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The prophecies of Isaiah; online

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in the inscription of king Mesha
(the so-called Moabite Stone).
These very early documents, com-
bmed with the many ruined cities
and temples, the thousands of
cisterns, and the roads paved
with squared blocks, prove that
the fertile plains of Moab were
once occupied by a people not a
whit inferior in civilisation to the
Israelites.
* He is grone up] The subject

H



98



ISAIAH.



fCHAP. XV.



the high places to weep : on Nebo and on Medeba Moab
howleth ; on all their heads is baldness ; every beard is cut
off. ' In his (Moab's) streets they are girded with sackcloth ;
on his roofs and in his "broad places* he entirely howleth,
running down in weeping. * And Heshbon crieth out, and
Elealeh ; even to Jahaz their voice is heard ; therefore the
men at arms of Moab shriek, his soul quivereth within him.
'''The heart of Moab crieth out * * even unto Zoar, a third

" Bazaars, Weir. — Market-places, Kay.

^ So partly Sept., Targ. (see crit. note). For Moab (whose fugitives have come
even to Zoar) the fat heifer, Ges. (1829). . . . her fugitives have come unto Zoar, even



of the verb must be borrowed from
the second clause. Tlie temple]

Lit. the house. No doubt the
prophet means the Beth-bamoth
(' House of High Places ') of the
inscription on the Moabite Stone
(/. 27), vchich Schlottmann rightly
identified with the Bamoth-Baal
mentioned in Josh. xiii. 17, side by
side with Dibon. Instead of simply
saying ' Dibon is gone up to Beth-
bamoth to weep,' the prophet breaks
the clause into two, for there can be
little doubt that ' the high places '
in the second member of the verse
means the same spot as 'the temple'
in the first. Conder identifies these
' bamoth ' with a group of dolmens
at Mushibiyeh {Pal. Fund State-
ment, April, 1882); but would not
the Moabites prefer altars of their

own building? Sibon] i.e., its

population, is naturally said to ' go
up,' lying as it does in a plain ('the
plain of Medeba unto Dibon,' Josh,
xiii. 9). It lies in a direct line
north of Aroer and the Arnon.
Here (its modem name is Diban)
the famous Moabite Stone was
found — and broken up, though it
has been skilfully pieced together,
as far as possible, and now rests
in the Louvre. See the English
monograph on the inscription by
Dr. Ginsburg, and the German
ones by Schlottmann and Noldeke.
— Dibon was one of the towns
claimed by the Reubenites (Num.
xxxii. 34), but the Inscription of
Mesha states (line 10) that ' the
men of Gad dwelt in the land . . .
from of old.' — On irebo and on



Medeba] Nebo is of course not
the mountain-range so called, but
a town near, deriving its name from
the same old Semitic divinity.
Medeba, at any rate, is on an

eminence. On all tbelr heads

is baldness] Comp. xxii. 12 :
'And in that day did the Lord
Jehovah Sabioth call to weeping,
and to mourning, and to baldness,
and to girding with sackcloth,'
Job i. 20, Mic. i. 16. Had this
cutting of the hair originally a
sacrificial import (comp. Deut.
xiv. I, and Tylor, Primitive
Culture, iii. 364) ? It may be so,
but here it is merely symbolical.
It was also the primitive Arabic
custom ; see Krehl, Religion der
vorislamit. Araber, p. 33, note i,
and compare Herod, ii. 36. —Je-
remiah further elaborates the de-
scription (xlviii. 37).

" Running down . . . . ] Lit.
coming down. So Jeremiah, ' that
our eyes may run down in tears'
(ix. 18, comp. xiii. 17, xiv. 17). By
a bold extension of the figure, the
whole person is represented as im-
mersed in tears.

* Hesbbon . . . Elealeb] Neigh-
bouring hill towns. Jabaz] Far

to the south, about midway between

Heshbon and Kir-hareseth.

His soul . . . ] The Moabitish
people is personified. There is a
play upon sounds in the two verbs
rendered ' shriek ' and ' quivereth '
(' wail ' and ' quails,' Rodwell).

° The prophet now turns more

to the south of Moab. Zoar]

Mr. Grove places Zoar at the north



CHAP. XV]



ISAIAH.



99



year heifer'' ; for the ascent to Luhith — with weeping doth he
ascend it, for in the °way to Horonaim a cry of destruction
they ^ shout. ® For the waters of Nimrim become desolate ;
for withered is the grass, gone is the herbage, verdure there
is none. ' Therefore the abundance which they have ac-
quired, and their store — over the torrent of the poplars must
they carry it. ^ For the cry hath gone round the border of

those of the fat heifer, Luzzatto. . . . whose bars (so Weir) reached even to Zoar — the
fat heifer (so Naeg.), Vulg., Del. (Vowel-points, too, suggest rendering, for
'fugitives,' 'bars' (i.e. defences); whilst Ew., Graf on Jer., and Dietrich in JMerx's
Archiv i. 342-6, for ' the fat heifer,' render, ' to the third Eglath.')

" Descent, Graf (with Jer. xlviii. 5). ^ So Lagarde. — Text, raise (?).



end of the Dead Sea, in the parallel
of Jericho (Smith's Diet of the
Bible) \ but I still follow Wetzstein
(excursus in Delitzsch's Genesis, 4th
ed.), virho fixes it at the S.E. of the
Sea in the Got eg-Safia. The emi-
grants hope to get round by this

way into the territory of Judah.

A third year heifer] It is doubt-
full whether the crying of Moab is
compared to that of a thwarted
heifer, or whether the ' heifer ' is a
metaphorical description of the for-
tress of Zoar (comp. accents). I
prefer the former view, which is
substantially that of Vitr. and of the
A.V. of Jer. xlviii. 34. It is a third
year heifer, just about to be broken
in for the yoke (Plin. Hist. Nat.
viii. 4, 5), of which the prophet is
thinking. Those who adhere to the
common text can still explain the
figure of Moab. Ewald's rendering
assumes that there were three Eg-
laths in Moab, which receives a pre-
carious support from Ezekiel's refer-
ence to 'EnEglaim (Ezek. xlvii. 10),
Abulfeda's to an ' Ejlun (see Ges.),
and Josephus' to an Agalla {A?it.
xiv. I, 4). Comp. also Notes and

Criticisms, p. 20. Horonaim]

Probably on the borders of Edom :
perhaps, too, the city of Sanballat
' the Horonite.'

* To the capture of the cities of
Moab and the flight of the inhabit-
ants a fresh reason for lamentation
is added, viz., that the fertiliz-
ing waters of Nimrim have been
stopped up at their sources by the
enemy (comp. 2 Kings iii. 19, 25).



These waters gave their name to
the town Beth-Nimri (Num. xxxii.
36). The name Nimara occurs
among the towns conquered by
Thothmes III. Canon Tristram
speaks of the 'plenteoiis brooks
gushing from the lofty hills into
the Ghor-en-Numeira' (comp. Nim-
rim) ; another site is proposed by
Consul Wetzstein in the Wady
So'eb, I3i miles east of Jordan (ap.
Delitzsch, Genesis, ed. 4, pp. 572,
3). The name contains a reference
to the panther, and appears, like
many other animal-names of per-
sons and places, to be rightly viewed
as a vestige of totemism (see Last
Words, vol. ii.).

' The land of Moab being now
uninhabitable, the Moabites cross
the border into Edom, can-ying
what they can save of their pro-
perty with them. The torrent

of the poplars] Not 'the torrent
of the Arabs' (as Pesh., Saad., not
Sept.), nor 'the torrent of the
wastes' (as Hitz., Ew., Knob., cf.
Am. vi. 14). Probably the Wady
el-Ahsa, which formed the extreme
northern boundary between Moab
and Edom, and which is further
identified with the torrent Zered,
Num. xxi. 12, Deut. ii. 13. The
poplar intended is the Populus
Euphratica, the only Syrian habitat
of which is the Ghor. See Wetz-
stein, ap. Del. op. cit. p. 567.

* No part of the land escapes.
The cry] i.e., the cry of de-
struction {v. 5).

n 2



lOO



ISAIAH.



[chap. XVI.



Moab ; even to Eglaim its howling (hath reached), and to
Beer Elim its howling. ^ For the waters of Dimon are full of
blood ; for I destine for Dimon fresh (evils), for the escaped
ones of Moab a lion, and for the remnant of the land.



* The waters of Dimon] i.e.,
the Arnon, just as the Kishon is
described (Judg. v. 19) as the waters
of Megiddo (Del.). It might with
equal accuracy have been called
' the waters of Ar-Moab,' but the
prophet wishes to enforce his words
by a striking assonance. Dimon
suggests the thought oidam, 'blood,'
as if it meant town of carnage.
Comp. Sanguinetto = blood-stream,
the name of a small brook which
falls into Lake Thrasimene, the
scene of Hannibal's great battle ;
comp. also the similar allusions in
Mic.i. 10-15. The name Dimon pro-



bably occurs again in Jer. xlviii. 2
(see on xxv. 10). It is only another
form of Dibon. St. Jerome tells us
that in his day both names were

current for the same place.

Fresb (evils) ... a Hon (or, lions)]
An enigmatical description of a
conquering foe, either Judah (Hitz.,
Del., cf. Gen. xlix. 9), or (more
probably — see xiv. 29, xxi. 16, 17,
and comp. xvi. 4, 14) the Assyrians,
who, as the Inscriptions prove,
began to influence the fortunes of
Palestine as early as the time of
Ahab. For the figure, comp. v.
29, Jer. iv. 7,



CHAPTER XVI.

' ' Send ye " the lambs of the ruler ^ of the land from Sela
towards the wilderness, unto the mountain of the daughter of

» Tribute, ye rulers, Gratz (conj.).



Chap. xvi. Verses 1-6 are dra-
matic in style, and necessarily rather
obscure, an indication of the names
of the several speakers not being
customary in Hebrew. It is very
possible, too, that the text is either
imperfect or misarranged.

^ Send ye the Iambs] According
to 2 Kings iii. 4, Mesha, king of
Moab, ' rendered unto the king of
Israel 100,000 lambs, and 100,000
rams, with the wool,' though on the
death of Ahab he definitively re-
nounced his allegiance. The pro-
phet, as a devoted adherent of the
Davidic family, exhorts the Moab-
ites to renew their long-suspended
tribute to their original suzerain,
the king of Jerusalem (see 2 Sam.
viii. 2) ; or, it may be, the chiefs of
the Moabites exhort each other to
take this step, as the power of the
kingdom of Samaria is no longer
adequate to the protection of Moab.



It is a little uncertain whether this
section presupposes the same situ-
ation as the preceding verses —
whether, that is, the Moabitish
fugitives are now in Edom (this
would account for the mention of
Sela in v. l), or whether the pro-
phet has shifted his point of view,
and regards the Moabites as still
on their own side of the border.
In the latter case, the speaker or
speakers of v. I recommend for
the tribute-bearers the southern
route, which passed by Sela and
traversed the desert, because the
north end of the Dead Sea is
blocked up by the enemy. This
view seems to be favoured by the
next verse (see note). Dr. Weir
suggests that sela (lit., rock, or col-
lectively rocks) may mean the
whole rocky region in the midst
of which the city of Sela was situ-
ated ; comp. Jer. xlviii. 28, ' Quit



CHAP. XVI.]



ISAIAH.



lOI



Zion.' ^ And it shall come to pass ; like wandering birds, (like)
a scattered nest, shall be the daughters of Moab at the fords
of Arnon. ' ' Apply counsel, do the work of an umpire, make
as the night thy shadow in the midst of the noon ; shelter the
outcasts, him that wandereth betray not. * Let ^ the outcasts
of Moab*" sojourn with thee, be thou a shelter unto them
from the face of the destroyer.' For at an end is the extor-
tioner, finished is the destruction, consumed are the tramplers
out of the land. ^ And a throne is established through kind-
ness, and there sitteth upon it with faithfulness in the tent
of David one that judgeth and seeketh justice and is prompt
in righteousness. — ^ We have heard of the pride of Moab :

* So Sept., Pesh., Targ., Lowth, Ges., Hitz., Ew., Weir. — My outcasts, O Moab !
Vowel-points, Del., Naeg.



the cities, and dwell in the rocks '
(se/a). Consul Wetzstein also takes
sela collectively ; not however of
the rocky region of Petra, but of
the more northern defiles which
issue in the Dead Sea, especially
those of the Arnon, with their per-
pendicular walls of rock, splendidly
adapted for hiding-places. See
excursus in 3rd ed. of Delitzsch's
yesaia.

" We are not informed whether
the counsel in v. i was accepted.
But, at any rate, tbe daughters of
Moab, i.e., the inhabitants of the
various townships (see Ps. xlviii.ii,
' daughters of Judah,') collect with
nervous anxiety at the fords of the
Arnon — they prepare, that is, to flee
in the opposite direction to that in-
dicated in XV. 7. For the simile,

comp. Ps. xi. I, Prov. xxvii. 8.

Mest] i.e., nestlings, as Deut.
xxxii. II.

'. *" An appeal to the humanity
of some neighbouring people, ap-
parently the Jews (see v. i).

Apply counsel] So Kay. Or,
'carry into execution that which
has been proposed,' comp. v. 19,

xlvi. II Hebr. (Dr. Weir). Do

tbe work of an umpire] i.e., in-
terpose in favour of the Moabites,

and put down their oppressors.

In ttae midst of tlie noon] The
glaring Oriental noon, in which it



would be impossible to elude the
ravenous foe.

* '' Here the prophet introduces
his own reflection (comp. ii. ■^b).
The mention of Moab's ' destroyer'
calls up before his mind's eye a
picture of the blissful change in
store for the theocratic state, when
a great king, of unique gifts and
character, shall have put an end to
the ravages, as disastrous to Judah
as to Moab, of the Assyrian ' lion '
(xv. 9). The description is tho-
roughly in the style of Isaiah; see
xxix. 20.

^ A tbrone] We hardly need to
ask. Whose throne ? ' Kindness and
faithfulness,' 'justice and righteous-
ness ' are, it is true, the pillars of
every divinely prospered king (Prov.
XX. 28, xxix. 14), but here we are
manifestly in the Messianic region
of thought. It is only after judg-
ment has been executed on Assyria,
that the ideal king can be confi-
dently expected . (ix. 4-7, xi. 1-5,
&c.). ' Kindness ' is mentioned as
the opposite of ' extortion,' 'destruc-
tion,' and 'trampling' ; 'faithful-
ness' means a sincerity which in-
spires confidence. Seeketb jus-
tice] An Isaianic phrase, i. 17.

° "We bave beard of Moab's
pride . . . ] With the largeness of
heart which comes of the ' Spirit of
prophecy,' the writer has expressed



102



ISAIAH.



[CHAP. XVI.



proud exceedingly ! his pride, and his haughtiness, and his
overweeningness, the untruth of his pratings. '' Therefore
shall Moab howl for Moab, he shall howl entirely ; for the
" raisin-cakes of Kir-Hareseth shall ye sigh, utterly downcast.
' For the fields of Heshbon languish ; the vine of Sibmah —
■^its choice plants smote the lords of nations,'* unto Yazer



« Foundations (i.e., ruins), Pesh., Rashi, Kimchi (not Aben Ezra), Ges.
>■ The lords of nations have smitten down its choice plants, Ges., Ew.,
W^eir.



Naeg.,



his firm belief in the uhimate
submission and salvation of Moab.
But alas ! the reputation of Moab
for haughtiness and vain preten-
tiousness forbids him to hope that
its conversion will be immediate.
These national characteristics are
well illustrated from the inscrip-
tion on the Moabite Stone. They
evidently had a religious basis,
Kemosh, the national god, being re-
presented by Mesha as the inspirer
of each of his plans and aggressive
movements. ' Kemosh said unto
me. Go, destroy Israel!'

' ncoab sball bowl for TCoab]
A specimen of a not unfrequent
tautology arising from the anti-
thetical tendency of Hebrew style.
Comp. viii. i8, xxiii. 2, Zech. xii. 6,
Gen. xix. 24 (where inattention to
this peculiarity has led even Ewald
into serious error, History of Israel,

ii. IS7)- Tbe laisln-cakes]

Cakes of pressed grapes seem to
have been the chief commodity of
Kir-Hareseth. The destruction of
the vintage cut off this valuable
source of profit. There may also
be an allusion to the sacrifical feasts
at the vintage, asin Hos. iii. I. Alt.
rend, may be fairly justified from
Assyrian and Arabic, but is con-
trary to the use of the same word
elsewhere (Hos. iii. i same plural
form, comp. 2 Sam. vi. 19, Cant,
ii. 5). Note the weakened reading
of Jer. xlviii. 31, followed by Targ.
and Sept. of Isa.— — Klr-Haresetb]
or Kir-Heres (w. 11); usually ex-
plained as 'brick-fortress,' and iden-
tified with Kir-Moab. Prof. E. H.
Palmer, however, suggests another
meaning. ' Asking one of the Arabs
where the Moabite Stone was found,



the latter replied that it was "be-
tween the hdrithein^^ i.e., between
the two hdriths. ... On Mr. Pal-
mer's demanding a further expla-
nation, the Arab pointed out the two
hillocks upon which the ruined vil-
lage of Diiibdn stands. . . . Nearly
all the towns in Moab are built
upon similar eminences, and Mr.
Palmer found that they are invari-
ably called Hdriths by the Arabs'

{AthencBum, August 19, 1871).

Sibmab] ace. to St. Jerome was
nearly 500 paces from Heshbon,
which would approximate to the
distance of Silmia, which, with its
tombs and ruined vineyard-towers,
Conder identifies with Sibmah,
{Statement of Pal. Explor. Fund,
1882, p. 9). The place is referred
to on the Moabite Stone, /. 13, as
Seran (for Seban). It was claimed
by the Reubenites, Num. xxxii. 38.

Its cboice plants smote. . . ]

Such was the strength of the gene-
rous wine of Sibmah. Comp. xxviii.
I, Jer. xxiii. 9, and perhaps Ps.
Ixxviii. 65, and similar expressions
in Greek and Latin. The following
lines describe the extensive culture
of this kind of vine. Its northern
limit was Yazer, its eastern the
sands of the desert, its southern or
western the farther shore of 'the
sea,' i.e., the Dead Sea. For the
words passed over tbe sea must
surely be taken literally. It was in
a fertile nook on the western bank
of the Dead Sea that En-gedi, so
famous for its vines (Cant. i. 14),
was situated. By a stroke of imagi-
nation the prophet traces the excel-
lence of these to a Moabitish origin.
Jer. xlviii. 32 reads : 'They reached
unto the sea of Yazer,' but though



CHAP. XVI.]



ISAIAH.



103



they reached — they strayed into the wilderness, its tendrils
spread out — they passed over the sea. ' Therefore I vifill weep
with the weeping of Yazer for the vine of Sibmah : I will
water thee with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh, for upon
thy fruit-harvest and upon thy vintage the cry hath fallen.
'"And taken away is joy and gladness from the garden-land,
and in the vineyards there is no singing, no shouting ; the
treader treadeth not wine in the presses ; the cry have I brought
to stillness. " Therefore my heart shall sound like the lute
for Moab, and my bosom for Kir-Heres. '^ And it shall come



the Heb-j/Sm may mean 'reservoir,'
(comp. I Kings vii. 23), it is more
likely that ' the sea (of)' has got in
by accident ; it is omitted in Sept.
of Jeremiah.

° The prophet, as a man, cannot
but sympathise with the mourning
of the Moabites ; there is no rhe-
torical artifice in it (as Calv.).

Tbe cry batb fallen] Here is a
striking contrast, implied in a single
word. 'The cry' \hedad) is pri-
marily the cheerful, musical note
with which the vintagers pressed
out the juice of the grapes {v. 10,
Jer. XXV. 30, &c.). But here it is
the wild shout with which the foe
lays waste the fields and vineyards
so full of promise, or as it is called
in Jer. xlviii. 33, ' a cheer which is no
cheer.'

^^ Singing:] The word is inaccu-
rate : it means rather a long-toned
cry (see lii. 8), the hedad. Comp.
Jer. XXV. 30^ (a very striking pas-
sage). Have I brought to

stillness] ' They are God's words.
Amidst all his true and deep human
sympathy, the prophet is still de-
livering a message from God' (Dr.
Kay). ^ ^

^' My heart] More lit., j; koiKm
fiov, Sept. But KoiKia = Kap-
Sia, as the same word is rendered
by Sept. Cod. Vat., Ps. xxxix. (Heb.

xl.)8. like the lute] 'vibrating

with thrills of grief ' (Dr. Kay.) The
kinnor, like the Kivvpr), was used at
mourning ceremonies. Jer. xlvii.
36 substitutes khalalim, ' flutes.'

1" We can hardly suppose that
this verse contains a mere repeti-



tion of the inabihty of Moab to
save himself by supplication to his
gods. Indeed, this would be incon-
sistent with V. 3, in which the Moab-
ites are represented as throwing
themselves entirely on the merciful
consideration of Judah. The turn
of the phrase itself indicates that a
few words have fallen out of the text.
To render it in the ordinary way
(' . . . he shall not prevail') pro-
duces a mere tautology, for it has
already been said that Moab's reli-
gious efforts are but a ' wearying of
himself.' The parallelism, too, re-
quires that as the words ' when he
appeareth ' are matched by ' and
Cometh to his high place to pray,'
so the words 'when he wearieth
himself should be matched by 'and
prevaileth not.' Further, the ten-
der compassion of the prophetic
writer for Moab leads us to expect
that some happier prospect will be
opened than a useless religious
ceremony. Lastly, the idea of con-
version as resulting from a terrible
judgment lies at the very foundation
of Old Testament prophecy. See
also xix. 24, 25, Ixvi. 19-21, Zeph.
iii. 8, 9, Jer. xii. 15-17, and espe-
cially xlviii. 12, 13, comp. 47. From
the latter passage, Ewaid has with
great sagacity restored what in all
probability embodies the sense of
the lost apodosis : — ' Then shall
Moab be ashamed of Kemosh his
confidence, and turn unto Jehovah.'
Dr. Weir objects that such an in-
sertion is out of harmony with
what immediately follows. But i.
the epilogue is, according to Evvald,



104



ISAIAH,



[chap. XVI.



to pass : when Moab appeareth, when he wearieth himself on
the high place, and cometh to his sanctuary to pray, * and
prevaileth not, [then shall Moab be ashamed of Kemosh and
turn unto Jehovah.'] — '^ This is the word which Jehovah spoke
concerning Moab heretofore. "And now Jehovah hath
spoken, saying, In three years, as the years of a hireling, shall
the glory of Moab be disgraced, with all the great multi-
tude, but the remnant ' in a very little while will I bring unto
honour.^

" So Ew. — That he shall not prevail, Hebr. text.

' So Hoffmann ; Text, (shall be) very small (?), not great. (See crit. note).



not by the same hand as the pro-
phecy, and 2. the epilogue, even
without Hoffmann's correction, does
not contradict the statement of the
inserted passage, that in his ex-
tremity Moab (or the remnant of

Moab) shall turn to Jehovah.

The high place] Bam5th, or 'high
places,' is the general term for local
sanctuaries among the Canaani-
tish peoples. The Israelites long
persisted in worshipping at them
(Kings, passim). The Phoenicians
had them also (see the famous
eight-lined Inscription of 'Umm-el-
Aw4mtd) ; and the Moabites, e.g.,
the stele of King Mesha is called a
baimah {I. 3, 4).' The term is ap-
plied not only to the height, whe-
ther natural or artificial, on which
an altar or sacred pillar was gene-
rally speaking erected ; but also to
the altar or sacred pillar without
reference to its position. The stele
of Mesha, for instance, was found
in a depression between the two
hillocks (Jidrithein, see on v. 7) on
which the ruins of Dibin stand,
and the Israelites had Bamoth in
the Valley of Hinnom, Jer. vii. 31.

And prevalletb not] or, ' and

is not able ' (Ew., Geiger), i.e., is
too full of despair to pray ; but this
seems too subtle. itemosh] The



national god of the Moabites, but
also the object of worship to other
nations, for the name occurs in a
Phoenician inscription found in
Sicily (Gesenius, i^<?«. /'/^ffiTz., 159),
also on a stone found by M. Renan
in Phoenicia (Mission de Phdnicie,
p. 352), and in a Babylonian name
B.C. 524 (Oppert, Revue arMo-
logique, sept. 1866, p. 166).

^^ Tbis is tlie word] So Isaiah,

xxxvii. 22. Heretofore] The

phrase is quite vague, and would
apply equally well to a much earlier
prophecy, or to one of recent date.
In Ps. xciii. 2 it is parallel with 'from
everlasting,' but in Isa. xlviii. 7 it
clearly means simply ' at an earlier
period ' ; comp. xliv. 8, 2 Sam. xv. 34.

'^ And now Jebovab batb
spoken . . . ] Not 'But now,'
as A.V. Isaiah recognises the old
prophecy as a true revelation, and
here supplements it by fuller details.

In tbree years, as tbe years

of a blreUngr] i.e., speedily ; there
will be no grace time (see on vii.
16). The same phrase in xxi. 16.
Sball tbe fflory . . . ] Tho-
roughly Isaianic, see xvii. 3, 4,
xxi. 16 ; also x. 25, xxix. 17. The
remnant of Moab, like that of
Israel, is the germ of a regenerated
people. See on v. 12.



1 . . . And I made this iamah to Kemosh in Qorkhah.
Because he delivered me out of alL , . ,



CHAP. XVII.] ISAIAH. 105



CHAPTER XVII.

The impending ruin of Syria and Ephraim. At first this calamity is de-



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