Taylor and Francis William Jardine.

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side of the face and the temporal region are dissected, the eye is
found to be in dose proximity to the large branch of the htdal
nerve.

The eye has the usual appearance presented by the organ in most
foetal mammalia ; in form globular, and in size proportionate to the
head of the animal ; the cornea translucent ; the sclerotic perfectly
distinct, and of dense white tissue ; the iris apparent through the
cornea, with a clear pupillary aperture.

Between the eye and the facial nerve a small portion of the optic
nerve is seen in the superficial dissection, and appears to form an
upright peduncle for the globe.

It is necessary to divide the seventh pair in order to examine the
deeper parts of the orbit. When the dissection is completed, and
the optic nerve exposed in its whole extent, from the eye to the base
of the cranium, the branches of the fifth pair of nerves are brought
into view. The main branch of the second division of the fifth nerve
lies a little below the optic nerve, parallel with it, and supplies large
and numerous branches to the anterior part of the face. There is
no necessity to describe minutely the appearance presented in the
deep dissection of the orbit, as I observed nothing unusual to re-
quire particular notice. There are some minute muscles attached
to the globe which do not admit of separation into dbtinct parts,
but completely surround the posterior half of the globe.

To trace the optic nerve through its foramen to the brain was
successfully accomplished in only one dissection. After exposing



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On the Pre- Carboniferous Floras of North-east America. 103

the optic neire and the eye completely, all the surrounding parts
were removed, and a section made through the skull so as to exnibit
a lateral yiew of the interior of the cranium.

The brain itself was disorganized in all the young specimens ; but
in the dissection just alluded to the optic nerre was seen to pass
through the base of the skull, and to enter the membranes to a short
distance, so that it would have been possible, if the brain had re-
mained perfect, to trace it to its origin.

With r^;ard to the eje itself, no difficulty was experienced in se-
psratiDg the iris, choroid, and lens. The other structures usually
exifltii^ in the eye had been so long subjected to the influence of the
alcdiolthat I could not determine their condition.

It must necessarily happen that many interestuig obserrations are
made in the course of an investigation like that which has been
briefly described, and many minute details might have been added
to this account ; but it appeared to me to be desirable to limit the
details* as far as possible, to those which were sufficient to establish
the jremarkable physiological fact that the Mole, at the time of birth,
is endowed with organs of vision of considerable perfection, while in
mature age it is deprived of the means of sight in consequence of
certain changes which take place in the base of the skull, terminating
in the destruction of the most important structures on which the
enjoyment of the sense of sight depends.

May 6, 1870.— lieut-General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B.,
President, in the Chair.

Tbk Bakkrian Lbctxtrb was delivered by John W. Dawson,
LL.D., F.B.8., &c.. Principal and Vice-chancellor of M'Gill Coll^,
Montreal, ''On the Pre-Carboniferous Floras of North-Eastem
America, with especial reference to that of the Brian (Devonian)
Period." The following is an Abstract.

The attention of the author was first directed to the Devonian as
distinguished from the Carboniferous flora by the discovery, on the
part of Sir W. E. Logan, in 1843, of some remarkable remains of
plants in the Sandstones of Grasp^, Canada* In 1859, after visiting
Gasp^ to study these plants in situ, the author published descrip-
tions of them, and more particularlv of the two characteristic Lower-
Devonian eenera Prototaxites and Psilophyton, in the Journal of
the Geological Society.

Subsequently additional material was obtained by personal inves-
tigation of the Devonian of Maine and New Brunswick, and, through
the kindness of Prof. James Hall, from that of New York. These
additional plants were also published in the Journal of the Geological
Society.

Still more recently, a thorouffh re-examination of the Gasp^ beds,
the systematic exploration of me plant-bearing beds near St. John
by Pm. Hartt, and firesh coUecdons made by Prof. Hall have en-
abled the author to prepare a catalogue of 121 species, and to attempt
a thorough revision of the Brian flora, and an investigation of its
conditions of growth and relations to the Carboniferous flora.



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104 Royal Society.

The term *< Erian " is applied to the formations included between
the top of the Upper Silurian and the base of the Carboniferous, on
account of the uncertainties which have attended the aubdiviBion and
limitation of the Devonian of Europe, and also on account of the
immense area occupied bj these beds on the south and west of Lake
Erie, and their admirable development with regard to subdivisions
and fossils. The name "Erie Division" was also that originally
applied to this typical series by the geologists of the Survey of New
York.

A large part of the paper was occupied with the revision of the
Erian flora, including the description of twenty-three new species,
and more ample descriptions of others previously known only in
fragments. Large trunks of Prototaxites, from the base of the
Lower Devonian, were described, and full details given of the form,
structure, and fi uctification of two species of Pailophyton. The
new genus Ormoxylon was described. The genus Cyclostigma was
noticed, as represented by two species in America, and its foliage and
fruit described for the first time. The genera of the Erian Ferns
were examined and corrected, and several interesting trunks and stipes
belonging to Tree-ferns were described. The fruits of the genus
Cardiocarpufn were illustrated with reference to their structure.
The occurrence of Lepidophloios, Calamodendron, and other forms in
the Middle Devonian was noticed for the first time.

The third part of the memoir was occupied with comparisons and
general conclusions. At the close of the Upper-Silurian period there
was a great subsidence of the land in Eastern America, proved by
the wide extent of the marine beds of the Lower Helderberg (Lud-
low) group. It was on the small areas of Lower-Silurian and Lau-
rentian land remaining after this subsidence that the oldest land
plants known in the region flourished. Re-elevation occurred early
in the Devonian period, and the known flora receives considerable
extension in the shallow- water beds of the Lower Erian. The
subsidence indicated by the great Corniferous limestone interrupted
these conditions on the west side of the Appalachians, but not on
their eastern side. At the close of this we find the rich Middle-
Devonian flora, which diminishes toward the close of the period ;
and, after the physical disturbances which on the east side of the
Appalachians terminated the Erian age, it is followed by the meagre
and quite dissimilar flora of the Lower Carboniferous ; and this, after
the subsidence indicated by the Carboniferous limestone, is followed
by the Coal-formation flora.

If we compare the Erian and Carboniferous floras, we find that
the leading genera of the latter are represented in the former (but,
for the most part, under distinct specific forms), that the Erian
possesses some genera of its own, and that many Carboniferous ge-
nera have not yet been recognized in the Erian. There is also great
local diversity in the Erian flora, conveying the impression that the
conditions afiPecting the growth of plants were more varied, and the
facilities for migration of species less extensive, than in the Carboni-
ferous.

In comparing the Erian flora of America with the Devonian of



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Miscellaneous. 105

Europe, we meet with the difficaltj that little is known of the plants
of the Lower and Middle Deyonian in Europe. There are, however,
specimens in the Museum of the Greological Survey which show,
in connexion with facts which can be gleaned from the works of
Gcmtinental writers, that Psilaphyton occupied the same important
place in Europe which it did in America ; and in the Upper Devo-
nian the generic forms are very similar, though the species are, for
the most part, different.

In Eastern America no land flora is known below the Upper
Silurian ; and even in that series the plants found are confined to
the genus PsUophyton. Independently, however, of the somewhat
doubtiiil Lower- Silurian plants stated to have been found in Europe,
there are indications, in the Lower-Erian flora, that it must have
been the successor of a Silurian flora as yet almost unknown to us ;
and the line of separation between this old flora and that of the
Devonian proper seems to be at the base of the Middle Devonian.

In applying these facts and considerations to the questions relating
to the introduction and extinction of species, and the actual relations
of successive floras, it was proposed to compare what might be called
specific types, — that is, forms which in any given period could not
be rationally supposed to be genetically related. Of such specific
types, at least fifty may be reckoned in the Erian flora ; of these,
only three or four are represented in the Carboniferous by identical
species, while about one half are represented by allied species. The
remainder have no representatives.

A Table of specific types of the Erian was given, and its bearing
shown on the questions above referred to ; and the hope was ex-
pressed that by separating such types from doubtful species and
varietal forms, some progress might be made towards understanding,
at least, the times and conditions in which specific types were intro-
duced and perished, and the range of varietal forms through which
they passed.



MISCELLANEOUS.

ObservcUions on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Mejpiilia,
By Dr. F. Stoliczka. (Abstract.)

Thb species described in this paper have been partially collected
by the author along the Burmese and Malayan coast, in Penang,
and Singapore, partially at the Nicobar and Andaman ii^ands ; only
a few species are noticed from Java, and a few also from the N.W.
Himalayas. Short notes on the geographical distribution, and on
the general character of the amplubian and reptilian fiauna of the
Andamans and Nicobars, form a brief preface to the detailed descrip-
tions. Complete lists of all the known species occurring on the two
last-named groups of islands are appended.

The following is a list of the species noticed, with the localities
wherefrom specimens have been obtained, and brief characteristics
of the new species.



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106 MisoeUaneaus,

AMPHIBIA.
BateaoeiA'

1. Eana gradlts^ Wiegm. (typical). Simdarbaas^ Arracan, Ban-
goon, Monlmein, Penang, Wellesley Province, &c,

Bana gradUs, var. andamanensis. Andamans.

, var. nieohariensis, Nioobars.

, var. jpuZZa. Penang hill.

2. Eana cyanopfdictis^ Scbneid. Orissa.

3. PymcepJialus hrevk^, Schneid. From near Kotegorh.

4. PcHypedates Hascheanus, n. flp. A small species from the forests
of Penang hill. Distance between anns and heel slightly less than
the length of the body ; brown, lighter or darker ; a bladdsh band
between the eyes, a W-mark between the shoulders, a pair of
blackish spots abont the middle of the body ; Hmbs with dark cross
bands : body of largest specimen W inch long.

5. Polyp, mactdatus, Gray. Penang.

6. HyUrana Tytleri, Theob. (?? ^eryihraxt, Schleg.). Monl-
mem.

7. Hylorana nieohariengis, n. sp. From the Nioobars. Allied to
jET. temporal^ of Giinther, but has two small glandular tubercles be-
hind the angle of the mouth ; distance between anus and heel less
than the length of the body, fourth toe less than its half.

Ansania, n. gen. (Ehinodermatidat), Body slender, limbs long
and slender, fingers free, toes half-webbed, disks scarcely swollen ;
muzzle short, canthus rostralis sharp; no teeth; tongue entire,
oval, elongated.

8. A. penangengis. Found on rocks in streams on Penang hill.
Full-grown specimen \^ inch, hind limb 1-j^ inch ; body tubercular,
black with pale yellowish-white spots on the side, and purplish-red
below, between the limbs and on the lower belly.

9. Diplopelma eamaticum, Jerdon.

10. Cdhtda pulchra, Gray. From Moulmein.

11. Bufo viridis, Laur. From the Sutlej valley.

12. Bufo tnelanosiictuSf Schneid. From Bengal, Burma, Malay
peninsula, Andamans, and Nicobars.

BEPTILIA.
Lacebulia.

18. Plyehoxotm Tiomdloeqoihdlum, KuhL Nicobars.

14. G^o guttatue. Baud. Burma and Andamans.

15. stentor. Cant. Andamans.

16. Smithii, Chray. Java.

17. Phelsuma andamanense, ]IKyth. Andamans.

18. Peripia PeronU, Cant. Penang.

19. — Oantoris, GKinth. Andamans.

20. Eemidaetylus frenatus, Schleg. Burma, Penang, Andamans,
and Nicobars*

21. Hemidactylus mactdatus, D. ft B. Moulmein, Andaanans,
Calcutta, &c.



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MUceUanecus. 107

22. Cyriodaetylus rubidus (PueUula rtdndat Blyth). Andamans.

23. afflms, n. sp. Penang. like Qymnodaciylu9 pvlchcUuSy

Gray, in form and coloration, but with longer fingers and toes, and
apparently more depressed body, no barged cMn-shields or snb-
caudals, and no femoral pores.

24. Tiliqua carinata, Bohneid. (Eup. rufeseens apud Ounth.).
Bengal, Borma, Penang, Andamans, &c.

25. TUiqua olivaeea. Gray, Nicobars.

26. rugifera, n. sp. Nicobars. Each scale five-keeled ;

scales in 26 series round the body, 23 transverse rows between the
limbs, 8 longitudinal rows on the belly ; brown above, two pale
streaks on the anterior half of the body, pale yellowish or greenish-
white below.

27. Mahouya Jerdoniana, n. sp. Penang. like M. agUis, Gray,
but it has 7 supraciliaries, 8 iq>per labials, scales in 39 series round
the body, 60 transverse rows between the limbs ; preanals scarcely,
subcaudaJs distinctly enlarged.

28. Bintdia maeulata, Blyth. Martaban.

29. Riopa lineolata, n. sp. Martaban. Similar to R. Bowringii,
Giinth., and equal to it in size, but with scales in 24 longitudinal
series round die body, and 60-65 transverse series between the
limbs.

30. Ccdotes mystaceus, D. & B. Arracan, Bassein, Moulmein, &c.

31. Bronckoede eristatella, KuhL Penang.

32. moluccana, Less. Singapore.

33. jubatOy D. & B. Java, Nicobars.

34. Tiaris subcristata^ Blyth (Coryjphylax McuvimUiani, Fit*.}.
Andamans and Nicobars.

35. Draco volans, L. Penang.

Opbidia.

36. Cylindrophis rufus, Laur. Upper Burma.

37. Ablabes melanocuphalvs, Qr&y, Singapore.

38. Bc^pii, Giinth. Simla.

39. coUaris, Gray. Simla.

40. mcobariemis, n. sp. Nicobars. Scales smooth, in 17

series, ventrals 189, anal bifid, subcaudals 87 ; in coloration similar
to melanocepJialus, but the lateral spots are smaller and much more
numerous : length 17^ inches, of which that of the tail is 4| inches.

41. Ptyas mucosus, L. N.W. Himalaya, Moulmein, Andamans.

42. hexagonotus, Cant. (Xenelaphis idem apud Giinth.).

Penang.

43. Comp908oma radiatvm, Eein. Moulmein.

44. mdanurumf Schl^. Andamans.

45. semifasciata {Plaiycepa idem), Bljrth. South of Simla.

46. Eod^sonii, Giinth. N JS. of Simla.

47. Trapidanotus quineimciatus, Schl^. (Trop. Tytleri and $trio-
latoBy Blyth). Burma, Andamans.

48. Trap, stdlatus, L. Moulmein, Amherst.

49. platycepi, Blyth (2fameni$ himalayanuiy Steindachner).

Kulu.



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108 Miacelluneoua.

50. Oonyasama oxyeephalum, Boie. Andamans.

61. DendrophUpictafQmeh Burma, Andamans,Nicobars,PenaDg.

52. caudoUneata, Gray. Penang.

53. Chrysopelea omata, Shaw. Penang, Burma.

54. rubescens. Gray. Penang.

55. Psammophis candanurus, Merr. {Phayrea isabellinay Theob.).
Simla.

56. Tra^ops frontidnctus, Giinth. Amherst.

57. Dipsas hexc^onotus, Blyth. Andamans.

58. multifasciatay Blyth. South of Simla.

59. Lyeodon striatuSy Shaw. From near Eotegurh.

60. aulicuSy L. {TytUria hypsirhinoides, Theobald). Anda-

mans and India generally.

61. Tetragonosoma effrene, Cant., var. Banca.

62. Python molurus, linn. Upper Burma, Malayan peninsula.

63. reticulatus, Schneid. Nicobars.

64. Sypsirrhina plumbea, Boie. Upper Burma.

65. Cerberus rhynchops, Schneid. Burma, Andamans, Nico-
bars, &c.

66. Hipistes hydrinus. Cant. Amherst.

67. Cantoria Dayana^ n, sp. Amherst. Form typical, scales
in 19 series, ventrab 268, anal bifid, subcaudals 56 ; dull bluish
black, with numerous yellowish cross bands, narrow on the back
but widening laterally.

68. Bangurtts ecervleus, Schneid. Bassein.

69. Ophiophagus elaps, Schleg. Burma, Andamans.

• 70. Naja tripudianSf Merr. N.W. Himalaya, Andamans.

71. Callophis intestinalts, Laur. Upper Burma.

72. Enhydrina valakadyrif Boie (E. bengalensis, Gray). Orissa.

73. schistosay Daud. GopaJpore.

74. Pelamis platurus, L. (P. huxlory Schneid.). Bay of Bengal.

75. Trimeresurus gramineus, Shaw. Ehasi hills.

76. erythruruSy Cant. Burma, Java.

77. earinatuSy Gray. N.W. Himalaya.

78. porphyracetiSy Blyth. Andamans.

79. mtUabiliSf n. sp. Andamans and Nicobars. Scales in

21 series, ventrals 156-167, subcaudals 48-62; second labial
forms the angle of the &cial pit, or is divided into two shields ; colour
uniform reddish-brown, or with numerous greenish-white cross bands
on the back, laterally with longitudinal bands.

80. Trimeresuna Cantori, Blyth. Andamans and Nicobars.

81. convictus, n. sp. Penang. like T. moniicola, Giinth.,

but with much larger scales, which are disposed in 21 series ; ven-
trals 132, subcaudals 29.

82. Hcdy8 himalayanus, Giinth. N.W. Himalaya.

83. Dahoia Busselli, Shaw. N.W. Himalaya.

Chelokia.

• 84. Emys crassicoUiSyBe]!. Penangi



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Miscellaneous^ 109

Br. Stoliczka gave a short sketch of the relations existing between
the Andaman and Nicobar reptilian fanna and that of Burma on
one hand, and of Java, Sumatra, and the Philippine Islands on the
other hand. All these islands, &c., he said, have many species in
common. He also specially noticed the very great number of ti-
perine snakes (Trimeresurus) which are to be met with at the Nico*
bars; but fortunately these species appear to be less dangerous
than continental forms usually are. The Nicobarese say that not a
single fatal case results from the bite of these Trimeresuri ; and
certainly all the specimens examined had a comparatively small
poison-gland. The result of the bite is said to be only a swelling
of the wounded part. Dr. Stoliczka also exhibited a specimen of
the rare CaUophis intestinalis obtained from Upper Burma. The
species has the poison-glands extending from the head to about § of
the total length of the body, lying free in the cavity of the anterior
part, and causing the heart to be much farther removed backward
than is generally the case in other species of snakes. — From the Pro-
ceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for April 1870.

On ihe Organization and Emhryogeny of the Ascidia. — Development
of Molgula tubulosa. By M. Laoaze-Duthubs.

There are few zoological discoveries which have more vividly and
justly excited the interest of naturalists than that of the metamor-
phoses of the Ascidians. Savigny, in studying the organization of
these animals, found some little bodies '' among the ova dissemi-
nated between the tunic and the branchial sac, which appeared to
be foetuses." If the drawings which he gave prove that he knew the
larval form of these animals, it is nevertheless certain that the true
significance of these littie bodies was not really incontestably proved
until after M. Milne-Edwards's researches.

The subsequent observations of MM. Kolliker, Van Beneden,
Kowalewski, Kiipffer, and of many other naturalists have only con-
firmed the remarkable observations of the French zoologist; and
now-a-days everybody admits that all the Ascidians, when yovmg^
at their escape from the egg, have a larval form which makes them
comparable, in appearance alone, with the tadpoles of the frogs.
This hitherto has been an opinion not only undisputed, but appa-
rentiy indisputable.

The anatomy oiMolgula, one of the most interesting types of the
group of simple Ascidians, has occupied me during nearly two sum-
mers. In studying its development, I wished to compare the mor-
phological data furnished by tiie observation of the adult with those
revealed by the successive appearance of the organs.

To make more certain of my results by multiplying comparisons,
I commenced by observing the embryos of some FhaUusioi of the
coasts of the Channel, the study of which appeared to me to be
comparatively easier ; and it is by means of artificial fecundations
that I have been able to follow the various transformations of the
ovum, commencing with its segmentation, which is appreciable only



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110 Miscellaneous.

hj the employment of this ezperimeotal proeen ; te &e ovum of
the AseidiiEUis is snrronnded, outside its TitelfiAe membrane, bj a
cellular enyelope, the elements of whidi may be mistaken (as indeed
has been done) for cells <^ the mulberry-like mass which is the
result of segmentation. But when we first of all study the develop-
ment of the oYum within the genital gland, from its origin to its
maturity, and when we then, after the action of the spermatozoid,
see the TiteQus divide and subdivide beneath the cells of the external
envelope, we esat no longer have any doubt as to the nature d the
parts.

Tlk0 results of artificial fecundations are easily obtained ; and with
tiielr aid we may with certainty trace, starting from the segmenta-
tion, the appearance of the first form of the embryo, its exclusion,
and the transformations which lead up to the perfect animaL
T There is not a naturalist who has observed the embryos of the
Ascidians and has not expressed the astonishment produced in him
by the sight of these tadpoles, so active at first, and finally gettang
rid of their tail or locomotive organ, fixing themselves and beeoming
sedentary.

Now, from this point of view, MolguJa presents a very remaxkable
exception. Long before hatching, the tadpole-Hke embryo of the
FTiaUtisias moves within the shell which endoses it, and turns about
with jerldng movements. The embryo of MoJgula, on the contrary,
moves slowly, and its movements are but slightly perceptible beneatii
the cellular envelope which covers it. Nevertheless its movements
produce variations in its general form, which lead to the rupture of
the capsule of the egg at a point which has become culminant, and
through which it issues like an Arnod>a, hy JUming like a rounded,
plastic, fiuid, pasty mass, destitute of a tail, and remaining sedentary
at the bottom of t]be vessel.

Many times I repeated this observation in the fear that I might
have taken abnormally formed embryos for properly constructed
individuals ; and the results were always the same.

From this time, therefore, it is ascertained that the hddv of the
young Molgula « supple and contradiU, modifies its fot^m slowly hy
amceboid movements, hut never enjoys that agility or activity which is
so remarkable in the first movements of the life of ihe other Ascidians
whou emhryogeny has been studied.

Almost immecuately after exclusion, the young Molgula presents,
in its globtilar body, zones, the different nature of which is shown
by different tints. One of these, the outermost, produces some pro-
cesses, which are limited to the number of five for a considerable
time, and which may be seen, so to speak, to shoot forth under our
eyes. They serve to attach the embryo to the bodies which surround
it, and are evidently the analogues of the innumerable filaments of
the tunic of the adult, the extremities of which, by retaining graazis
of sand, form the characteristic covering of the animaL

I have hatched very numerous embryos from both artificial and
natural fecundations, and seen them quickly attach themselves.
The ease with which they may be kept alive enabled me to follow



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Miscellaneous. Ill

tlie same individualB for more than two months^ and to see tlie oigant
form and the yoong MoUpda beoome completed.

In this abstraet it would be difficult to give any details with re*
gard to the transformations of the tissues and the formation of the
organs. I desire partiouliurly to call the attention of naturalists to
an exception which is equally remarkable and litde known, but



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