T. A. (Thomas Alexander) Lacey.

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A ROMAN DIARY, AND OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATING TO
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LACEY. 8vo.

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A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER
DOCUMENTS



A ROMAN DIARY

AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

RELATING TO THE PAPAL INQUIRY
INTO ENGLISH ORDINATIONS
MDCCCXCVI. BY T. A. LACEY * X



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA

IQIO

All rights rtserved



GALLIS

ANGLVS

INDESINENTER

CONIVNCTVS



2063567



PREFACE

THIS volume can hardly be called a book.
" Encore ne saurait-on composer jamais un
livre," says a recent French writer with native or
acquired sense of form, "en remaniant des corres-
pondances." Still less can you make a book by
merely amassing a diary, letters, and some fugitive
pieces of fourteen years ago. That is all that I
have done. Then let the result stand, not as a
book, but as a collection.

Why is the thing done? It needs justification,
and this is the apology. Fourteen years ago, I
took part in a certain course of action which was
misunderstood at the time, and which is persistently
misrepresented even to-day. Full explanation was
impossible, because others with whom I had been
acting were tied to silence, and I could not fairly
use my greater freedom. How long the obligation
lay upon them I do not know precisely, but some
of them have now begun to speak, without doing
much to dispel misconceptions, and thus set me free
to speak for my own part.

This volume, then, contains my part of the record
of what happened when the late Pope, Leo XIII,
opened up to fresh investigation the old question
of the English ordinations. A narrative newly



x A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

written might have some advantage of form ; but
there is more safety in the mere production of what
was written at the time. The collection is not
quite chaotic, for it has a nucleus in the diary which
I kept during two months of active work at Rome.
This Diary is printed just as it was written, for it is
produced as evidence.

There is much in it that gives me little satisfaction,
much that is trivial, some evidence of bad temper,
and some unpleasant indications of ignorance. It
has been found necessary, for obvious reasons, to
withhold some names, and half-a-dozen passages of
a purely personal character, containing in all about
two hundred and fifty words, have been omitted as
affecting others than myself. Some things I should
like to omit on my own account, but they are
retained in order that the evidence may be entire.
The Diary is intended to show what was done,
what was said, and what was thought ; to indicate
also, by its silences, what was not done. For this
purpose it must be produced as a whole ; excerpts
would be useless. Severe demands are therefore
made on the patience of the reader.

The Diary must be left intact, but it seems
reasonable to illustrate, and sometimes to correct
it sometimes also to apologize in the margin.
Reading it after these fourteen years, I observe with
surprise how many things are noted which I have
completely forgotten, how many which I vividly
remember are unrecorded. I have not hesitated to
draw upon my memory for illustration ; but such



PREFACE xi

reminiscences cannot, of course, be considered
evidence in the same measure as the notes made
at the time. I have collected some extracts from
letters for further illustration. This section of the
volume might easily be enlarged ; but it is hard to
know where to stop, and it seems safer to draw
the line rigidly at letters written by myself or
addressed to me.

No excuse is needed for the addition of the text
of Mr. Gladstone's Memorandum. The fifth section
is concerned with the correction of a mistake, and,
one may hope, with the settlement of a tiresome
and foolish controversy. The sixth is needed for
the explanation of some allusions ; it deals with
documentary matter the importance of which has
been greatly exaggerated, but it also contains some-
thing about Reginald Pole that is not without a
certain interest even now. This should be true
also of the note on the Provincial Council of Mainz,
which may possibly stir up someone to edit in con-
venient form a document of the Reformation period
that will repay study.

Of the section De Re Anglicana enough has been
said in the Introduction, but it may be necessary to
explain how I came by the Risposta. One morning
in September, 1896, the post brought me, without
any indication of its source, a packet containing the
uncorrected printer's proofs of this pamphlet. One
hesitated ; but the matter cried aloud for public
comment, and I swallowed my scruples about using
what was thus placed in my hands. Perhaps I was



xii A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

hasty in assuming its genuineness. But public
notice was taken of it, and it was not disavowed.
The text is now published for the first time. My
copy, as I have said, is an uncorrected proof ;
finding it impossible to obtain any other, I have to-
rely on this, correcting it to the best of my ability.
One incorrigible sentence has been left obelized.

The remaining sections are aftermath. Let me
have pardon for thinking it worth while to recall
from oblivion some writings in which I dealt with
the Bull Apostolicae C^trae and its defenders. One
final paper is added, in which an historical prece-
dent was adduced to show that a pontifical utter-
ance of this kind may pass out of sight.

At the suggestion of the publishers there have
been added to the volume Appendices containing
the Bull itself and the Responsio Archiepiscoporum
Angliae. Monsignor Moves, unmindful of ancient
enmities, has been good enough to supply an
authentic copy of the former. Some doubt was
expressed about the inclusion of the latter, on the
ground that it might seem to link up the action of
the English hierarchy too closely with the adven-
ture on which Father Puller and I were engaged.
But the other contents of the volume make it
plain, beyond the possibility of cavil, that we
had no official sanction. My own bishop would
not even grant me formal leave of absence. The
benison of the Archbishop of York, which we valued
highly, was purely personal. Moreover, the argu-
ments of the Responsio are of another order than



PREFACE xiii

those which we employed. I have explained in the
Introduction what was the weakness of the position
which we personally occupied. The answer of the
English hierarchy was free from that weakness,
and it is hardly desirable to recall the incidents of
the controversy without at the same time putting
the question on its true and permanent footing. For
this reason I am glad that the Bishop of Salisbury,
who controls the copyright of the Responsio, has
kindly allowed its inclusion. He has not, however,
read my volume, nor was he in any way responsible
for the action described in it.

I have also been enabled to give the text of a
letter of Leo XIII, acknowledging the Archbishops'
Responsio, a document hitherto, I understand,
aveicSoTov. It may be defective, though the ladies
of the Cambridge Type-writing Agency in the
Adelphi have devoted much skill and industry to
the deciphering of a clumsy manuscript. The copy
in my hands was without signature, but I have no
reason to doubt the authenticity of the letter. A
fourth Appendix contains a Bibliography, as com-
plete as I can make it, dating from the time when
the question was raised in a new form by M. Portal.

I have to thank the editors of the Guardian and
of the Contemporary Review for leave to reproduce
some articles. By favour of the Society for Pro-
moting Christian Knowledge, the volume also con-
tains two brief dissertations, originally published as
tracts of the Church Historical Society. In every
case the text has been carefully revised, but the



xiv A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

arguments have been left as written, though some-
times guarded or corrected in the margin. I am
indebted to Mr. Henry Gladstone for permission
to print matter from Mr. Gladstone's pen, and to
Mr. Tilney Basset for a copy of a letter of my
own, drawn from the stores at Hawarden. To
those who have been kind enough to read the
proofs thanks are due for much help, but I will not
name them lest they should seem to be responsible
for things of which they disapproved. My friend
Miss Christian Burke has relieved me of the
grievous labour of preparing an Index.

HIGHGATE, October i^th, 1910.






CONTENTS

PAGE

PREFACE . . . . . ix

I. INTRODUCTION . . ... 3

II. A ROMAN DIARY . . 29

III. LETTERS . . . ... 87

IV. MR. GLADSTONE'S MEMORANDUM . . .139

V. THE ROYAL MANDATE FOR BARLOW'S CONSECRA-
TION . 153

i. MEMORANDUM DELIVERED TO CARDINAL MAZ-

ZELLA . . . . 153

ii. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR OF THE TABLET . 157
VI. JULIUS III AND PAUL IV . . -171

i. PAUL IV AND ANGLICAN ORDERS . . 171

ii. CARDINAL POLE'S DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGLISH

ORDINAL . . . . . 177

VII. THE COUNCIL OF MAINZ, A.D. 1549 . . 187

VIII. THE PAMPHLET DE RE ANGLICANA AND ITS

CRITICS . . . . 195

i. DE RE ANGLICANA . . . . 195

ii. RISPOSTA ALL'OPUSCOLO DE RE ANGLICANA . 210

iii. THE RISPOSTA EXAMINED . . . 240

IX. THE SOURCES OF THE BULL APOSTOLICAE CURAE 253

i. EXAMINATION OF THE BULL . . . 253

ii. THE GORDON DECISION . . . .272

X. THE THEOLOGY OF THE BULL APOSTOLICAE CURAE 285

XI. THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGLISH ORDINAL 311

XII. GREGORY IX AND GREEK ORDINATIONS . .331



xvi A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

APPENDICES

I. SANCTISSIMI DOMINI NOSTRI LEONIS DIVINA PROVI-
DENTIA PAPAE XIII LITTERAE APOSTOLICAE
DE ORDINATIONIBUS ANGLICANIS . . . 341

II. RESPONSIO ARCHIEPISCOPORUM ANGLIAE AD LIT-
TERAS APOSTOLICAS LEONIS PAPAE XIII DE
ORDINATIONIBUS ANGLICANIS . . . 354

III. RESPONSIO LEONIS XIII AD ARCHIEPISCOPOS ANG-

LIAE . . 395

IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY . . ... 398
INDEX . . ... 409



INTRODUCTION



A ROMAN DIARY

AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

I
INTRODUCTION

IN the spring- of the year 1894 I undertook, with
some reluctance, the task of writing a Latin
dissertation dealing with the question of English
ordinations as discussed from the Roman point of
view. The questions involved were tolerably
familiar to me, but I had always treated them from
the standpoint of those who are ordinarily content
to accept as a matter of course the sacramental
validity of the sacred ministry exercised in the
Church of England. In the course of controversy
doubts, historic or theological, were from time
to time suggested, needing resolution ; the kind
of apologetic demanded for this purpose was
inevitable ; but to throw oneself into a hostile
position, to argue upon the assumptions there
treated as indisputable, and to wrest from them an
affirmative conclusion, was a new employment from
which one might naturally shrink. But the work
seemed to be needed. The fresh discussion of the
subject started by the Abb6 Portal in the previous
year showed that debate was not impossible ; it was
not a question merely of controversy, but rather of

3



4 A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

mutual understanding ; a desire for such understand-
ing was in the air, and Leo XIII was said to be
passionately bent on furthering the reconciliation of
all professing Christians. If we were to render help,
it was useless to go on arguing exclusively from our
own assumptions ; we must place ourselves at the
standpoint of those from whom we were separated,
and see whether we could not compel them on their
own principles to abridge the differences between
us and them. This accordingly was attempted.

I have not to tell the whole story of the move-
ment. When that is written, it will be known what
hopes were not unreasonably entertained, and what
considerations led to the selection of the question of
ordination as the best subject of discussion. I am
concerned only with my own part in the movement,
and with certain misconceptions which it seems well
to remove. It was an accident that brought me in.
A dissertation was required, and it must be in Latin.
Other men were at least as well qualified to handle
the matter, but I was supposed to have some special
skill in handling the language. The need was
explained by a correspondent well acquainted with
the ground. "La cour de Rome," he wrote, "ne
sait pas 1'anglais ; elle n'est informee de vos affaires
que par un petit nombre de truchements, qui, autant
que ie les connais, sont loin d'avoir 1'esprit tres
ouvert. En latin vous serez lus ; en anglais, vous
seriez interpreted." In Latin, then, our argument was
to be presented. Mr. Edward Denny, who had
recently published an admirable treatise on the
subject, was associated with me ; we made his
Anglican Orders and Jurisdiction the basis of our
work, and a pleasanter partnership there could



INTRODUCTION 5

hardly have been. In November the book was all
but finished, and the Bishop of Salisbury, after
reading some parts of it in manuscript, supplied
a preface which lifted both the Latinity and the
argument to a higher plane.

Early in the year 1895 our Dissertatio Apologetica
de Hierarchia Anglicana issued from the Cambridge
University Press, and was criticized with conspicu-
ous fairness in reviews and journals from one
end of Europe to the other. The Abbe Boudinhon,
one of our earliest reviewers, described the book in
the Canoniste Contemporain as " Un modele de
discussion courtoise et approfondie, qui impose a
1'adversaire le meme serieux dans les recherches et
les preuves, les memes sentiments de moderation et
de loyaute." In the Zeitschrift fur Katholische
Theologie the Jesuit Father Emil Lingens acknow-
ledged our merits more cautiously but no less
effectively. " Die Verfasser," he wrote, " beide
anglicanische Geistliche, zeigen sich auch ernstlich
bestrebt, ihrer Gegner mit wahrer Achtung und
ohne jegliche Bitterkeit zu behandeln." It was
clear that part of our object was attained ; we had
achieved the tone of sympathetic discussion. The
result was seen in much correspondence, which fell
for the most part into my hands, and it thus came
about that the book was very unfairly attributed
more to me than to Mr. Denny.

During the year 1895 things moved apace. It
seemed no small matter that Mgr. Gasparri, pro-
fessor of Canon Law at Paris, took up our question.
He had published, two years earlier, a solid treatise
on the whole theory and practice of Ordination,
in which he had dismissed with even more than



6 A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

ordinary lightness the claims of the English Church
to possess a valid ministry. We made much use
of his work in writing De Hierarchia, and did
not fail to comment on his deplorable treatment
of our own question. This brought other critics
upon him, and he took chastisement in the most
cheerful spirit, freely confessing ignorance of a
matter lying outside his own province, and making
serious efforts to retrieve his mistake. Visiting
Rome in the month of April, he reported that he
had brought our book under the notice of certain
Cardinals who were intending to study the ques-
tion, and gave the first warning that much more
would turn upon the rite than upon historical
circumstances. From this time onward he and
M. Boudinhon worked together, not agreeing in all
details, but developing in the main the same argu-
ment for the validity of the English Ordinations.

In April appeared the Apostolic Letter Ad
Anglos of Leo XIII. In September it became
known that the Pope was resolved to open up
our subject to the fullest investigation. He had
demanded and received from the Abbe* Duchesne,
from Mgr. Gasparri, and from the Jesuit De
Augustinis, professor in the Collegio Romano,
memoranda which were more or less favourable to
our contention ; how favourable the last of them
was we did not ourselves know until a later day.
There was activity on the other side, Cardinal
Vaughan working hard in a way not fully under-
stood until his biography by Mr. Snead-Cox was
published. Dom Gasquet explored the Vatican
Archives and produced two documents of con-
siderable importance, which compelled a careful



INTRODUCTION 7

reconsideration of one part of our argument.
In December M. Portal began the issue of the
Revue Anglo- Romaine, with a benediction from
Cardinal Bourret and an imposing list of con-
tributors. It was a heavy task to keep going this
weekly review of forty-six large pages, and those
of us who shared the burden had some desperate
struggles not always successful with the printer's
proofs. It lived barely one year, and it is entombed
in three massive volumes containing a remarkable
body of original articles and selected documents.
Policy, and human weakness, forbade exclusive
attention to a single subject, and its pages were
lightened or burdened by various displays of
irrelevant erudition : some of M. Loisy's earlier
and more orthodox essays in criticism obtained
a narrow publicity by its means. Gasparri dealt
with our own special question in a couple of
masterly articles, written and published before he
was summoned to Rome for the impending Com-
mission. Father Puller contributed another. One
that was signed with mysterious asterisks, the un-
favourable conclusion of which did not obscure
its friendly tone, fell from the pen of a learned
Cardinal resident in Rome. I wrote on a subject
in regard to which I was very inadequately
equipped, and yet Duchesne was good enough
to say that he thought I had made out a fair
case for the contention that the Popes of Rome
and Alexandria possibly also the Bishop of
Antioch were at one time consecrated with im-
position of the Gospel-text in place of the impo-
sition of hands.

These labours occupied the winter. In March



8 A ROMAN DIARY AND OTHER DOCUMENTS

the Commission appointed by the Pope to investigate
the question assembled in Rome. We had no
communication of any kind with De Augustinis,
and knew only that he was inclined to our side.
With the three appointed on Cardinal Vaughan's
advice Dom Gasquet, Canon Moyes, and the
Franciscan Father David Fleming we had been
engaged in open controversy, and with one of them I
had had some private correspondence of no import-
ance. With Mgr. Gasparri and the Abbe* Duchesne
we had closer relations. They now demanded help



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