T. F. (Thomas Frederick) Tout.

The history of England from the accession of Henry III. to the death of Edward III (1216-1377) online

. (page 1 of 52)
Online LibraryT. F. (Thomas Frederick) ToutThe history of England from the accession of Henry III. to the death of Edward III (1216-1377) → online text (page 1 of 52)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


GIFT OF
MICHAEL REESE




THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND,

Seventy-five years have passed since Lingard completed
his History of England, ivhich ends with the Revolu-
tion of 1688. During that period historical study has
made a great advance. Year after year the mass of
materials for a new History of England has increased;
new lights have been thrown on events and characters^
and old errors have been corrected. Many notable
works have been written on various periods of our
history ; some of them at such length as to appeal
almost exclusively to professed historical students. It
is believed that the time has come when the advance
zvhich has been made in the knowledge of English
history as a whole should be laid befo7^e the public in
a single work of fairly adequate size. Such a book
should be founded on independent thought and research^
but should at the same time be written with a full
knowledge of the works of the best tnodern historians
and with a desire to take advantage of their teaching
wherever it appears sound.

The vast number of authorities, printed and in
manuscript^ on which a History of England should be
based, if it is to represent the existing state of knozv-
ledge, renders co-operaaon almost necessary and certainly
advisable. The History, of which this vohrme is an in-
stalment, is an otteTnpt to set forth in a readable form
the results at present attained by research. It will con-
sist of twelve volumes by twelve different writers, each



ii POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

of them chosen as being specially capable of dealing with
the period which he tindertakes, and the editors, while
leaving to each author as free a hand as possible, hope
to insure a general similarity in method of treatment, so
that the tivelve volumes 7nay in their contents, as well as
in their outward appearance, form one History.

As its title imports, this History will primarily
deal with politics, with the History of England and,
after the date of the union with Scotland., Great Britain,
as a state or body politic ; but as the life of a nation is
complex, and its condition at any given time cannot be
understood without taking into account the various forces
acting upon it, notices of religious matters and of in-
tellectual, social, and economic progress will also find
place in these volumes. The footnotes will, so far as
is possible, be confined to references to authorities^ a^td
references will not be appended to statements which
appear to be matters of common kjioivledge and do
not call for support. Each volume will have an Ap-
pendix giving some account of the chief authorities,
original and secondary^ which the author has used.
This account will be compiled with a view of helping
students rather than of making long lists of books with-
out any notes as to their contents or value. That the
History will have faults both of its own and such as
will always in some measure attend co-operative work,
must be expected, but no pains have been spared to Tnake
it, so far as may be, not wholly unworthy of the great-
ness of its subject.

Each volume, while forming pd.. ^ .y ^ co^nplete
History, will also in itself be a separate and complete
book, will be sold separately, and will have its own
index, and two or m.ore fuaps.



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. iii



Vol. I. to 1066. By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D., Fellow

of University College, London; Fellow of the British

Academy.
Vol. II. 1066 to 1 216. By George Burton Adams, M.A.,

Professor of History in Yale University, New Haven,

Connecticut.
Vol. III. 1 216 to 1377. By T. F. Tout, M.A., Professor of

Medieval and Modern History in the Victoria University

of Manchester ; formerly Fellow of Pembroke College,

Oxford.
Vol. IV. 1377 to 1485. By C. Oman, M.A., Fellow of All

Souls' College, and Deputy Professor of Modern History

in the University of Oxford.
Vol. V. 1485 to 1547. By H. A. L. Fisher, M.A, Fellow

and Tutor of New College, Oxford.
Vol. VI. 1547 to 1603. By A. F. Pollard, M.A., Professor of

Constitutional History in University College, London.
Vol. VII. 1603 to 1660. By F. C. Montague, M.A., Professor

of History in University College, London ; formerly Fellow

of Oriel College, Oxford.
Vol. VIII. 1660 to 1702. By Richard Lodge, M.A., Professor

of History in the University of Edinburgh ; formerly

Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.
Vol. IX. 1702 to 1760. By I. S. Leadam, M.A., formerly

Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.
Vol. X. 1760 to 1 801. By the Rev. William Hunt, M.A.,

D.Litt, Trinity College, Oxford.
Vol. XI. 1 801 to 1837. By the Hon. George C. Brodrick,

D.C.L., late Warden of Merton College, Oxford, and

J. K. Fotheringham, M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford,

Lecturer in Classics at King's College, London.
Vol. XII. 1837 to 1901. By Sidney J. Low, M.A., Balliol

College, Oxford, formerly Lecturer on History at King's

College, London.



Zhc political Ibietor? of finglanb

IN TWELVE VOLUMES

Edited by WILLIAM HUNT, D.Litt., and
REGINALD L. POOLE, M.A.



III.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND

FROM THE ACCESSION OF HENRY III. TO THE
DEATH OF EDWARD III.

1216-1377



THE

HISTORY OF ENGLAND



FROM THE ACCESSION OF HENRY HI,
TO THE DEATH OF EDWARD HI.



(1216-1377)



BY



T. F. TOUT, M.A.

PROFESSOR OF MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER




LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1905






(J



*tr?l^,



-S^



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
The Regency of William Marshal.



19 Oct., 1216.



28 Oct.

11 Nov.

12 Nov.
1216-17.

1217.

22 April.

20 May.

23 Aug.

II Sept.

6 Nov.

14 May, 1219.



Death of King John .

Position of parties

The Church on the king's side

Coronation of Henry HI. .

Great council at Bristol

The first charter of Henry HI.

Progress of the war .

Rising of Wilkin of the Weald

Louis' visit to France

Return of Louis from France

Sieges of Dover, Farnham, and

The fair of Lincoln

The sea-fight off Sandwich

Treaty of Lambeth

Reissue of the great charter

Restoration of order by William

Death of William Marshal .

His character and career .



Mount Sorrel



Marshal .



PAGE

I
I
2
3
4
5
6

7
8

9
9
10
II
12
13
14
15
15





1219.


July,


1221.


Jan. -Feb.,


1221.


July,


1222.


1221-24.


12]


[9-23.


April,


1223.


June,


1224.


20 June-14


Aug.



CHAPTER n.

The Rule of Hubert de Burgh.

Pandulf the real successor of William Marshal

Langton procures Pandulf's recall

Ascendency of Hubert de Burgh

The rebellion of Albemarle

The sedition of Constantine FitzAthulf

Marriage alliances

War in Wales ......

Henry HL declared by the pope competent to govern
Revolt of Falkes de Breaute

Siege of Bedford

Fall of Falkes

Papal and royal taxation ....



17
19
20
20
22
23
23
24
25
25
26
27



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.



April,


1227




1224




1225


Nov.,


1226


1229-30

21-30 July, 1230

1228


2 May,


1230




I23I

Aug.


2C


1232

) July




1231




1232



End of the minority ......

Relations with France during the minority
The Lusignans and the Poitevin barons
Louis VIII. 's conquest of Poitou
Expedition of Richard of Cornwall and William
Longsword to Gascony ....

Accession of Louis IX. in France

Henry III.'s campaign in Brittany and Poitou .

Siege of Mirambeau ......

The Kerry campaign ......

Death of William of Braose ....

Henry III.'s second Welsh campaign
Death of Archbishop Richard le Grand
Gregory IX. and Henry III. ....

Riots of Robert Twenge .....

Fall of Hubert de Burgh

Death of William Marshal the Younger

Death of Randolph of Blundeville, Earl of Chester



PAGE

29
29
30
31

32

34
34
36
37

38
39
39
39
40

41
41



CHAPTER III.



The Alien Invasion.



1232-34.

Aug., 1233.

25 Nov.

1234.

1 April.

2 April.
9 April.



14 Jan.,


1236.




1239




1237




1239




1235


16 Nov.


1240


May-Sept.


, 1242




1243



Rule of Peter des Roches

Revolt of Richard Marshal ....

Fight near Monmouth .....
Richard Marshal in Ireland ....
Defeat and death of the Earl Marshal near Kildare
Edmund Rich consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury

Fall of Peter des Roches

Beginning of Henry III.'s personal government
Character of Henry III.
The alien invasions ....
Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Provence
The Savoyards in England
Revival of Poitevin influence
Simon of Montfort Earl of Leicester .
The legation of Cardinal Otto .
Quarrel of Gregory IX. and Frederick II.
Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln
Death of Edmund Rich in exile .
Henry III. and Frederick II.
Attempted reconquest of Poitou
The campaign of Taillebourg
Truce with France ....
The Lusignans in England
The baronial opposition
Grosseteste's opposition to Henry III. and Innocent
IV



43
45
47

48

49
50
51
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58

59
60

61

62

63
64

65
66

66



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. xi



1243. Relations with Scotland and Wales .... 67

1240. Death of Llewelyn ap lorwerth 67

1246. Death of David ap Llewelyn 68



CHAPTER IV.
Political Retrogression and National Progress.



1248-58, Characteristics of the history of these ten years

Decay of Henry's power in Gascony .
1248-52. Simon de Montfort, seneschal of Gascony
Aug., 1253. Henry IH. in Gascony ....



1254. Marriage and establishment of Edward the king's son 73
Edward's position in Gascony ....
Edward's position in Cheshire ....

1254. Llewelyn ap Griffith sole Prince of North Wales
Edward in the four cantreds and in West Wales

1257. Welsh campaign of Henry and Edward .

Revival of the baronial opposition . ...

1255. Candidature of Edmund, the king's son, for Sicily
1257. Richard of Cornwall elected and crowned King of the

Romans .......

Leicester as leader of the opposition .

Progress in the age of Henry HL

The cosmopolitan and the national ideals .

French influence

The coming of the friars

1221. Gilbert of Freynet and the first Dominicans in
England .......

1224. Arrival of Agnellus of Pisa and the first Franciscans
in England .......

Other mendicant orders in England .

The influence of the firiars

The universities ......

Prominent English schoolmen ....

Paris and Oxford

The mendicants at Oxford

Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus ....

Academic influence in public life

Beginnings of colleges

Intellectual characteristics of thirteenth century

Literature in Latin and French ....

Literature in English

Art

Gothic architecture ......

The towns and trade



69
69
70
72



73

74
75
76
76
77
78

80

8i_

81

82

83

84

84

84

85
86
SS
89
go

91
92
92

93
93
94
95
9f>
96
97



Xll



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.





CHAPTER V.








The Barons' War.


PAGE


2 April, 1258.


Parliament at London ....


. . 98


II June.


The Mad Parliament .




. 99




The Provisions of Oxford .




. 100


22 June.


Flight of the Lusignans




. 102




Appointment of the Fifteen




. 103




Working of the new Constitution




. 104


4 Dec, 1259.


Treaty of Paris ....




. 104




Its unpopularity in England and France .


. 106


1259.


Dissensions among the baronial leaders .


. 107


1259-


Provisions of Westminster


. 108


1261.


Henry HI.'s repudiation of the Provisions


. 109


1263.


Reconstitution of parties


. no




The changed policy of the marchers




. Ill




Outbreak of civil vi2S




. 112




The appeal to Louis IX.




. 112


23 Jan., 1264.


Mise of Amiens .....




. 113




Renewal of the struggle




. 113


4 April.


Sack of Northampton




. 114




The campaign in Kent and Sussex




• 115


14 May.


Battle of Lewes




. 116




Personal triumph of Montfort




. 118




CHAPTER VI.




The Rule


OF Montfort and the Royalist Restoratk


3N.


15 May.


Mise of Lewes


. 119


15 Dec.


Provisions of Worcester ....


. 121


Jan.-Mar., 1265.


The Parliament of 1265


. 121




Split up of the baronial party . . . .


. 123




Quarrel of Leicester and Gloucester .


. 123


28 May.


Edward's escape


. 124


22 June.


Treaty of Pipton


. 125




Small results of the alliance of Llewelyn an


i the




barons


• 125




The campaign in the Severn valley .


. 126


4 Aug.


Battle of Evesham


. 127




The royalist restoration


. 128


1266.


The revolt of the Disinherited . . . .


. 129


15 May.


Battle of Chesterfield


. 130


31 Oct.


The Dictum de Kenilworth . . . .


. 131


Michaelmas.


The Ely rebellion


• 131


April, 1267.


Gloucester's support of the Disinherited . ,


. 132


July.


End of the rebellion


. 132


25 Sept.


Treaty of Shrewsbury


. 133


1267.


Statute of Marlborough


. 134


1270-72.


Edward's Crusade


. 134


16 Nov., 1272.


Death of Henry III


.


. 135



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



Xlll



CHAPTER VII.
The Early Foreign Policy and Legislation of Edward I.



Character of Edward I

1272-74. Rule of the regency .....

Edward's doings in Italy and France .

Edward's relations with Philip III. .
1273-74. Wars of B^arn and Limoges

Edward I. and Gregory X, ...

Council of Lyons .....

Relations of Edward I. and Rudolf of Hapsburg

Treaty of Amiens .....

League of Macon .....

Sicilian vespers ......

Deaths of Philip III., Charles of Anjou, Peter of
Aragon, and Martin IV. .

Bishop Burnell ......

Statute of Westminster, the first

Statute of Gloucester ....

Hundred Rolls and placita de quo warranto

Archbishops Kilwardby and Peckham

1279. Statute of Mortmain

1285. Circumspecte agatis .....
1285. Statute of Westminster, the second [De Donis)
1285. Statute of Winchester ....



May-July, 1274.

23 May, 1279.
1281.
1282.
1285.



1275.
1278.



PAGE
136

139

140
141
142
142
143

146
146

146
147
147
148
149

152

154



1277.
1277.



1282.
1282,

II Dec.
1283.

3 Oct.



Mid-Lent, 1284.



1287.



CHAPTER VIII.

The Conquest of North Wales,

Execution of the Treaty of Shrewsbury
Llewelyn's refusal of homage ....

Edward's first Welsh campaign

Treaty of Aberconway .....

Edward's attempts to introduce English law into the
ceded districts ......

The Welsh revolt ......

Edward's second Welsh campaign
Llewelyn's escape to the Upper Wye

Battle of Orewyn Bridge

Parliaments and financial expedients

Subjection of Gwynedd completed

Parliament of Shrewsbury and execution of David

The Edwardian castles

Statute of Wales

Effect of the conquest upon the march

Peckham and the ecclesiastical settlement of Wales

Revolt of Rhys ap Meredith ....



15s
156

157
159

160
161
162
163
164
164
165

165
165
166
167
167
168



XIV



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.



CHAPTER IX.

The Sicilian and the Scottish Arbitrations.



April, 1286-Aug.,
1289.

1287.
1288,
1291.



1289.
1290.



1291.
1290.

1272-86.

1286.
1286-89.

1289.

1290.'



May, 1291.

1291-92.
17 Nov., 1292.

1290.



Edward I. at the height of his fame

Edward's long visit to France .

The Sicilian arbitration

Treaty of Oloron

Treaty of Canfranc

Treaty of Tarascon .

Maladministration during Edward's absence

Judicial and official scandals

Special commission for the trial of offenders

Statute of Westminster, the third {Quia emptores

The feud between Gloucester and Hereford

The courts at Ystradvellte and Abergavenny

Humiliation of the marcher earls

Expulsion of the Jews ....

The rise of the Italian bankers .

Early relations of Edward to Scotland

Death of Alexander III. of Scotland .

Regency in the name of the Maid of Norway

Treaty of Salisbury .....

Treaty of Brigham

Death of the Maid of Norway .

The claimants to the Scottish throne

Parliament of Norham. Edward recognised as over

lord of Scotland ....
The great suit for Scotland
John Balliol declared King of Scots .
Edward's conduct in relation to Scotland
Death of Eleanor of Castile
Transition to the later years of the reign
Edward's later ministers



PAGE

169
170
170
171
171
171
172
172
172
173
174
174
174
175
176
177
177
177
178
178
179
179

iSi
181
183

183
184
184
185



CHAPTER X.

The French and Scottish Wars and the Confirmation of
THE Charters.



15 May, 1293.
1294.



June, 1294.

1294.

22 Jan., 1295.
July.



Commercial rivalry of English and French seamen . 186

Battle off Saint-Mahe 186

Edmund of Lancaster's failure to procure a settlement

with Philip IV 187

The French occupation of Gascony .... 187

War with France 188

Preparations for a French campaign .... 188

Revolts of Madog, Maelgwn, and Morgan . . 189

Edward's danger at Aberconway .... 189

Battle of Maes Madog 190

Welsh revolts suppressed . . . . . . 190



/



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



XV



1295.



5 July.
Nov.


1296.


27 April.
10 July.


Sept., 1294.
29 Feb., 1296.


24 Feb., 1297.


July.


24 Aug.

May.

II Sept.

12 Oct.



Failure of the Gascon campaign

Failure of attempted coalition against France

Organisation of the English navy

Treason of Sir Thomas Turberville .

The naval attack on England

Rupture between Edward and the Scots

Alliance between the French and Scots

The " Model Parliament " .

Gascon expedition and death of Edmund of Lancaster

Edward's invasion of Scotland .

Battle of Dunbar .....

Submission of John Balliol

Conquest and administration of Scotland .

The Ragman Roll .....

Consecration of Archbishop Winchelsea .

Boniface VIII. issues Clericis laicos .

Conflict of Edward and Winchelsea .

Parliament at Salisbury ....

Conflict of Edward with the earls

Break up of the clerical opposition

Increasing moderation of baronial opposition

Edward's departure for Flanders

Revolt of the Scots under William Wallace

Battle of Stirling Bridge ....

Confirmation of the charters with new clauses



PAGE

191
191
192
192
192

193
194

195
196
196
197
197
198
198
199
200
200
202
202
203
204
205
205
207
208







1297.


31


Jan.,


1298.
July.




22


July.


19


June,


1299.




9


Sept.




Mar.,


1300.




July-Aug.


20 Jan


.-14


Feb.,


1301.




1302.


20


May,


1303-



1303-



CHAPTER XI.

The Scottish Failure.

Edward's unsuccessful campaign in Flanders . . 210

Truce of Tournai, and end of the French war . . 211

Edward's invasion of Scotland 212

Battle of Falkirk 213

Slowness of Edward's progress towards the conquest

of Scotland 215

Treaty of Montreuil 216

Marriage of Edward and Margaret of France . . 217

Articidi super cartas ....... 217

Carlaverock campaign ...... 218

Parliament of Lincoln ...... 218

The barons' letter to the pope 219

Edward of Carnarvon, Prince of Wales . . . 220
Philip IV. 's troubles with the Flemings and Boniface

VIII 221

Peace of Paris between Edward and Philip . . 222

Increasing strength of Edward's position . . . 222

The decay of the earldoms ..... 223

Additions to the royal demesne ..... 224

Conquest of Scotland seriously undertaken . . 225



XVI



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.



24 July, 1304.
Aug., 1305-

1305-



10 Jan.



1307.

1305-
1306.



25 Mar.
7 July, 1307.



Capture of Stirling

Execution of Wallace and completion of the conquest

The settlement of the government of Scotland

Disgrace of Winchelsea and Bek

Edward I. and Clement V.

Statute of Carlisle

Ordinance of Trailbaston .

Murder of Comyn

Rising of Robert Bruce

Bruce crowned King of Scots

Preparations for a fresh conquest of Scotland

Death of Edward I



225
226
227
228
230
230
231
232
233
233
234
235





25


Jan.,

2f


1307.

1308.

, Feb.






18

July,


May.
1309.






1310.

16 Mar.
Sept.


Nov


,


1311.


1311.
Jan.,


13


12.








19


June,


1312.






Oct.,


1313.
May.
1312.



CHAPTER XII.
Gaveston, the Ordainers, and Bannockburn.

Character of Edward II

Peter Gaveston Earl of Cornwall

Marriage of Edward with Isabella of France

Coronation of Edward II. .

Power and unpopularity of Gaveston

Gaveston exiled .......

Return of Gaveston condoned by Parliament at Stam

ford

Renewal of the opposition of the barons to Gaveston

Appointment of the lords ordainers .

Abortive campaign against the Scots .

Character and policy of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster

The ordinances .......

Gaveston's second exile and return

The earls at war against Edward and Gaveston

Gaveston's surrender at Scarborough

Murder of Gaveston

Consequent break up of the baronial party

Edward and Lancaster reconciled

Death of Archbishop Winchelsea

Fall of the Templars ......

Walter Reynolds Archbishop of Canterbury
Complaints of papal abuses ....

Progress of Bruce's power in Scotland

The siege of Stirling ......

An army collected for its relief ....

Battle of Bannockburn .....

The results of the battle .....



1314-



24 June.



236
238
239
239
240
241

242

243
244

245
245
247

249
250
250

251
252

253
254
254
256
256

257
258

259
260
262



CHAPTER XIII.

Lancaster, Pembroke, and the Despensers.

Failure of the rule of Thomas of Lancaster
1315. Revolts of Llewelyn Bren ....



264
267



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME, xvii





13


14-18.
1319.

1317.
1320.




June,


1321.
July.


23-3]


[ Oct.,


1321.


Jan.


-Feb.,


1322.




II


Feb.




16 Mar.




22


Mar.




2


May.



1315. Rising of Adam Banaster .....

1316. The Bristol disturbances .....
1315. Edward Bruce's attack on the English in Ireland
13 7. Roger Mortimer in Ireland . ....
1318. Death of Edward Bruce at Dundalk .

Lancaster's failure and the break up of his party
Pembroke and the middle party
9 Aug. Treaty of Leek and the supremacy of the middle

party ....
Progress of Robert Bruce .
Renewed attack on Scotland
Battle of Myton
Rise of the Despensers
The partition of the Gloucester inheritance
War between the husbands of the Gloucester heiresses

in South Wales ......

Conferences at Pontefract and Sherburn .
The exile of the Despensers ....

Break up of the opposition after their victory
The siege of Leeds Castle .....

Edward's successful campaign in the march
Recall of the Despensers .....

The king's march against the northern barons .
Battle of Boroughbridge .....

Execution of Lancaster .....

Parliament at York and repeal of the ordinances
The triumph of the Despensers ....



PAGE

267
268
268
271
272
272
273

274
275
275
276
277
279

280
281
281
282
282
284
284
284
285
286
287
288



CHAPTER XIV.

The Fall of Edward II. and the Rule of Isabella and Mortimer.

Aug. Renewed attack on the Scots 289

Oct. Edward II. 's narrow escape at Byland . . . 289

Mar., 1323. Treason and execution of Andrew Harclay . . 290

Incapacity of the Despensers as administrators . 290

Their quarrels with the old nobles .... 290

1324. Their breach with Queen Isabella .... 291

Their chief helpers : Walter Stapledon and Ralph

Baldock 292

Reaction against the Despensers .... 293

1303-14. Relations of iingland and France .... 294

1314-22. Edward's dealings with Louis X. and Philip V. . 294

1322. Accession of Charles IV. ...... 295

1324. Affair of Saint-Sardos 295

Renewal of war. Sequestration of Gascony. Charles

of Valois' conquest of the Agenais and La Rdole 296

Isabella's mission to Paris ...... 297

Edward of Aquitaine's homage to Charles IV. . . 297

1325. Treachery of Charles IV. and second sequestration of

Gascony 297

VOL. in. h



XVIU



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.



1326. Relations of Mortimer and Isabella
The Hainault marriage ....

23 Sept. Landing of Isabella and Mortimer

Riots in London : murder of Stapledon
26 Oct. Execution of the elder Despenser
16 Nov. Capture of Edward and the younger Despenser
Triumph of the revolution ....
7 Jan., 1327. Parliament's recognition of Edward of Aquitaine as

king

20 Jan. Edward II. 's resignation of the crown
24 Jan. Proclamation of Edward III.
22 Sept., 1328. Murder of Edward II. ....

1327-30. Rule of Isabella and Mortimer .

1327. Abortive Scottish campaign
April, 1328. Treaty of Northampton ; " the shameful peace

Character and ambition of Mortimer .
Oct. Mortimer Earl of the March of Wales
Henry of Lancaster's opposition to him
Mar., 1330. Execution of the Earl of Kent
Oct. Parliament at Nottingham
19 Oct. Arrest of Mortimer
29 Nov. His execution
1330-58. Later life of Isabella .



Online LibraryT. F. (Thomas Frederick) ToutThe history of England from the accession of Henry III. to the death of Edward III (1216-1377) → online text (page 1 of 52)