T. (Tobias) Smollett.

The Critical review, or, Annals of literature online

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every principle, may appear, in fome circumftance, diierent to
different perfons. Why, then, if we puniih a man lor not dif«
cerning truths as we difcern them, do we not popiiii faim ftv not
feeing as we fee ? - -There it no diftindion between tbefe cafea»
which is founded in truth and common fenfe : but fhere is, ia
the artifices of policy, and the wiles of pritftcraft. If men be
taken early enough, they may be induced to give op the fiiod-'
ties of their minds ; but they muft ufe their bodily fenies* Tlie
cxercife of reafoa is not only uaneceflary^ bat incoovesient and
dangerous, under all kinds of defpotic governments. It has
been accordingly reprobated by all tyrant«, civil and ecclefiafii.
cat ; heaven and hell have been raafacked for allorementt aad
terrors ; the ntmoft abilities of the human mind have beem em*
ployed to invent tortures, to prevent the ufe of reafoa. No won-
der ; it is the only fare and fatal enemy to t^tiy fpectea oiF ty»
ranny. Men have ever, and ever will be free, in exad propor-
tion as they ufe their underftandings. We, therefore, fiad, that
civil and.eoclefiaflical politicians have ever difcoaraged eaqniiy^
and the love of truth, as feditiouf, and daogeroas to the ftate or
to the church. — Here we have the reaibns of religioos crndty
and perfecution ; which have hang their infernal clouds for ages
over the world : under which nothing geoeroos and manly could
ever fpring up ; and which have rendered almoft the whole face
of this globe a general waHe, traverfed by livers of haoaan blood.
Here and there the benign lights of philosophy and tratfa have
lately illumioed aod gladened the world. BlelTed • be thofe glo-
rious fpirits who have occaiiooed it 1 who have facri£ced their
jntereds and their lives to produce it 1 BleiTed be thofe who ftill
Ilruggle for the freedom of human reafon, and all the great
rights of human nature 1 — Defpotifm, attended by cruelty and
jnifery, has too long rs^vagtd the earth ; he has hithfer to held his^

rule



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Williams*! L$Siwr$u .«99

riite tiy 'horrom \ b« now puts on die naaik of pletfure ; atid^ at*
landed by th« Love* and Graces, diffipates our rational poweri^
and kads us iiito (lavery. The confequence is bondage, if we are
laade to gWe up the ufe of our underiUndiiigs, whether ic be by
cnielty, or whether it ho by difiipatioiu'

We entirely •gree with thra writer in whit he fays, relative
tO' ttie nk of our utidevftatuliflgs in mfttters of religion ; bt|t
1?e Cannot allow, that there is no demerit in unbelief, which.
In many cafes, is but another name for wilful bJindnefs, per-
terfenefs, and a criminal inattention to the^ voice of reafon and
rdigiou.

Having explained that rational fear of God, which is excited
by prayer and amiable views of the divine nature,' the aiythor
gives us this juft and ftriking reprefentation of fuperftition.

« The ((ifiereBce between this pleafing and geouifie principle,
mod that &ar which produces fuperftition ; is the difference be*
tweei^ ihe.motives which adiuate a man, and thofc which adtoati
a (lave. The one a^r from himfelf, does his dety beeaufe he
loves it— the other is diftraded with apprfhenfians; a£ls be*
caiife he is enjoined s Jopks up to Supreaie Power >with terror f
%Bd ioterpeiea as aaaay iM^fceffors as poffible, as bat rieis between
kim and the obje& he dreads* . It js the bufioefs of faperftttioil*
|o keep God as necb as pottble out of view. We find, accord*
uig^^in thofe religioBs where it prevails^ that tatry artifice is
made ufe of, to pr even the timid and broken fpirit of the de*
yoceei from being Aiecbed with the mckft tranfient thoughts of
Cv^k Artfol kgifl^ora and priefts« have inttmidat^dthe people
te fuchr« di^gree» that, they have been glad to ieterpofe, between
them and the I^eity, not only angels, men» and animals; bua
even bits ef Did Aoes« and the parieg s of a wretch's nails. There
is no view of human nature, more humiliating t^han this ; there
h no tlatbof abjednefs and mifery, out 6f which it is more diffi«
cMslt to ettrieate the unhappy creatures, who are involved in it.
Vice is not fo hopelefs as fuperftitron. It engenders all the moft
iMthfbiiie vilhiinies ' and mifertes ; and fan£lifies and infures
their exigence, by holy appellations. It is fank below the reach
of knowledge I and etedicates every principle, both of virtue
and happinefs, in the human mind. — We are happy, that we fee»
only ac a diftanee, the talons of this infernal fk^tid^ We cannot
foufe our fpirit in a nobler caufe, than in that^of entire liberty
from its tyranny and government. SuperQition bUfts ^ytry thing
around us ; lays heaven and earth into one gloomy and horrid
darknefs ; makes our religion a curfe ; our governments defpotic
andoppreffive; and renders us incapable of private virtue and
happinefs.'

The following obfervations are equally rational- and philoib*
phicaL ' '•

* The firft abufes of dcvo'iion, probably arofe, like the extra-
vagancies oi love, from indulging warm imaginations. The

bounda



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SP6 WillkmsV LiBuris.

boundi of nature once traofgrefred, by the well-iotetfded fidiontf
of poetry, all the excefles of fuperfiition were produced ; atui
artful meh laid hold of them» for the purposes of avarice aod am-
bition. Hence the idolatry of the ancients, moft of which we
. can trace, even at this time, irvto a poetical mythology, tnd the
life of fyrobols, which were originally reprefenations of rational
fehtiments. At a natural and reafooable worfliip wonfdhave fe«
cored the improveoient and virtue of the people; we fee, ]|»
fadi, that the abfurdities and extravagancies of fuperHition, ri-
veted on them the chainsof avarice and vice. When Chridianity
was firft introduced, the author of it aimed to reduce 'this doc«
triiie to its firil principles. His apoftles deviated but little from
his deiign ; and the church, for a few centuries, had a worQiip
different from that of the heathens. But when Chriftianity en-
tered into alliance with the (late, was eftablrOied by Conftantine,
and made an engine of tyranny, fb enflave the people $ the gods
and goddeffes of antiquity, only changed names, for thofe of
Chrift, the Virgin, Angels and Apoftles ; the godt Were cltrif^
tened, Mars into Peter ; and Diana, or Venus, into the Virgiii
Mary ; the altars remained ; and all the ceremonies of their
worfhip were heightened, or rendered more abfurd ; and tlie^
transferred to the Chriftian faints. There is hardly any par€ of
the public worfiiip of Europe, which may not be traced to' an
idolatrous cnftom of the heathens. The abfurdity of thefe thiaga
is (9 glaring, that men, who have not great fagadty, great can-
dour, and ^reat patience, are very apt to turn from public wor-
ihip with difguft, as wholly founded in ignorance and fnperfti-
don. The very language it has adopted, is puerile: andonef
might imagine our religious afiembliea croaehing before a capri<^
cious tyrant, or endeavouring to amufe and coax into good' hn-
jaour, fome fluSuating, waverings and paffionate Being/ - •

In the fecond volume the author treats of honefly, juftice^
humanity, beneficence, modefty, moderation, lu](ury, prudence^
fortitude, roeeknefs, and patience.

The following fentiments are founded on juft obftrvatiofi)
and a knowledge of th^ human heart.

« The enthufiafm of benevolence, like the en thufiafm of a ten-
derer pafiion, makes perfons of the fined fen fibility, and the beft
difpofitions, moil liable to deceit and difappointment. The at.
tachment and gratitude occafioned by benefits are the produce
only of the very bell foil. It is folly, therefore, to exfiedl them'
in vicious, or even in indifFcreht, charaders. Thefe are to be
treafed like barren and indifferent ground, and to be benefited
without the hope of a/cward» Every man judges of another by
what he feels in himfelf. No bad man ever could believe that-
another did him a benefit by a moral, a beneficent, or a generous
aftion. His returns, therefore, are affeAed, flattering, and felf-
i(h — And it is an efTedlextiemely common, to produce the moft
inveterate hatrt^d in bad minds, merely by means of benefits*

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Williannl&'i Ldltwrttl jOt

^An ill-difpofed man always poiTcires a kind of pi4de» which it
offended at the thought of aoiibligbtion, . As there is hardly an/
thing eafier than toimpofe upon and miflead the paiSons, whea
once they are fixed on their objefis, he finds it not difiicVilc to
impofe on his benefadlor, till it fuits hit convenience to pull off
the mafk. And we muft have ohferred, that the ragcoury hatred^
and nulice of fuch a man, have been beyond thoTe of common
enemies ; and ever in proportion to the n amber and greatnefs of
the benefits which were beftown upon him* He conceived himfelf
injured by Ibe fuperiority of his benefador; he knew that he in-
jured him by his.falfe returns of gratitude and obligation ; which
are both mod forcible reafons with fuch a man for hatred* This
18 increafed by every repeated obligation ; and it is extremely
common to fee a good man injured with the moft inveterate ma-
lice, and fuffeting under the word ufage, becaufe he had been
guilty of cherifliing a viper in his bofom.'

We (hall only detain our readers with two fliort extraflf^
a^ded to what we have already cited» as a farther inftance of
that freedom of enquiry, which this writer has difplayed on alw
moft every fubjedl he has difcuiTed.

* The hiftory of martyrdom » it is to be hoped^ vt^ill be con*
fined to the eccIefiaAical annals of Europe, where future agea
will read with aitoniihment, and perhaps incredulity, that whole
nations of wretches, in the human form, not only ravaged eacli
others territories' for plunder and glory ; buti in times of peace*
iand from mere cruelty and thirft of, blood, amufed themfelvet'
with torturing amd murdering each other, for a i^afon which
would difgrace the morality of doga and wolves— becauie thejr
did not fee exadly alike, and think exadily alike. This will not
be believed in periods of real humanity and knowledge,*

Speaking of the devil, our author fays,

* In what malignant brain, or in what deplorable and gloom/
ftate, the dodrine of eternal damnation was generated, it is im<*
poflsbie to imagine. It muft be a wretch indeed, both in his
underilanding and his heart, who could fuppofe the principlea
of wifdom and goodhefs, which a&uate nature, fo ineffedlual ; or
the government of God fo feeble, that Satan (hould not only in*
terrupt it here, but carry oiFthe firreater part of bis fubjedts here-
after, and divide the dominion of eternity with him.'

Many of our author'a obfervations ^ure juft,.rea(bnable, and
phtlofophicaL But they (hould be read with caution ; as they
liiggeft an unfavourable idea of fome of the dodirines of Chrif«
tianity, which, if properly underKtood, would appear much
anore amiablp than its ehensies generally imagine.



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f sot 3

tbi SpiritMM/ Q^txote, F4.IL Bt/f. %s.64l. /eijoid. DoM§f.

THE iogeoioiis aothor of the Spiritual QubEOtA* has bets
prelcntecl the public with t very agreeable little voioiae
.of poems on various fiibjefls. The indifputable marks of ori-
ginal geniusy eafy numbers, with a fund of pleaftnfry and
good humour, run through the whole colleftion. We are
obliged for many of them to the poetical fociety at Bath
Eailon, where the author has^ we fuppoicy been frequently
crowned with the mvrtre wreath, a rewai^ i/ifinitely fupe-
rior to any praife which Review^r^ can beftow o|^n him*
The author h#s thought proper, for reafons beft known tp
himfelf, to divide his poetical ^otef^ainoKut into foiMr coiirfea*
the MifceUaneouSt the Ep^ranunatical, the Humoraos, and
the Elegiac ; to which, by way of defert, he has fubjoined foocw
iQiitationsof the Greek and I^atin clafiics. The verfes on Dreams ^
on Caprice, to Mr. Anfty ; the Pepperbox and Salt^ceUar, a
fable, all well written, have appeared in other colledions* and
confequently flood the te/l of criticirm : we fliall therefore
fay no-mpre of them, but that they are well worthy of a place
ig this^coilefUon* With regard to the reft^ it is a €4rna dMa^
and ampng^ fo many dainties, we know nor which to preicM
ta our readers by way of taAl^g the banquel. As a deljcaic
morfel, however, which mufi be agreeable to every palate^
we ftall give them our anthor's Invocation to Heaiih»

• What fprightly nymph tjips o*er the fawn.
Than bloomiag Hebe*s felf more bright f ^

O ! fairer tbaa the pnrple dawji.
Chafing the joy lei^ gloom of night }

I know tiiee well ; thy bofkia^d feee.
Thy flowing locks and asare veil :

Baniih'd che levek of cbe Greai,

' My frugal cot thou oft baft bleft.

By mortals flyl'd heart-cbeerln^ Healtbt

In heaven Hygeia is thy name*
O ! welcome ! more than pow'r or wealth \

Than bea.iisy's felf > oe Itfe-cr faaie,
As oVr the faireft lattdfcapeS face

The (blar beam« ffe(h laAre flied ; '
Thy cbafOM to pl«afave ad^ newgraoe.

And gviof ereds her languid jbcsad. . . -t:



..* Aa enaprtaining novel, generally attributed to the Rev. Mr.
Graves. See Crit, Rev* vol. xxxv. p. %i%.



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Bat vi^n thottVt abfent nought can pUmUs,
The bloom of fpring or autamn's ftore ^

The wood-lark's notes but vainly teaze^
And ev'n the Mufe delights no more.

Thy fmilesy on velvet couch reeling.

The wealthy Satrap courts in vain ;
And frets to fee thee prove more kind»
^ And blefs the llurdy ruilic fwain.

Thou wifely (hun'ft the pale reforti

Of midnight ball or mafquerade ;
More pleas'd to join the rural fports

Of yillage-nymphs beneath the ihade»

fTho' haply in the fulphurous draught,
\ That flows from Blad^d's fuming rills.

Thy power's conveyed ; or fometimes bought
From the iage Leach'j nanfeoua piUt <

Yet rather o'er the mountain's -brow.

Thro* foreft wild or balmy grqve,
'Midft fmmer's funs or winter's fnow,

^ith Diah thou delight'ft to rove.

Come then, bleft Nymph ! my cottage cheefi^

Hale Exercife thy fteps Ihall guide ;
And decent Mirth ihall meet thee there ;

And Temperance at the board preiide/
There is a terfenefe and elegance, with a purity of ftyle and
ientiaieat, in tkefe verfes, which we feldom meet with in anf
modern compofition. '

It is the opinion of our author, as delivered in a profe efhf
on the Nature of an Bpigram, which ftands by itfelf in the
middle of this poetical garden, that * provided one principal
thought be uniformly purfued to a point through the whole, t '
poem of any reasonable length may be confidered as an epi«
gram.' In confequence of this determination, Mr. G — •— hat '
given US feveral long epigrams, of twenty or thirty lines each $
amongfl: which his complimentary verfes to Mrs. Montagu,
and Ijidy M r, have gteat merit. Of what our author
calls bis Hmm^roui Poems'*, the Fire- fide, ai^d the Hobby«
horfe fcr the Gout, are much the heft. With regard to fomc
of theie, there is, wcucannot help obfer^ing, an impropriety in
the epithet. The Card to Hymen, though pretty and poeti-*

• We are a little in doubt, whether a modern poet, though the
pncients ahvays took the liberty of extolling themfblves^ fiiould
venture to call his own works humorotu. Even if they are really h^
<and as Mr. G' - '^^*' certainly are) it it not a little like faying, I'll
teil you a good tb'mg which I &id the other day } an exceUeot re-*

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je4 Simmons*! Ohfihfoiiint m th Curt 9/ the G^mrrh^a.

cal, cannot be called humorous; the verfes on the UCt and
AOufe of Cards are rather ferious ; and the fable of the Shep-*
herd and Kid much too melancholy to fall under that deno*
mination. The imitations from the Greek and Latin poets<.
Ibew the claflical tafte and eruduioii of the writer, at the fame
time that his happy allufions to modern manners and circum*
fiances give them the air of originals. His Parody of Horace*?
Integer Vits, &c. is excellent ; and the Delicate Lover is
much fuperior to the epigram of Martial from which it i»
taken. This colledion is, upon the whole, as agreeable a
farrago as we have met with for foane time paft. We hope the
elegant and ingenious author will have health and leifure to
gife us (the (boner the better) another volume, from which
we (hall promife ourfelves no little entertainment.



Ohfervatiws pm the Cure o/the Gonorrhoea. By Samuel Foart Sioi^
mens, M. D, S'vo, is, 6 J. Murray.

THE treatnoent of a difeafe that has been certainly knoirn
in E^urope for almoft three hundred years,^ and which has-
fo much employed the attention of medical enquirers, ihould»
we might fup^rofe, have long fince been eftabliihed on the
cleared leiliawny of experience. Even at this period, however,
it continues to be the fubjedt of controverfy ; and hardly two
writers are entirely agreed refpedling fome of the moft el&ntial
circumftances in the cure of the complaint. In this pamphlet
we meet with many ufeful obfer'vations on the general treat*
fiient of the gonorrhcsa, befides remarks on particular fymp.
toms that accompany or follow the difeafe, when it is in a vio-
lent degree, or has been injudicioufly treated. Thefe^re, the
hernia humoralis, chordce, phymofjs, paraphymofis, cbancres^
fifidures of the urethra, and gleets.

; As a fpecimen, we (hall lay before our readers the folk>wing^
remarks on injeftions.

• The topical remedies that are ufed con(i(l chiefly of difirrent
forts of injeaions, the ingredients of which are extremely various^
but their modes of operation may in general be referred to their
iQttcilaginoas and fedadve, or to their deiergenc, (limulatia^g^,
and aftringent qualities. In the hand* of (kilful praaitiooers^
great advantages may doubtlefs be derived from the ufe of thefe
remedies ; but, on the other hand, the improper and unfeafoa*
able adminiftration of them may prove a foarce of irreparable
mifchief to the l^atidDt.

* We know that roocilaginous and oily in)edioa» wHl tend to
allay the local inflammation ; and that a (edative injedion, facia
U. a folution of Qpium^ will IcflTen the irritabtlity of the par^-



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Simikions*/ Oljirvatim MtttCun tfth 'Gownlektii fd/

mud oFcourfe prodace a iimilar efFeA : the atility of fuch appli*
. cations is therefore fufficiently obvioui,

* A detergent injeAion, or onjs that will a6l upon the mucu^
of the urethra, increafe.the difcharge of it, walb it away, and
with it the venereal virus that is blended with it, <^aii only be
ixfed as a prophyladtic before the fymptoms of infection hay©
tnadc their appearance. A folutioh of caufiic properly diluted,
"Will anfwer this purpofe, and I have frequently recommended it».
Bot great circurofpedlion is necelTary in the ufe of this kind of
injeftion. If it be too weak, it can be of no efficacy ; and if it
be too ftrong, it may prove dangerous to the patient. I oncd
law a fuppreilion of urine broaght on by the impropei' qfe of adT
Sfljedlion of this kind. When the fymptoms of infiammatioa
have once made their appearance, the (limulus of fuch an injec*^
tion mufl be extremely hazardous, Excoriation of the urethra
lias, I fear, but too often been produced by remedfes of this fort
in the hands of adventurous and anftilful practitioners.

« \Vhile the inflammation of the urethra continues, tvtxj
thing. that flimulates'it mufl be hurtful. If the Injection excited
a painful fenfation in the urethra, as is but too often the cafe.
It will be liable to produce fwelled tefficles, difficulty in making
w^ter, excoriation, and other effeAs of increafed inflammation :
if, by its aftringency, the running as checked before the -virus
.thatjexci(ed the difcharge is properly fubdued, the patient will
lie expofed to all the dangers of a confirmed lues, and, perhaps*
to a variety of local complaints, foch as obftruftioni in the ure* *
thra, and abfcefles in perinaeo, which are well known to be
fometimed o^ing to applications of this fort improperly ma«
naged.

• When the inflammation has fubfidcd, gently ftlmulatln^
and aftringent injeftions may be iifed with fafetyf and with con*
*£derable advantage ; for as the inflammation is at firfl: excited
by the ftimulns of the venereal virus, fo when the former begins
to leflen, we may be aflured that the a&ivity of the latter ha»
abated in proportion ; and, in general^ when the inflammatory
fymptoms arc entirely removed, it will be found that the mocua
is no longer of anlnfe^ous nature, but is merely the efFeC^ of
an' increafed fecretion, and of relaxation. IV^ild aftringenta
will therefore ferve to brace and ftrengthen the veflfels fecreting
.mucus, and in this way will leflen the di(charge, and greatly
|>homote the Cure. It is certain that in the greater number of
cafes, a gonorrhoea, which if treated by internal remedies alon^
tvould continue five or fix weeks, or longer, may, when judi-
cioufly treated with injedlions, be cured in a fortnight, and very
often in lefs time, the great aim, therefore, of the practitioner
otigbt to be at firft to make ufe of fiich inje6tions only as will
tend to lubricate the furface of the urethra, and to countered and
dedroy the ftimulas of the virus ; as the inflammation abates ^a
'tnay add fome gently aftringent preparation tea mucilaginoai
^nd fedative injedion, taking care that itf aftringency be faittd
VoL.L, Q^. 1780. % \m



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to tlie ftate of .tbc dKctfey aod to tike irriubiltty of t&e p«tTeBV
Amongft a great variety of fubftaaoej mtrcnry in different form^
i$ one of thofe that is ibcinQft frequently employed in iiMe£lions«>
Ail thefe mercurial injcAioos have more or Idi of aftringeacy^
and it is iblely to tbis property that we are to afcribe tkttg
cfieds ; for the id^a of their corredii>g the veoereal virus waa
criginally iotroduced aad Jua btea coAtiaued upon ouftakfi^
principles*

* Calomel* mixed with the mucus diicharged in a goiuarrhoea^
Ihas DO more power io deflroyiog the iofedbus properties of that
/nucus than cerulTe or any other preparation would have. A di-
)uced folution of fublimate inje&ed into the urethra will, like »
folution of verdigris, pr blue v^iiitol, or aay other ftyptic;, con*
• ilrioge the mouthy of the lacunx ; but this is all that k will do,
for it will never leiTen the infcAious nature of the viras» The
fame thing may be obferved of crude mercury extinguifiied by
means of mucilage, or of mercurial undlion blended wiih the
yolk of an egg, and which, when thrown up into the urethra,,
will aft nearly in the fame m^^nner as baliam of copaiva, or any
other ftimnlating in^edion For the truihis, that mercury has no
power over the venereal virus, until it has been introduced into
the body, and undergone cextaio changes^ with which we are»
and probably ihall for ever remain, unacquainted. The local
application of mercury can,, therefore, have no other efiedfitha»
what it derives from its ftimulating and aftringent properties;
for the mercury not being abforbed in the urethra; of courle can-
not be carried rnto the fyilem, and even if it could, the ^uaotlty
that would be introduced in this way would be too minute to be
of any efHcacy. I wifh to have it unde^ftood, however, that I do
not mean to explode the ufe of mercurial preparations io injec-
tions, but only the principles on which they have hitherto }xcu
nfed ; for I have frequently found the (limulus of calomel of con-* ^
^derable efficacy ; and in women, when the vagina only wts af-
fefted, 1 have often, after wafhing the parts well, fucceeded in
the cure by rubbing them repeatedly with mercurial ointment*'

We cannot conclude without obferving, that this little traift
contains many intere fling and yudicions renmrks, apparently
the refult of great experience j and we arc ftiHy perfuaded that
the facolry in general will join us, when we exprefs a dcfire
;that Dr. Simmons would extend his obfervations, in the fame
praQical manner, to the lues venerea.

FOREIGN ARTICLES.

les Echpfes, Poi'm$ en Jix Ckantt, ded[i a fa Maj^S par M. fAbhl
Boicowich ; traduit tn Francois par M. t^lfC de Barruel. i. V9L
in^arto, (Paris.)

Vf R. Bofcowich's excellent didaaic poem, the Eciipfes; was oil*
•;* ginally publifhcd in London, and addrcffed to the Royal Sq-
titty j the next year il was rcpnnted at Venice v bui this thirflr
*-^ edition



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Online LibraryT. (Tobias) SmollettThe Critical review, or, Annals of literature → online text (page 36 of 57)