view; it is si-
lent before r in the same syllable; as in wren.

Properties of the Consonants. — Formative Divisions are Labials
or lip sounds; as b, v, w, m, p, f, wh. Linguo Dentals or tongue and
teeth sounds; as d, th, j, z, t, th, ch, s, sh. Linguals or tongue sounds; as
1 and r; Linguo nasals, or tongue and nose sounds, as n; Palato nasals; as
ng. Palatals; as g, y, k, h.

Consonants are the bones of speech and by them we articulate words
or join their parts. We utter vowels but articulate consonants. Conso-
nant means sounding with.

Substitute is the representation of a sound usually expressed by an-
other letter, or combination of letters; as ei for a in feint; i for e in po-
Kce; u for i inbzisy; gh for f in. cough. There are eighty substitutes in
the English alphabet. Thirty-six vowel and forty-four consonant substi-

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Di.vCKiTiCAL Marks are arbitraiy characters, indicating the different
peculiar sounds given to letters. They are the Macron, ( — ) indicating
long sounds: Breve, (— ') indicating short sounds; Disei'esis, {•■) or dots;
Semi-Dian-esis ( . ) or dot; Caret, (A ) Tilde ( ^ or wave: Cedilla (') and
Suspended Bar (x).

The Macron marks long sounds: as fate, mete, fine, stone, f?<se, my.
Over g in ^one, oo in soon; across c in can, c7iord: under e in the?/, n in
ink: between t and h in then.

The Breve marks short sounds: as fat, let, m, lot. ?/p, hymn. Over
oo in shook.

Diuresis or Dots, indicate occasional sounds: over a in far, i in ma-
rj'ne: under a in ball, o in do, and u in Tzide.

Semi-Di^resis or dot, over a in last, o in son, g in gem.: under a in
what, o in wolf, and u in fuW.

Cedilla, indicates the sound of s; as under c in chaise and cent.

Tilde, or wave over e in her, i in bird, y in myrrh and n in careon.

Caret over a in air, e in there, u in liMrl, and o in for.

Suspended Bar under s in is and x in exist; giving x the sound of gz.

Words, as to similarity in meaning and spelling, are classed as syn-
onyms and homonyms.

Synonyms are words similar in meaning but differing in use; as
bring, motion toward the speaker; fetch first from then towai'ds Ex-
amples: idle, lazy; industry, diligence; clumsy, awkward, uncouth, etc.

Homonyms are words alike in their pronunciation, but differing in
their spelling and meaning: as ate and eight; mite and might; blue and

Cognates are sounds made with the organs in the same position; as
b and p, v and f, s and z, j and ch, d and t, g and k.

Continuants are sounds capable of prolongation; as b, d, f, j, etc.
Explodents are sounds incapable of prolongation, as t and p.

Letters as to their position are antecedent when they come before:
subsequent when they follow; proximate when near; and remote when
farther away from the letter they modify.

A Syllable is a word, or part of a word, uttered or written together,
consisting of a vowel, or a vowel with consonants affixed. As to position
they are ultimate, or last, penult, ante-penult, and pre-ante-penult. The
base of the syllable is the vowel. The modifiers are the consonants com-
ing before or after the vowel, and are called antecedent and consequent,
proximate and remote modifiers.

A Word is a spoken or written sign of an idea. They are divided as
to their number of syllables into monosyllables, dissyllables, trissyllables,
and polysyllables or many syllables. As to form, words are divided into
simple and compound. As to origin, into primitive and derivative.

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A SniPLE Word is one not formed by uniting two or more words: as
man, manly.

A C05IP0LTND Woijp is one formed by uniting two or more simple
words; as ink-stand, mother-in-law.

A Pkimitive Wo:iD is one not formed from any other word in the
same language; as man. gain.

A Derivative Word is one formed by a preiix or suffix, or some
other change; as manly, regain and men.

The Prefix is that part placed before the root. The following are
the most frequent: ab, from: ad, to: ambi, around; ante, front; anti,
against; be, to make; by, near; circum, round; con, together; dis, ont of;
epi, upon; hemi, half; hypo, less; in, into: inter, between; mis, wrong;
non, not; ob, toward; per, through; peri, around; pro, for: sub, under;
super, over; trans, across; un, not.

A Suffix is that part placed after the root. The following are the
most common: ac, al, ar, ary, cal, ile, ine, meaning belonging to; age,
ance, ancy, ion, meaning state or act of: t, th. d, ed, is or did; ant, ent,
one who; dom, ric, ship, state or territory.

ACCEXT is a stress of voice placed on some certain syllable or sylla-
bles of a word. Primary is the principal accent. Secondary accent is
the less forcible. Discriminative accent is that given words spelled alike
to distinguish different parts of speech: as august, grave; August, a month.
Other examples are, concert, frequent, compound and accent.

Spelling is naming or expressing the constituent parts of a word, in
their proper order. Oral is by the mouth; Orthographic by letter; Phonic
by sound; Phonetic by characters representing the sounds.

Rule 1. F, L or S double, when ending a monosyllable, preceded l^y
a single vowel; as spell, miss, staff.

Rule 2. G ending, preceded by a consonant, change y into i before
an additional letter; as try, trial; carry, carried; except in adding ing.

Rule 3. E silent, ending is dropped in adding a vowel suffix; as ing.

Rule 4. L L ending, drop one 1 before less and ly; but retain when
the syllable is accented; awful, unaccented; fulfill, accented.

Rule 5. Double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a
vowel, when the syllable is accented and ends with a single consonant;
as begin, beginner; otherwise do not double; as wool, woolen; visit, visiting.

Rule 6. Ei begins words, ie terminates and follows e; as either,
reigaied: ancient, brief.

Spelling Refor5I urges the spelling of Avords as they are pronounc-
ed; omitting all silent and substitute letters, when useless; as ue in cata-
logue; me in programme; te in rosette; e in docile, doctrine and granite.
Change ed to t in lookt, wisht, mixt, etc. The following words have
been endorst by the Iowa Teachers' Association: hav, giv, liv. ar, lied,
thru, tho. catalog, shal. wil, wisht.


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Catital Letteks should begin every sentence, name of the Deity,
jji-oper names, titles of honor, name of month, days of the week, the pro-
noun I and injection O and each line of poetry.

WoKD AxALY.sis is Separating a word into its constituent parts and
describing or giving the ijroperties of each part. Model: Word, simple
or compound, primitive or derivative, whatsj'llable, prefixes and suffixes,
origin and signification

Example: Premeditate is a simj)le derivative polysyllable, derived
from meditor (I muse) and the prefix pre (before), and thei-efore means
to muse or plan before.

Ohthogkaphic Parsing is a separation of a word into its constitu-
ent syllables and letters and giving the classification and modification of
each. Model: Word described as to form, origin, syllables, meaning:
syllables as to base ana modifiers, proximate and remote: letters as
vowel or consonant, and subclasses. Spell orthograpliically and phoni-
cally. Example: Tin is a simple, primitive monosyllable, signifying a
light colored mineral: the base is i. a vowel short sound; antecedent
modifier is ^ a consonant aspirate explodent: subsequent modifier is, ?z,
a consonant subvocal lingua nasal.

Pltnctuation is the use of certain characters to aid the reader in de-
termining the thought of the writer. Rhetorical punctuation marks the
structure of sentences. They are the period (.), interrogation (?), ex-
clamation ( !), colon (:). semicolon (:). comma (,), dash ( — ), brackets ([]),
and quotation marks (" ").

The Period {.) should be placed after every declarative and impera-
tive sentence; abbreviation; before decimals and between dollars and
cents; after headings, and letters used as numerals.

Intekrogatiox Point (?) follows every question.

Exclamation Point (I) follows every exclamation.

Colon (:) follows a clause complete in itself but not concluding the
sentence. Be yourself: never imitate. Before a quotation or enumera-
tion of particulars introduced by, as follows.

Se.micolon (;) is used between parts divided by commas; beft)re as,
namely, that is, aud between a formal enumeration of particulars.

Comma (,) se^ts off names of a series; oppositional expressions; words
repeated for emphasis; omission of a verb; pairs of words; quotations
antl when the meaning is thereby made clearer.

Dash ( — ) indicates a break in the construction.

Bif.vcKETS ([]) enclose words, phrases and clauses explanatory of
\\!iat precedes.

QcoTATioN Marks ('• '") show that the passage was taken verliatum
from another.

Referential punctuation includes the asterisk, dagger, brace or
index hand referring to foot notes, etc.

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Etymological punctuation includes the apostrophe, hyphen, caret,
diacritical marks.

Methods — 1. Use a spelling book and dictionary for regular work
and require both oral and written work. Pronounce a word but once
and have pupils pronounce before spelling.

3. Rule paper or slates and write words in first column, the pai't of
speech in the second, definition or synonym in the third, and use the
word in a sentence in the fourth.

3. Use both oral and written work. Oral for creating an interest
and for pronunciation. Keep a list of misspelled words for review and
have pupils misspelling, to spell the word or write it a number of times.

4. Spelling games: Spellandgo up. Choose sides. Each pupil name a
letter, then all spell in concert. Spell a word beginning with the last let-
ter of the last word spelled. Spell a word rhyming with the 'ast woi'd
spelled. Form words from the letters of a word given; as carpet. Give
roots and affixes from which to form words. One side give a word and
the opposit side give a synonym, homonym or opposit. Pronouncing

5. Give a daily drill on the sounds and marking of words. Spell by
letter and by sound as well as writing the word. Spell geographical
names, terms in arithmetic, grammar and other studies. Keep a record
of misspelled words and per cents of spelling.

Other methods mav be added but the above are the most common.


Reading is the perusal or utterance of written thought. Silent,
when perused only and audible, when spoken.

Speaking is the utterance of thought without the written language
before the eye. Declaiming is speaking another's composition. Oratory
is speaking .one's own composition, and is premeditated or extempora-

Vocal Culture is training the organs of speech, for the most effect-
ive expression of thought and feeling. It consists in exercises in breath-
ing and uttering elementary sounds, with different degrees of force and

Pronunciation is the enumeration of the sounds of a word, with
correct articulation and accent. Pronounce acoustics, almond, Asia,
bouquet, bronchitis, catchup, chainois and debris.

Articulation is the distinct enunciation of the sounds in a word.
Articulate tube, osier, troubl'dst, buckl'dst. Sentences: The rain ceas-
eth; He sells sea shells; Shall she sell sea shells?

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Pitch is the deofree of tension of the vocal chords, and is low, me-
dium, high and monotone. Key is the average pitch to be maintained.
Low: "Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note. All sights were mel-
lowed, all sounds subdued. "" Medium: "To him who in the love of Na-
ture holds communion with her visible forms, she speaks a various lan-
guage." High: "To arms! To arms! They come!"

Tone is the quality of voice and should be in harmony with the
thought expressed. Conversational in unemotional thought; as It was
in the morning, at the break of day. Full tone indicates joy, courage
or exultation; as Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky. Galling tone
indicates distance; as Oh, John. John, come here. Charge, Chester,
charge! On, Stanley, on!

Rate is the speed with which we read, and may l3e fast, moderate or
slow, according to the nature of the thought. Fast rate: They crush and
thej' crowd; They trample upon the living and the dead. Slow I'ate:
"Slowly and sadly we laid him down."

Force is the energy with which we read, and may be weak, medium,
strong, varying, explosive or expulsive. Examples: Speak gently. Hark!
what is that noise? Rouse, ye Romans! Rouse, ye slaves! Laughing ex-
ercise: Ha! ha! ha! ha!

Inflection is the sliding of the voice upward or downward. It is
called simple, when entirely rising or falling. It is called a slide when
applied to a Avord independently or an entire sentence. Examples: Do
you deny that? What? Might Rome have been taken whilst I was con-
sul? Who is so base, that he would be a bondsman? As it was then, so
it is now.

The CiKCiMFLEX is a combination of the rising and falling inflections.
Example: You will luring your grammar tomorrow. Read, changing the
circumflex from will to your, to grammar and tomorrow. A teacher
who uses tobacco, if he does not encourage his pupils to form the habit,
will eventually ruin his health and injure his reputation. The general
rule for inflection is to be governed by the sense. Incomplete sense re-
quires the rising, while complete sense the falling inflection.

Emphasis is special force used in the utterance of certain words or
sentences, to express their importance. It is called absolute when nat-
urally important to the meaning. Example: We have not lo7ig to study.
Relative emphasis belongs to words placed in contrast with other words;
as, I am preparing to teach and not to keep school. Cumulative empha-
sis; as, I tell you, though you, though the whole woftLD, though an
ANGEL FROM HEAVEN were to declare it, I would not believe it.
Emphasis may be expressed by an increase of force, by lowering the
pitch, by changing the rate, by changing the accent, or by a pause.

Style of delivery is that form of modulation, or expression to awak-
en any particular emotion or passion, or to represent some individual.

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provincial or notional peculiarity. The most common forms are the nar-
rative, didactic, persuasive, argumentative, colloquial, humorous and
personating or caricaturing style. Irish: Pon me sowl, if it's not your
self that I see. Its meself that's afther telling ye the news. Dutch: Der
man he killed vashn't killed as vash broved.

Transitions is a sudden change in the manner of delivery, and gen-
erally requires lower pitch, slower rate, and less force. It is used in
dialogs, or in personating two or more characters, and wherever tliere is
a change in sentiment.

Modulation is the variation in tone, pitch, force, emphasis and in-
flection. Proi^er modulation is of the greatest importance and requires
great flexibility of the powers named.

Monotone is a sameness throughout and should be avoided, unless
the sentiment of the piece is very grave.

Authors are the writers of the selections and should be studied care-
fully, as to their time, nationality, style of writings, best known produc-
tions and other matters of interest. The following American authors
should receive special study: Longfellow, Whittier, Bryant, Emerson,
Holland. Gary Sisters, Holmes, Lowell, Poe, Carleton. Franklin. Aldrich.
Sumner, Beecher, Stowe, Bancroft, Webster, Irving, Hawthorne. En-
glish authors: Shakespeare, Dickens, Carlyle, Macaulay, Scott, Tenny-
son, Goldsmith, Bunyan, Byron, Johnson and others.

Methods. — That method is best which causes pupils to think most
and develops most power. Judiciously combine synthetic, Avord and sen-
tence metliods. For beginners, give short but frequent lessons. Teach
the sounds of letters with their names. Give frequent drills on force,
pitch and inflection. Bring out the meaning of what is read by question.
Require pupils to copy lessons to learn to spell, use capitals properly and
punctuation. Have pupils tell the lesson story from memory. Read
aloud to your class the coming lesson, and explain to them the points to
study and how. Teach pupils to combine a and the with the words they
modify; as a-man: the-hook. Each pupil should read so that the entire

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Online LibraryS[ylvester] HeathThe institute review for use in county normal institute → online text (page 1 of 9)