T. F. (Thomas Frederick) Tout.

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BACON, ROGER, friar, 447, 451.
Badajoz, 468.

Bagdad, 158, 169, 170, 465.
Baillagt, the court of the, 425.
Baillis, the, 404, 424.
Bailiffs, Frederick ii.'s, 362.
Balearic Islands, the, 473.



5oo



European History r , 918-1273



Balkans, the, 163.

Baltic, the, 21. 380.

Baldwin of Boulogne, first Count of

Edessa, 182, 184, 185.

the younger, 182.

of the Iron Arm, first Count of

Flanders, 85.
V., Count of Flanders, 80,

86.

vii., Count of Flanders, 278.

IX., Count of Flanders, 343. See

also Baldwin I., Latin Emperor in

the East.

Count of Hainault, 291.

I. , King of Jerusalem, 185. See

also Baldwin of Boulogne, and Bald-
win, Count of Edessa.
II., King of Jerusalem, 185.

See also Baldwin of Boulogne the

younger.
in., King of Jerusalem, 185,

193-

IV., King of Jerusalem, 193.

1., Latin Emperor in the East,

348. 35i. 352.
it., Latin Emperor in the East,

353. 354. 355. 38?-
Bamberg, 225.

cathedral of, consecrated, 50.

Suicigar, bishop of, 63. See

Clement n.
Bandinelli, Roland, 253-254, 256. See

also Alexander HI.
Barbarians, invasions of, 15.
Barbarossa. See Frederick I.
Barcelona, 43, 91, 419.

county of, 465, 466, 470.

Bari, 38, 103, 104, 107, 117, 118, 156,

172, 174, 230.

Synod of, 139.

Barral des Baux. 418.
Basil, dynasty of, 170.
I., the Macedonian, Eastern Em-
peror, 152, 167.
n., Eastern Emperor, 159, 163,

164, 165, 167.

St., shrine of, 171.

Basilica, the, code of laws, 154.
Basilius, chamberlain of John Zim-

isces, 162, 163.
Basque language, the, 90.
Rastides, 415.
Baty, Tartar chief, 385.
Bavaria, 2, 15, 16, 18, 19, 28, 37, 40,

47. 56. 58. 64. "I, 133. 139. 23L
332, 248, 266, 268, 329.



Bavaria, Otto of Wittelsbach, Count

Palatine of. See Otto.
Welf or Guelf. Duke of. See

Welf.
Beatrice of Provence, 418, 485.

wife of Otto IV., 329.

wife (i) of Boniface of Tuscany,

(2) of Godfrey the Bearded, 109.
Beatrix of Savoy, 417.
Beaucaire, 418.

Seneschal of, 413.

Beauce, the, 78, 277.

Beaugency, Council of, 285.

Btaustant, 190.

Beauvais, 277.

Bee, Le, abbey of, 48, 100, 209, 210.

Becket. See Thomas, St. , archbishop

of Canterbury.
Bela ii., King of Hungary, 226.

III., King of Hungary, 299.

Bena, Amalric of. See Amalric.
Benedict v., Pope, 33.

via., Pope, 48, 50, 63, 105.

IX., Pope, 63.

X., Antipope, 112, 113.

St., of Nursia, rule of, 94, 98.

St. , of Aniane, 07.

Benedictine nuns, 438.
Benedictines, the, 443.
Benefices, feudal, become hereditary,

56. 57.
Benevento, 34, 107, 127, 485.

Lombard dukes of, 103.

Berbers, the, 468, 469.

Berengar, the Emperor, 27, 28.

of Ivrea, King of Italy, 28, 29,

3. 33-

of Tours, in, 114, 209.

Berengaria of Castile, 326.

of Navarre, queen of Richard I. ,

302.

Bergamo, 259, 269.
Bernard, St., 7, 189, 191-192,199, 202,

207-208, 209, 212-214, 215, 228-229,

232, 234-235, 240, 241, 242, 276, 281-

282, 285, 432, 470.

of Anhalt. 268.

of Ventadour, 397.

Sylvester, 211.

Bernardone, John. See Francis, St.

Berno of Cluny, 97.

Bernward, St., bishop of Hildeshciiu,

41.45,46.
Berri, 76, oo, 287.
Bertha of Sulzbach, wife of Manuel I.,

192. See also Irene.



Index



501



Bertha, Empress of Henry iv., and

daughter of Odo of Turin, 122,

123, 130, 138.
of Holland, repudiated by Philip

I. of France, 80, 81, 275.
widow of Odo I., wife of Robert

II., 78.
Berthold of Hohenburg, 480.

of Zahringen, 222, 248, 251.

Duke of Bavaria, 18.

of Ratisbon, 441, 442.

Bertrada of Montfort, Countess of

Anjou, 80, 138, 278.
Bertrand de Born, 397.
Bessin, the, 83.
Besan9on, 130.

Diet at, 2<;2, 253, 254, 268.

Bethlehem, 368.

Be'ziers, Raymond Roger, Viscount of.

See Raymond Roger.
Biandrate, Counts of, 260.
Bibars, the Sultan, 459, 460, 461, 462,

463-

Bieda, 140.
Bilking, Hermann, the Margrave, 19,

21, 2 3, 35-
billungs, the, 232.
Birken, 19.
Black Forest, 54.
Blanche of Castile, wife of Louis vm. ,

395. 47. 4S. 4i. 4 20 . 427-
Blaye, 414.

Blois, 286, 289-291, 343.
the house of, 76, 79, 86, 87, 277,

279-280, 286, 291-292, 416.
Bobbio, 44.
Bogomilians, 174, 216.
Bohemia, 5, 23, 34, 37, 40, 41, 43, 60,

61, 142, 215, 226, 252, 326, 329.
Bohemund, son of Robert Guiscard,

prince of Antioch, 47, 175, 182, 184,

185, 194.
Boleslav, king of Poland, 54.

king of Bohemia, 23.

duke of Poland, 48, 226.

IV., king of Poland, 252.

Bologna, 219, 237, 247, 259, 269, 382,

386. 391, 437, 444, 445.
schools and university of, 218,

219. 255. 313. 429- 43.
Bona ventura, St. , 447.
Boniface of Tuscany, 109.
of Montferrat, king of Thessa-

lonica, 344, 345, 347, 348, 351, 352.
Boni homines (municipal), 238.
Bordeaux, English seneschal of, 413.



Bordeaux, siege of, 414.
Born, Bertrand de. See Bertrand.
Borrel, Count of Barcelona, 43.
Boso, founder of kingdom of Pro-
vence, brother of Richard the Jus-

ticiar, 88.

Bouchard the Venerable, 76.
Boulogne, 286, 287, 291.
the Counts of, 86, 87, 330. See

also Eustace, Philip, Stephen.

Godfrey of. See Godfrey.

Bourbon, 417.

Bourges, 75, 81, 277, 287.

Peter, archbishop of. Chatre,

Peter de la.

Bouvines, battle of, 331, 393, 396.
Bowides, the, 158, 169.
Brabant, the Dukes of, 307, 308, 330.

388.

Braga, Burdinus of. See Gregory vm.
Brancaleone, senator of Rome, 482.
Brandenburg, 16, 22, 223, 378, 490.

the Margraves of, 378.

Breakspear, Nicholas, 249. See also

Adrian iv.

Brennabor. See Brandenburg.
Bremen, 226, 379.

Adalbert of. See Adalbert

archbishopric of, 223, 265.

Brenner Pass, the, 31, 50, 53, 134, 248,

250.

Brenner, the, 487.
Brescia, 239, 240, 381, 382.

Arnold of. See Arnold.

Bretislav, Duke of Bohemia, 60, 61.
Brienne, house of, 355.

John of. See John.

lolande or Isabella of. See

Isabella.

Walter of. See Walter.

Brindisi, 367, 368, 452.

Brittany, 75, 84, 85, 91, 212, 395, 408,

416.

Arthur of. See Arthur.

Peter of. See Peter.

Brixen, Poppo, bishop of. See Da-

masus II.
Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, 24, 25,

3i-

bishop of Toul. See Leo ix.

St., founder of the Carthusian

order, 200-201, 209.

cousin of Otto in. SeeGregory v

Brunswick, 265, 268, 331.

Egbert of, 121. See Egbeit.

new duchy of, 375.



502



European History, 918-1273



Bruys, Peter de. See Peter.
Bulgaria, 34, 155, 157, 162-164, I &7>
168. 192, 215, 326, 341-342. 361-352,

353-

Burdinus of Braga. See Gregory vin.

Burgundy, 28, 55, 59, 60, 67, 69, 116,
138, 202, 228, 260, 289, 413, 416.

Frederick i.'s policy in, 248, 251-

252, 270, 478, 479.

as buffer-state, 56.

Conrad ii.'s policy in, 58.

dialect of, 90.

duchy of, history of, 88, 89.

Robert Ii.'s conquest of, 78.

duchy of, Capetian, 76.

Free County of, 145.

kingdom of, 3, 55. See also Are-
late, and Aries, kingdom of.

Burgundies, consolidation of the two, 4.

Burkhard, Duke of Swabia, 37.

bishop of Worms, 50.

Buxhowden, Albert of. See Albert.

Byzantine power in South Italy, 160.

Empire, the, 161-175 ; in the

twelfth century, 336-342.

Byzantium. See Constantinople.

Byxants, the, 156.

CADALUS, Bishop of Parma. See

Honorius n. , 116.
Cadiz, 473.
Caen, French of, 83.
Caerularius, Michael, Patriarch of

Constantinople, 103, 109, 167.
Caesarea captured by Seljukians, 171.
Caesar, title of, renewed, 270.
Cahors, 287, 415.
Cahorsins, 426.
Cairo, 195, 465.
Cairoan, 158, 178.
Calabria, 39, 53, 114, 115, 166, 201,

227, 230, 486.

Greeks of, 53.

Theme of, 156.

Calatrava, 470, 471, 472.

Order of, 207, 470-471.

Caliphate, break-up of, 168, 169, 178.
of Bagdad, destroyed by the

Tartars, 460.
Caliphs, Abbasside, 158.

Fatimite, 117, 158, 178.

Ommayad, 158.

at Cordova, 465-466.

Calixtus n., Pope, 145, 146, 147, 149,

202.
Antipope, 260, 263.



C.imaldoli, order of, 100, 219.
Camerino, 30.

Campagna, Saracens in the 386.
Cannre, battle of, 105.
Canon Law, the, 219-220, 382.
Canonists, the, 432.
Canons, Regular, 6, 204-206, 226,
438.

in cathedrals, 205, 226.

Secular, 226.

Canossa, 143, 263.

Henry iv. at, 131, 132.

siege of, 137.

Canterbury, 210.

disputed election to, 325.

shrine of St. Thomas at, 289.

Anselm of. See Anselm, St.

Thomas of. See Thomas, St.

Canute the Great, King of Denmark
and England, 53.

vi., King of Denmark, 265,

270, 320, 323, 326.

Capet, Hugh. See Hugh.
Cappadocia, 161, 171, 172.
Capua, 34, 50, 1 06, 114, 227, 328,
362. 485.

Dukes of, 103.

Norman principality of, 117.

Carcassonne, 400, 409, 414, 418.

the ville and citi of, 425, 426.

Seneschal of, 413.

Cardinal, Peire, 398.

Carinthia, 37.

Arnulf of. See Arnulf.

Conrad of. See Conrad.

Carmel, Mount, hermits of. See Car-
melites.

Carmelites, 440.

Carniola, 37.

Carolingian Empire, the, 15.

Carolingians, West Prankish, fall of
the, 40.

Carolings, the, 2, 3, 13, 14, 17, 23,
26, 31, 3 8 . 47. 51, 66, 67, 69, 70,
7i. 72. 73. 75- 77. 82, 83, 84, 86,
88,97.

Carta Caritatis, the, 202, 204.

Carthage, 461, 462.

Carthusians, the, 6, 200-201, 257, 290.

Cat Royal, the, 425.

Casciano, battle of, 483.

Cassim, Abul, 39.

Castel del Monte, 364.

Castelnau, Peter of. See Peter.

Castile, 10, 229, 336, 420, 431, 465,
466, 467-469, 471, 472, 473-476.



Index



503



Castile, Blanche of. See Blanche.
Castle, the feudal, 3, 9.

building in the Latin East, 188.

Castrogiovanni, battle of, 118.

Catalans, the, 355, 361.

Catalonia, 465.

Catafan, the, 103.

Cathari, the, 215, 334, 388, 433.

Cavalry, feudal, 3, 175.

Cavalry, heavy, in army of John

Zimisces, 162.

Greek, 171.

Saxon, 16.

Celano, Thomas of. See Thomas.

Celestine 11. , Pope, 241.

in., Pope, 271, 305-306, 309-313,

314, 323, 233.

iv., Pope, 385.

Centumgravii, the, 373.
Cevennes, the, 90.
Chalon, 213.

the Bishop of, 203.

Chalons, Bishops of, 86. See also

William.

Chamberlains, Frederick II. 's, 362.
Chambre des Comptes, the, 425.
Champagne, 76, 79, 86, 87, 284, 286,

289-291, 343, 413, 416.

its union with Blois, 280.

Odo of. See Urban n., 137.

Counts of. See Odo, Theobald,

Henry of.
Champeaux, William of, 145. See

William.
Chancellor, the Episcopal, of the

University of Paris, 430.
Chandax, Saracen stronghold, 159.
Chansons de Geste, 84.
Charente, the, 414, 416.
Charismians, 456, 457.
Charlemagne, romances of, 378.

See Charles the Great.
Charles the Bald, 56, 85.
the Great, 3, 4, 22, 31, 46,

151. 23. 378.
House of, 70, 72, 73. See

Carolingians.

Canonisation of, 258.

Martel, 170.

the Simple, 14, 15, 17, 66, 67,

68, 83.
of Anjou, King of Naples and

Sicily, 354, 355, 407, 408, 416, 418,

419, 421, 447,458,461,462,484, 488.
of Denmark, Count of Flanders

(the Good), 278.



Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine,

uncle of Louis v., 71, 77.
Charter of Charity, the, 202, 204.
Chateau Gaillard, castle of, 394.
Chatre, Peter de la, Archbishop of

Bourges, 284. See Peter.
Chartres, 286.

the School of, 211, 213, 214.

Ivo, Bishop of. See ivo.

House of, 78, 87. See also Blois,

house of.
Chartreuse, la Grande, 289. See also

Carthusians.
Cherson, theme of, 155.
Chester, Earl of, 454.
Chiavenna, 206, 261.
Children, the Crusade of the, 452.
China, 168, 174, 385.
Chios, 348.

Chiusa di Verona, La, 258.
Chivalry, 2.

Chrpdegang, the rule of, 205.
Christian, Archbishop of Mainz, 262.

first Bishop of the Prussians, 379.

Cid, the, 467-469.

Cilicia, 155, 159, 160, 271, 300, 339.

Armenian kingdom in, 183.

Cistercians, the, 6, 201-204, 2 57.

265, 290, 399, 438, 443.

in Spain, 470-471.

Citeaux, 202-204, 206, 290, 385.
Civitate, battle of (1017), 105.

battle of (1053), 108, 114.

Diet at (1232), 372.

Civil Law, the, 7, 217-219.
Clair-on-Epte, Treaty of, 83.
Clairvaux, 202, 204, 234, 385. Set

also Bernard, St.
Clara Scifi. See Clare, St.
Clare, St., 439.

Clares, the Poor. See Claresses.
Claresses, 439.

Clari, Robert of. See Robert.
Classics, study of, in nth and izth

centuries, 100.
Clement n., Pope, 63, 64.

in., Pope, 271, 278, 305, 313.

in., Antipope, 134, 135, 140.

IV., 485-491.

Ciermont, Council of, 138, 139, 180-

181.

Innocent ii.'s Synod at, 229.

Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Robert of.

See Robert.

Clito. See William the Clito.
Cluny, 5, 6, 25, 56, 63, 84, 97, 98,



504



European History, 918-1273



99, 100, 102, 120, 125, 126, 137,

145, 178, 199, 203, 209, 213, 228,

229, 384, 387, 420.
Cluny and Gregory vil., 125, 126.
Cluniac ideals, 51.
Cluniacs, the, 41, 50, 51, 52, 93.
Coblenz, 140, 231.
Coimbra, county of, 467, 470.
Coinage, St. Louis and the, 425.
Cologne, 121, 141, 144, 201, 206, 255,

268, 320, 321, 330, 331, 378.
archbishops of, 25, 50, 51, 52,

262, 305, 307. See also Adolf,

Anno, Engelbert, Philip, Pilgrim,

and Rainold.

Diet at (1198), 320.

School of, 447.

Colonisation, German, 264, 265, 266.

Colombieres, 294.

Columban, St., 44.

Combat, trial by, 424.

Comedies, Latin, 25.

Com ties Imperials Militia, 45.

Commerce, Greek, 157, 158.

treaty of, between Sviatoslav

and John Zimisces, 162.

under Frederick I. , 272.

Comminges, Count of, 401.
Commune of Rome, the, 240-241, 250,

253. 318-319-
Communes, the French, 282, 429.

the Italian, 237-239.

Como, 261, 269.
Company of Death, the, 262.
Compiegne, synod at, 323, 324.
Comnenus, dynasty of, 171-173, 336-

340, 35. 35i. 355-
Conan, Duke of Brittany, 287.
Conceptual ism, 212.
Conches, William of. See William.
Concordat of Worms (1122), 147, 148,

149, 225.

Congregational idea, 199-200, 204.
Congregation of Cluny, the, 97,

IOO.

Conrad I., king of the Germans, 12,

13. 14-
II., the Salic, Emperor, 52, 53,

55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 78, 101, 106,

224.
HI., 192-193, 231-234, 236, 242-

243, 245-246, 283, 340.

iv., 456, 459, 460, 478-480.

of Franconia, son of Henry IV.

(Anti-Cscsar), 1093 137, 139, 140.
Diike of Franconia, son of



Frederick of Buren, 222, 224, 225,

331. See also Conrad ill.
Conrad, son of Frederick 11. , king of

the Romans, 368, 375, 383, 385,

388, 391. See also Conrad iv.
Duke of Swabia, 51. See Con-
rad II.
Duke of Carinthia, cousin of

Conrad n. of Swabia, 51, 58, 101.
father of Conrad of Carinthia,

51, 101.
Count Palatine of the Rhine,

half-brother of Frederick Barba-

rossa, 251, 308.
of Hochstaden, archbishop of

Cologne, 488-490.

of Marburg, Franciscan, 373, 382.

of Montferrat, king of Jerusalem,

302-303, 341, 453.
the Pacific, king of Aries, 23,

5. 55-
the Red, Duke of Lorraine, 20,

21, 33, 29, 51.

of Urslingen, 310.

Conradin, 459, 480, 482, 486-487.
Conseil, Grand, the, 424.
Consolamentum, the, 216.
Constance, 55.

Diet of, 62.

the treaty of (1153), 248, 249.

treaty of (1183), 263-264, 309.

Constance of Aries, 78.

of Brittany, 287.

of Castile, queen of Louis vil. ,

290.
of Sicily, wife of Henry vi., 269,

270, 301, 305, 306, 310, 316-317.
sister of Louis vn., Countess of

Toulouse, 287, 398.
Constantine i., 144, 177.
vii., Porphyrogenitus, 152-158,

162, 163.

viii., 159-165.

IX , Monomachus, 109, 166.

X., Ducas, 171.

Constantinople, 8, 34, 45, 152, 156,

157, 158, 162, 163, 164, 182, 192,

193, 236, 322, 337, 338, 339, 341,

353. 354-
church of St Sophia in, 341, 348,

350-
Fourth Crusade turned against,

345. 346..

organisation of, 348.

sack of, 351.

and Thessalonica, rivalry of, 351



Index



505



Comuetudines Cluniacenses, 97.
Consuls (municipal), 238, 263.
Conti, house of, 313.
Conver si, 200, 201, 440.
Corbeil, 76.

treaty of (1258), 419.

Corbogha, Ameer of Mosul, 183.
Cordova, 43, 473.

the Caliphs of, 465-466.

Mosque and cathedral of, 473.

Schools of, 466.

Corfu, Robert Guiscard dies at, 136.
Corinth, Marquises of, 349.
Cornwall, Richard, Earl of. See

Richard.

Corsairs, Moorish, 159.
Corsi, house of, 228.
Corsica, 239, 310.
Cortenuova, battle of, 381.
Cortes of Spain, the, 474.
Cortona, Elias of. See Elias.
Corvey, 25, 122.
Cos, 348.

C6temin, the, 83, 106.
Cotrone, 39.
Coucy, the forest of, 206.

house of, 277.

Council of Beaugency, 285.

at Genoa (1241), 384.

at Ingelheira, 69.

the first General Lateran (1123),

149.
the second General Lateran

(1139), 234, 240.

the third General Lateran (1179),

269.

the fourth General Lateran

(1215), 315, 334, 437, 452.

General.at Lyons, the first (1245),

386, 387-

the second (1274), 440, 457,

462.

at Mantua, 116.

at Pa via (1046), 63.

of Pavia (1159), 256.

at Reims (1119), 145.

at Rome, summoned by Gre-
gory ix.. 384.

of Sens, 240.

("3i). 281.

of Sutri (1046), 63.

at Tours (1163), 257, 288.

at Worms (1076), 128.

Councils. See also Synods.

Courpon, Cardinal, his statutes for
the University of Paris, 433.



Courtenay, Peter of. See Peter.
Credentia (municipal), 238.
Crema, 255.

Guy of. See Paschal ill.

Cremona, 28, 261, 269, 270, 309, 382,

383, 390. 483-

Diet at, 366.

Liutprand of. See Liutprand.

Crescentii, the, 35, 112.

Crescentius I., 38.

II., John, son of the above, 41,

42,43-

in. , son of the above, 49, 50.

Crete, 155, 158, 159, 348, 355.

Crimea, the, 156.

Cross, the True, 178, 195.

Croton, 39.

Crown, the Iron, 137.

Crusade, the first, 138, 175, 179.

the second, 191-193, 208, 232-

233, 284-285.

the third, 294, 295-304, 393.

the fourth, 8, 156, 343-346, 450.

the fifth, 452-455.

the sixth, 420, 421, 457-459.

the seventh, 425, 461-462.

the last, 450-463.

of Edward I., 462.

of the Children, the 452.

projected by Henry vi., 311, 312.

preached by Urban iv. , 354, 355.

Crusades, the, 2, 10, 39, 40, 84, 92,

139, 140, 170, 271, 348, 349, 350,

3SL 364. 394-
their effects on the Byzantine

Empire, 337.
Frederick II. 's, 364, 365, 366,

379. 455-

Innocent HI. and the, 332-333.

Innocent IV. and the, 387.

the Albigensian, 394, 399, 400,

401, 405, 406, 407, 409.
Curia Regis, the, 424.
Cunigunde, Empress of Henry n. , 48.
Cyclades, duchy of the, 348, 352.
Cyprus, 157, 160, 161, 301, 302, 303,

304, 340-341, 342, 35i. 355, 457. 459-

the kings of, 463.

Cyril, 157.

Czechs, the, 266, 379. See also Bo'

hernia.

DALMATIA, 155, 345.
Damascus, 160, 192, 193, 195, 456.
Damasus n., Pope, 64, 101.
Damiani, Peter See Peter.



5 06



European His lory, 918-1273



Damietta. 365, 454, 455, 458.
Dandolo, Henry, Doge of Venice,

343. 344. 348, 349-
Danes, the, 15, 16, 23, 37, 40, 155,

163, 178.

Dante, 363, 390, 392, 449.
Dardanelles, the, 345.
Dark Ages, end of, 3-4, 96.
Dassel. See Rainald of Dassel.
Dauphiny, 201, 214.
David, monk, 142.
De Comideratione, Bernard's, 242.
Decretals of Gregory ix., the, 382.
Decretum of Gratian, the, 219.
Dedi, the Margrave, 122, 123.
Demetrius, king of Thessalonica, 352,

353-

Demturgus, the, 216.
Denmark, 34, 83, 84, 248, 320, 321,

323, 326, 331, 383.

Canute of. See Canute.

Engelbert's war with, 371.

German influence over, 226.

Valdemar n. of. See Valdemar.

Desiderius, Abbot of Monte Casino.

See Victor in.
Dialects, Romance, 89, 90.
Diepold of Acerra, 317-318, 328.
Dies Jrte, the, 442.
Diet at Civitate (1232), 372.

of Cologne (1198), 320.

of Constance, 62.

at Forchheim, 132.

of Miihlhausen, 320.

at Pavia, 59.

of Roncaglia (1154), 248.

(58). 254-255.

at Tribur, 122.

at Verona (983), 39.
Diets, 48.

at Besancon, 252, 253, 254, 268.

at Mainz, 268, 374.

of Worms (1179), 266.

of Wiirzburg, 146, 257, 267.

Diocletian, 270.

Dionysius the Areopagite, St. , 212.

Dominic de Guzman, St., 316, 333,

367- 399. 4io. 434, 436. 437, 438,

43?. 441. 444-
Dominicans, the, 436-439, 440, 441,

442.444, 445, 446-

in Germany and Italy. 373.

and St. Louis, 422, 423.

at Toulouse, 410, 413, 414.
Dordogne, 90, 406.
Dorylaeum, battle of, 183.



Dorystolum, battle of, 162.

Douai, 85.

Douro, the, 465, 467.

Drogo, son of Tancred of Hautevilte.

106, 107, 114.
Dreux, 285.

Ducas, house of, 172, 353.
Dudo of St. Quentin, 83.
Durance, the, 417.
Durazzo. See Dyrrhachium.
Diisseldorf, 121.
Dyrrhachium (Durazzo), 164, 175,

1 80, 352.
theme of, 155.

EADGIFU, daughter of Edward the

Elder, 68.

East Mark, the, 223. See also Austria.
Eberhard, Dukeof Franconia, 12, 18- 19.
Ebles, Count of Poitou, 89.
Ebro, the, 465.
Eckhard, Margrave of Meissen, 41,

43, 47.
Eccelin da Romano, 381, 382, 390,

482-483.
Edessa, 163, 184.

county of, 183.

fall of, 191.

Edith, daughter of Edward the Elder

of Wessex, 15, 35.
Edmundof England, son of Henry in.,

480, 481, 484.

Edward the Elder of Wessex, 15,68,89.
I. of England, 10, 416, 443, 461,

462.
Egbert, Count of Brunswick, 121.

Margrave of Meissen, 223.

Eger, Golden Bull of, 331.

Egypt, 158, 178, 195, 343, 359, 420,

427. 454. 456.
Eisenach, 378.
El Hakim, 178.
Elbe, the, 21, 40, 48, 264, 268.
Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of Henry

II. of England, 9, 192, 281,283, 28 4-

285-286, 288, 289, 290, 292, 395.

sister of John, 395.

of Provence, Queen of Henry

in. of England, 417.
Electors, the seven, 489.
Elias of Cortona, friar, 436, 445.
Elizabeth, St., of Tburingia, 382, 388.
El-Karail, Sultan of Egypt, 368, 454,

455-

Elster, battle of the, 134.
Emeric, King of Hungary, 326.



Index



50;



Emirs-ul-Omra, 158.

Engelbert, St , archbishop of Cologne,
370. 371, 372, 378.

England, 3, 10, 15, 53, 80, 87, 229, 265,
267, 288, 327, 374, 375, 396, 414.

and Frederick n., 374, 375.

and the Guelfs, 265, 268.

imperial overlordship over, 308.

and Innocent ill., 327.

Enquesteurs, the, 424.

Enzio, son of Frederick n. , 382, 385,
390, 391-

Ephesus, bishopric of, 173.

Epic, the, 7.

Epirus, 155, 348, 350, 351.

Despot of, 352, 353, 354,

Erfurt, 268.

Ernest, Duke of Swabia, 51, 52, 54.

Es-Saleh Ayoub, 456, 459.

Eschenbach, Wolfram of. See Wolf-
ram.

Esthonians, the, 379.

Etampes, 76, 277.

Euboea, 348.

Eudocia, widow of Constantinex., 171.

Eugenius in., Pope, 208, 213, 241-242,
249.

Euphrates, the, 163, 183.

Eustace of Boulogne, brother of God-
frey, 182.

son of King Stephen, 287.

of Flanders, 343.

Evora, Order of, 471.

Evreux, 395.

Exchequer Court, the (France), 424.

FACULTIES, University, 430.

Faenza, 384.

Farfa, 27.

Fatimites, the, 117, 178, 183, 195.

Federation of Lombard cities, 258,
259, 260.

Ferdinand I. , first king of Castile, 466.

III. , Saint, king of Castile, 473.

Ferrand, Count of Flanders, 330.

Ferrara, 483.

Ferte\ La, abbey of, 204.

Feudal system, 13.

Feudalisation of South Italy, 118.

Feudalism, i, 2, 5, 10, 13, 27,448,
French, 73, 74, 350 ; in Brittany,
85; in Syria, 186; in the nth
century, 96 ; under Frederick I. ,
272 ; growth of, 57 ; political weak-
ness of, 4.

Fiesco, Sinobaldo, 386.



Filioque Clause, the, 350.

Finland, Gulf of, 379.

Fiorentino, 391.

Flanders, 85, 278, 291, 330, 343, 416.

Counts of. See Baldwin, Charles,

Ferrand, Philip, Robert, Thierry.

Flarchheim, battle of (1080), 133.

Flemings, the, 91, 350 ; colonies of,
264 ; of Constantinople, 351.

Fleury, 82.

Flora, 391.

Florence, 483-484, 486 ; Hildebrand
at, 112; Conrad, son of Henry iv. ,
dies at, 140.

Fodrum, the, 264.

Foggia, 391 ; Frederick H.'s summer
palace at, 364.

Foix, 419 ; counts of, 401.

Foligno, 384.

Folmar, archdeacon, 270, 271.

Forchheim, Diet at, 132.

Fontevrault, order of, 201.

Fortore, the, 108.

Fossalta, 391.

Foulquois, Guy, 485. See also Cle-
ment IV.

Fowler, the. See Henry.

Franche-Comte\ 145.

Francia, 68.

Francis, St., of Assisi, 7, 316, 333,
382, 388, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439,
441, 442, 451; and Gregory ix.,
367 ; and Sultan of Egypt, 435.

Franciscans, the, 434, 435, 436, 438,
439. 44i, 442, 443. 447! in Ger-
many and Italy, 373; and St.
Louis, 422, 423.

Franconia, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19,
20 ; Duke of, 12, 56.

Frangipani, house of, 228.

Franks, the, 13, 19, 20, 26, 156, 174,
344-347 ; character of the, 350 ; the
West, 14, 19, 66; West, kingdom of,
72, 82 ; in the East, 13, 88 ; kings
of, 67 ; of Peloponnesus, 354, 355.

Frankfurt, 245, 311, 388, 489-490 ;
treaty of, 232.

Frascati, 306.

Fraticelli, the, 389, 442.

Frederick I., the Emperor (Barba-
rossa), 6, 243, 245-273, 292, 342,
37, 377. 428, 432.

II., 6, 10, 299-300, 305, 310,

3iS. 316-318, 328-332, 358-392, 394,
396, 408, 420, 429, 431, 451, 452,
455. 45<5. 482.



508



European History, 918-1273



Frederick n., will of, 478.

archbishop of Mainz, 19, 20, ax,

24. 2 S-
of Biiren (i), Duke of Swabia,

220, 322.

of Hohenstaufen (2), Duke of

Swabia, son of above, 222, 224,
225, 231.

of Rothenburg, Duke of Swabia,

248, 259, 271.

of Hohenstaufen (3), Duke of

Swabia, 232. See also Frederick I. ,
Barbarossa.

younger son of Frederick i. , Duke

of Swabia, 271, 300.



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