Taylor and Francis William Jardine.

The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology online

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CONCHIFEBA.

Bamea erythrofa, Gray. One valve, Suez.

Teredo (Uperotis) pupina, Desh. Shore <fec., on shells ; rare.

RoceUaria Retzii, Deeh. One specimen. Reunion.

RiippeUii, Desh. Frequent.

Brechites \Aspergillum) vaginiferum. Lam. Shore; broken. Red

Sea.
Solen aspersus, Dimk. Two specimens, young ; 10 f . Japan.

cameu8,lam, 10 f. Philippines.

CulteUus marmoratus ?, Dunk. Rare ; 10 £.

, sp, A fragment.
Mocha (Azor) coarctata, Gml. Rare ; 10 f. Britain, Med., &c.
Corhda sidculosa, H. Ad., n. sp. Frequent ; 20-40 f.

erythrcea, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare ; 20-40 £.

Sphcenia RiippeUii, A. Ad. Three and a half specimens, in coral.

Cryptomya decurtata, A. Ad. One valve. Philippines.

Anatina subrostrata, Lam. Shore ; not rare.

Eucharis angulata, H. Ad. One valve ; n. sp.

Neaera (Cardiomya) pulchella, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare ; 10-30 f.

Trigonella achatina, Chem. Rare ; 10 f. Philippines.

olorina, Ph. Frequent at low water. Red Sea.

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 4. Vol. vi. 30



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446 Mr. B. M^ Andrew an Teataoeom UoShmea

Standella (Merope) Soland^, Gray. &bcte, fire ; Eas MahommecL

Moluccas.
AsaphU tnolascens, Forsk. Rare. Bed Sea.
Oari dispar, Deah. Rare. PhiHppiiiea.

eUgans, Desh. Rare. FUHippines.

pallida, Lam. Rare.

PKimfnoteUa oblongOy Desh. Common, Suez. Red Sea.

TeJlina (Tellinella) taecwUa, Gould. 6-10 1 ; rare ; four specimens.

Torres Straits.
( ) Lisieri, Hanley. Shore ; rare. SraegaL

-) PharaoniSy Hanley. Shore ; rare. Red Sea.

-) rugosay Bom. New California.

-) Wbodiiy Desh.

-) resecUiy Desh. One valve. N.£. Australia.

-) ventista, Desh. Sandwich Islands.

-) erythrofensis, H. Ad.



pme



Mcera) siUoxda, A. Ad. W. Columbia.
Areophagia) capsoides, Lam. Philippines, Australia.

•) Isuli, H. Ad., n. sp.

) Savignyiy H. Ad., n. sp.

) 9cobinata, Linn. Rare ; shore. Society and Philip-



Islands.
Peronctd) casea, G. B. Sow. Rare.

) nitens, Desh. One specimen.

•) producta, H. Ad., n. sp.

) pura, H. Ad., n. sp.

) triradiata, H. Ad., n. sp.

-) rosa^oeoy H. Ad., n. sp.

) lactea, H. Ad., n. sp.

) eryihrasermSy H. Ad., n. sp.
Peronceoderma) sirr^leXy H. Ad., n. sp.
Angvlus) ptigiUay H. Ad., n. sp.

) vernalh, Hanley ? Rare, Singapore.



(TeUenides) ovalis, Sow. (Valves.) Molucca, Philippines.

Maeoma tnmcata, Jonas. Yalves. Manilla.

Tellidora pwiUa, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare ; = Gotddia lameUaUi, lasd.

Lucinopsis (Lajonkairia) degans, H. Ad., n, sp.

Scrobicularia (lacra) seycheUarum, A Ad. Rare ; 10-20 £. Sey-

chelle Islands.
Semele Afacandreas, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare.
Paphia glahrata, Gmel. Frequent ; 2-10 f. Australia.
Ervilia scaliola, IsseL Rare ; 15-25 f.

Venw reticulata, linn. Shore ; valves. Philippines, Madagascar.
Chiane cosUHlifera, Ad. & Rve. Frequent ; 15 f, Philippines.

puUhdla, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare ; 15 f.

Bomeriana, Issel. Frequent ; 10 f.

CaUistaJlorida, Lam. Frequent; 10-20 f.

croeea ?, Desh. Young ; one specimen. Philippines.

Circe adenensis, Ph. Two specimens.

arabica, CHiemn. Abundant ; several varieties ; shore. Red Sea.



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obtained in the Gulf of Suez. 447

Civet corrugata, Chemii. Frequent ; 2-6 f. New Holland.

crocea^ Gray. Frequent ; 2-10 1 ; two varieties. Bed Sea.

lentiginosa, Chem. Frequent ; low water. Bed Sea.

puWira, Deeh. Not frequent ; low water. Bed Sea.

Savignyi, Jonas, t^pectinata, Tar., Lam. Low water. Indian

Ocean, Plulippines, &c.

temiaraia, Dunk. Two specimens.

sulcata, Gray. Yarieties frequent ; 2-10 f. Philippines.

lentieularts, Deeh. Bare ; 6 f. Australia.

{Idoconcha) CMtrensis, Linn. Bare. Indian Ocean.

( )picta, Bom. Moderately rare ; two vars. Philippines.

( ) hebrcea, Lam. Bare. Persian Gulf (Ccl. Pdly).

Domda erythrostoma, Bve. 1 Shore to 5 f. ; moderately frequent.

=s erythrasa, Bomer. J Aden.

hepaUoay Ph., and var. Bare ; Bas Mahommed. Natal*

variegata, var., Chenm. Bare ; precisely resembling var. from

Moluccas. Australia, Philippines, Moluocas.
Clementia Cumingii, Desh. Yalves ; shore.
Tapes Deshayesii, Hanley. 5 f. ; not abundant. Philippines.
iestrixy Chemn. 5 f. ; two specimens ; young. Indian Ocean,

New Holland.
Bvpellaria maerophyUaj Desh. Four specimens. Philippines.
OoraUiophaga coralliopTiaga, GmeL One specimen* Philippines.

striolata, H. Ad., n. sp.

Petricola E€rnprichii,Ia»el. Not frequent in Madrepore. Philippines.
Cardium (Trachicardium) maeulommj Wood. Bare. W. Columbia.
{Cera8toderma)magnvm,(jkexxm. Valves; onshore. Ceylon,

Madagascar, &c.

( ) arahicwm, Issel.

( ) parvum, H. Ad., n. sp. Not common.

( ) sueziensisy Issel. Fi^uent.

( ), sp. Not unfrequent.

Lcmeardium pectinatum, A fr^tgment.

Papyridea (Ftdvia) papyraeea, Qiemn. Not common. Philippines,
" (— ^) tenuieostata, Sow. Not common. New Holland.
Hemicardia {Fragum) carditcrformis, Bve. Bare.

— ( ) nivalis, Bve. Not common. Philipjanes.

— (Ctenocardia) fomieata, Sow. 6-20 f. ; rare.
. ( ), sp. One specimen ; young.

— (Lunulicardia) auricula, Forsk. Not common.
( ) svhretusa. Sow. Bare.

Ohama cornucopia, Bve. Frequent ; reefe.

— foliacea, Quoy ? Bare ; reefe. Philippines.

— refUxa, Bve. Common ; shallow water. N. Australia.
-»— Riippellii, Bve. Common ; shallow water. Bed Sea.
Chametrachcea elangata, Lam. 4 f. ; reefe. Philippines.

— rudis, Bve. 4f. ; reefe. Philippines.
Lucina dcntifera, Jonas. Bare ; 5-20 f. Bed Sea.
Fiseheriana, Issel. Common on shore at Suez.

— Senweriana, Issel. Frequent in 6-10 f.

30*



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448 Mr. B. M' Andrew on Teataceaua MoUusca

Luema eUaans, EL Ad., n. sp.
— — concinrM, BL Ad., n. sp.

Fiddingi, H. Ad., n. sp.

— ^ (Oyeku) quadrimaculata ?, D'Orb.

( ) MacandrecBy H. Ad., n. sp. Valves.

Codakia excuper<Ua, Rye. Shore ; y^ves. Honduras.

— inierrupta, Lam. Shore ; rare. Torres Staraits.

Beevit, Desh. Not rare. B^anion.

LimpespiUiy Rye. Shore.

decusmtay H. Ad., n. sp. Rare.

piday H. Ad., n. sp. Rare.

^— tumiday Rye. Valves.

My9ia tumida, H. Ad., n. sp. Rare.

Diphdonta Savignyi, Vaillant Not nnfrequent.

Scintilla Oweni^ Desh. Under stones, low water. Philippines.

AcHnobulus angtiukatus, yar., Rve. Rare.

cardioideSy Rye. Rare. Philippines.

eUganUduBy Desh. Rare.

— ^— ovaliSy yar.. Rye. Rare ; one yalye. Philippines.

■ variegaius, Brag. Rare. Indian and Chinese Seas.
MgtUus (Atdacomya) CimUngianuSy Rye. Rare. Panama.

— ( ) variabUts, Krauss. Abundant. S. AMca.

Crenella gibba^ H. Ad., n. sp.

— ^ omatay H. Ad., n. sp.

■ {Modiolaria) ccmobita, Vaillant. Persian Gulf.

■ ( ) Ehrenbergi, IsseL

( ) viridula, H. Ad., n. sp.

Pema auriculata, Krauss. frequent on reefs. S. Africa.

fidgida, H. Ad., n. sp. One specimen.

glaberrima, Rye. One specimen, young. Sidney.

setigem, Dunk., small yar. Rare.

■ rhomhoidea, yar., Hanley. One specimen. Gambia.

(Brachydontes) suhsulcata^ Dunk., small yar. Rare. Manilla.

LUhophaga dnnamGnea, yar.. Lam. Philippine and West-Lidian
Islands.

ffanleyana, Dk. Frequent Red Sea.

Vulsella attenuata, Rye. Red Sea.

coroUata, Rye. One specimen. Zanzibar.

crentdata^ Rye. Red Sea.

ieocardia, Jlye.

■ lingua fdis. Rye. Red Sea.

mgtUinaf Lam. Frequent. Red Sea.

rugoMy Lam. Red Sea.

—— spongiarum, Lam. Common. Red Sea.

Avicula cda corvi. Rare, on coral ; and yar. ? Red Sea.

marmorataj Ph. One specimen.

Margaritif&ra margaritifera, Lam. Frequent in Straits of Jubal.

Indian Ocean, Pacific.

muricata, Rye. ? Abundant at low water. Philippines.

Isognonum eaudaius, Rye.



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obtained in the Qulf of Suez. 449

IsognonKM nanus, Gould.

pecHnaius, Rve. Rare.

quadrawjfularis, Rve.

rostratus, Schum. Rare.

Malleus decuriatus^ Lam. New Holland.

regula, Forsk. Philippine Islands.

solitarius, Rve. One specimen. Pacific.

■ Ugrinus, Rve. Moluccas.

Crenatula avicularis. Lam. 8hore ; sponge. Red Sea.

hicostalis. Lam. Shore. Red Sea.

folimny Gmel. Shore. Red Sea.

myiiloides, Lam. Shore. Red Sea.

— nigrina, Lam. Shore. Lidia.

jpwta, Gmel. Shore. Red Sea.

Pinna assimilis, Hanley. Shore. Torres Straits.

hystrix, Hanley. Shore ; two specimens. Australia^ Ambojna.

Stutchburyi, Rve. Shore. Australia.

(Atrina) saecata, Linn. Sandwich and Philippine Islands.

Area navicalaris, Brug. Two specimens ; 5 f . China.

arabica, Forsk. Frequent ; shore to 6 f . Red Sea.

Barhatia deeussata, Sow. Not rare ; 6 f. Philippines, Australia.

j>arva, Rve. Rare; 51 Pacific Ocean, Persian Gulf.

setigeraj Rve. Frequent ; low water. Zanzibar.

stnaiOy Rve. Frequent ; low water, under stones.

trapezina, Lam. One specimen. Philippines.

, sp. minute, allied to B, raridenUxta. (hie specimen.

(Acar) j)licata, Chemn. Not unfrequent. Red Sea.

Scapharca pygmcMy H. Ad., n. sp.

AnoTndlocardia Hankeyana, Rve. Shore ; rare. Mozambique.

transversa, H. Ad., n. sp.

rotundicostata, Rve. Shore ; rare.

Aainea arabica, H. Ad., n. sp. 8-10 f. ; frequent.

livida. Sow. Rare. Reunion.

(Pectuneulus) peetinifarmis. Lam. Shore; frequent. Philip-
pines.

Limopsis midtistriata, Forsk. 5-20 f., mud ; abundant.

■ eaneeUata, Rve. Three specimens. Singapore.

Nuetda incantpicua, H. Ad., n. sp. 30-40 f. ; numerous valves, one
living.

Peeten caneinnus, Rve. Shore ; valves.

— ^ Hindus, Lam. Frequent on Madrapore. Persian Gulf.

sanguinolentus, Rve. One young and a valve ; shore. Red Sea.

— — senatorius, Gmel. Shore ; not frequent. Moluccas &c.

serratus. Sow. Rare ; valves. Philippines, Mauritius.

— — ^ varius, Linn. Rare ; cannot be distmguished frt)m European
specimens. Britain, Mediterranean, &c.

— , sp. A frtigment.

— (Pallium) plica, linn. Frequent; 2-6 f. China, Ceylon.

Vola erythrasensis. Sow. {fihsa, Rve.). Not unfrequent. Australia.

Badulapaucicostata, Sow. Not unfrequent on Madrepore. Reunion.



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460 Mr. a. & Brady on Recent Ostraoein



Badula inflata, Chenm. Bare ; yalvee.

tenuis, H. Ad., n, sp. Bare.

(Ctenoidei) scabra, Bom, varietiee. Bare,

(Limatula) pusiOa, K. Ad., n. sp. Bare.

(ManUUum) fragility Boltea. Bare. Philippine and Sand-
wich Islands.
lAmoM peetinata, H. Ad. 40 L ; yalyee ; firequent.
Sp<mdylu8 aculeiuus, Chemn. Shallow water, on coral &c. ManritLas.
^-■^ plunspinomt$, Bve. One valve.
PUcciuIa pJulippinarum, Hanley. Philippines.
Pedum spandyloideum, Gmel. In coral. Indian Ocean, ICanritiiis.
(ktrea (LopJta) cucuUata, Bom. Low water, rocks. Philippines.
( ) frons. Valves. W. Indies.



XLIV. — Contributions to the Study of the Entomostraca.
By Gbobge STEWARD60N Bradt, C.M.Z.S.

No, V, B^cont Ostracodafrom the Chdfof St. Lawrence.

[Plate XIX.]

The specimens which form the subject of the presoit notice
haye been kindly plaoed in my hands by Dr. Dawson, of
Montreal, for examination and description. They were dredged
by Mr. G. M. Dawson in yarions parts of the Gulf of St Law-
rence, in depths yaiying mostly from 10 to 50 fathoms, but in
one case reaching 250 fathoms. The following is the list of
species: —



Aigilloecia^ sp.

Cythere leioaenna^ Korman*

lutea, JUruOer.

pelhicida, Baird.

— emaiginata, Sars, sp.

condnna, Joms.

tuberculata, 8ars,

canadensis, nov. sp.

viilosa, Bars,

dunelmensisy Norman, sp.

— Dawsoni; nov. sp.

abjwioolay Sars. sp.

— - (P) Whiteii, Bavrd, sp,

costata^ Brady.

Cytheridea papiUosa, Bosquet,



Ojtheridea punctillata, Brady,

Sorbyana, Jonm,

Pelongata, Brady.

Eucythere Argos, 8t^ sp.
Loxoconcha, sp.
Xestolebeiis depreesa, Sars,
Cytherura unda^. iSiira (var.).

pmnila, C, A ^R, QSSX

P ooncentrica, C^B, <ShJ2.(MS.).

Cytheropteron Dodosuniy Brady,
BjihocytheTe toigiday Sars,
Ovtheiideis foveoktay nov. sp.
P Pmlomedes interpimcta, Batrd^ sp.
Bradycinetus, sp.



The determination of these species has been a most perplex-
ing task, owing to their variation in most cases from tne types
as known to us on this side of the Atlantic. It is probablcj^
indeed, that many which I have here identified with well-
known species would by other earcinologists be thought worthy



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from the Chilfof St. Lawrence. 451

ei diirtmet specific rank ; but^ considering the small number
of specimens at mj disposal for examination^ I have thought
it better to err, if err I must, by allowing too much latitude to
variation, rath^ than by unnecessary species-splitting. The
variation: though in most cases such as to be almost incom-
municable by iawings or written description, is nevertheless
sufficient to be puzzling, consisting in very slight modifications
of the shell in almost all directions — in outUne, proportions,
and degree of surface-ornament. Such remarks as I have
thought it necessary to make on these points will be found
imder the names of the difierent species.

It would be unwise to generalize hastily from the small
number of dredgings here described ; yet we cannot help no-
ticing that the general facies of this faima much more nearly
approaches to that of the Shetland seas or of the Scottish glacial
clays than it does to that of England, while it has scarcely
any thing in common with that of the Mediterranean. The
species which give it an emphatically boreal character ar«
Cythere letoderma (perhaps the most abundant species in thesi
dredgings, and hitherto found only in the Shetland seas), (7.
emargtnataj C. costcUaj and Gytheridea Sorbyana^ all of which
may be said to range, on our side of the Atlantic, north of the
60th degree of north latitude. And several other members of
the list become with us very scarce south of 54® : these are
Cythere concinna. C. lutea^ G, tuberculatay G, dunehnensis^
Gytheridea papiltosa^ and 0,\punctillata, Except the three

ries here described as new, these two lists include all the
acteristic species of Dr. Dawson's dredgings, the rest being
represented in each case only by one or two specimens, often
imperfect

ArgiUoeda^ sp.
One specimen, possibly referable to A. cylindrical Sars.

Gyihere leiodermay Norman. (PI. XIX. figs. 11-13.)

(Norman, Shetland Dredging Report, p. 291.)

Carapace, as seen from the side, subquadrate, slightly higher
in front than behind : greatest height situated at the anterior
third, and equal to about half the length ; anterior extremity
obtuse, obliquely rounded ; posterior subtruncate, sinuated in
the middle : superior margm scarcely arched, obsoletely an-
gular about the eye^tuberdes : inferior nearly straight, with
a slight median sinuation. oeen from above, the outline is
broadlv ovate (almost elliptical), only slightly narrower in
front than behind ; greatest widtib equal to the height, and



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462 Mr. G. S. Brady on Recent Ostracoda

situated near the middle : extremities broadly and evenly
roimded. Hinge-margins somewhat depressed ; hinge-pro-
cesses strongly developed. Surface of tne shell smooth and
polished^ b€«et with more or less numerous circular punc-
tures, each bearing a short rigid hair. Colour yellowish
white. Length -J^ inch.

This is the most abundant species in the dredgings here
described, and occurs in greater or less quantity in almost
all the localities. In Bntain it is known only fix)m the
single (?) specimen described by Mr. Norman, which was
taken in " very deep water " in Unst Haaf. Mr. Norman's
description applies accurately to the American specimens, ex-
cept in the matter of the " distant punctured papilla." The
ornamentation, it is true, does appear papillose in some lights;
but this is, I think, an optical illusion : when carefully exa-
mined, the seemingly elevated circles resolve themselves into
concave pits, each with a little central bristle. I have seen a
single fossil valve of this species from the Scottish glacial
clay.

Cythere tuberculata, Sars.

These specimens are much less rounded in outline and more
i^gg^ ^ general appearance than is usual with European
specimens ; there is also a tendency, more or less pronounced,
to the formation of one or more longitudinal ridges near the
ventral border. But the distinctions do not seem sufficient to
warrant the separation of the form as a new species.

Cythere canadensis^ nov. sp. (PI. XIX. figs. 4-6.)

Carapace elongate, compressed ; seen horn the side, quadrate ;
greatest height situate at the anterior third, and scarcely
equal to half the length ; anterior extremity very obUquelv
rounded, and bordered at the lower angle with several small
teeth; posterior subtruncate, slightly emarginate in the
middle : superior margin gentlj sloping, nearly straight,
sinuated benind the anterior hinge; inferior margin also
straight, exceptine a slight median sinuation. Seen from
above, somewnat lozenge-shaped, somewhat tapered toward
the fix)nt, more rounded behmd, widest near the middle ;
width equal to about two-fifths of the length ; extremi-
ties obtuse, subtruncate. Shell-surface uneven, irregularly
pitted, marked with more or less prominent, flexuous, longi-
tudinal ribs, and bearing usually a rounded central tubercle ;
bordered in front, a little within the anterior margin, by a
wide, elevated, and rounded ridge : posterior margin havmg
a similar but less conspicuous boraer. Length ^ inch.



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from the Ghilfof 8u Lawrence. 453

This 8pecie8''approache8 very closely to G. cihyssicola^ Sare,
and C, Stimpsonij Brady. From the former it differs chiefly
in having a less pronounced marginal belt, a more rugged
surface, and a less angular outline when viewed from above :
from the latter in the absence of any sharplv cut longitudinal
crests^ and by its more rounded contour and elevated anterior
margm. There is, however, considerable diversity amongst
the specimens here grouped imder the specific name canadensis^
and it is possible that a more extended series might have
shown that they belong to two or more species. The chief
difference resides in the surface-ornament, some exhibiting
several short, rough and abruptly elevated ridges, others being
only moderately pitted, while some (from one of which our
drawings are taken) are intermediate in character, being rather
delicatdy ridged, chiefly on the posterior half, and vaguely
nitted and ridsred in front.



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454 Recent Os^racoda from the Chf^cfSL.

Cytherwra utuUUa, San, Tar. (PL XEL fig. 7.)

A specimen which I soppofle to belong to C, undata differs
enough to make it worth wnile to figure it. The difference is
chi^j in sarface-scrdptarey but slightly also in outline.

C^therura pumilay C.^ B. & B., and Cytherura ooncerUrica^
C.| B. &. B.

These species have already been figured and described (in
MS.) by the author in conjunction with Messrs. Grosskey aiid
Bobertson, firom fossil posttertiary specimens; and I have
not thougnt it right here to forestall those descriptions, the
publication of which I hope may not be long delayed.

Oytherideis Jbveolatay nov. sp. (PL XIX. figs. 1-3.)

Carapace elongate, compressed ; seen from the side, siliquose,
slightly depressed in front ; greatest height situate about
the middle, and equal to rather more than one-third of the
length; extremities roimded, the anterior much the nar-
rower: superior margin almost straight, inferior slightly
sinuated in the middle. Seen from above, elongate ovate,
widest near the middle, tapering gradually- toward the front,
more abruptly behind ; extremities acummate ; width equal
to one-thim of the length. Shell-surface smooth, minutely
and somewhat densely punctate, semitransparent, homy.
Length -^ inch.

Nearly allied to O. suhtUata, Brady, but more robust and
more densely punctate.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX.

Fjp, 1. Cytherideis fcmolata^ carapace^ seen from the left side. |

Fip, 2. The same, seen from above. > X40.

jy. 8. The same, seen from below. )

Fip, 4 Cythere eanaderuis, carapace, seen firom the left side. |

I\p, 6. The same, seen firom above. > X50.

Fiff, 6. The same, seen firom the fircmt |

jy. 7. Cytherttra tsndata, yar., carapace, seen from the left side. X 84.

JFy. 8. Ci/t?tere DawsofUy carapace, seen firom the left side. }

Fip, 9. The same, seen firom aooye. > X50.

Fig. 10. The same, seen fi*om below. j

lig. 11. CutKere leioderma, carapace, seen fi^m the left side, j

Ft^, 12. The same, seen from above. > X40.

I\g, 13. The same, seen firom behind. )



a Si



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Dr. J. E. Gray on the Wart^Hog^ 456

XLV, — Reph to Dr. Sclater on the Wart-Hogs,
By I)r. J. E, Gray, F.R.S. iScc.

The only rej)ly that I think it desirable to give to Dr. Sclater's
observations in the preceding Number, as regards the Wart-
hogs, is to request such readers as take sufficient interest in
the question to read my two former notes on the subject, which
were called forth by Dr. Sclater's remark in the * ftoceedings
of the Zoological Society,' and then to read his observati<ms :
and I feel sure that they will think them as sophistical and
unlike a scientific communication as his paper m the ^ Pro-
ceedings,' in which he figured a head of an adult male and of
a young female, without stating their age or sex, as " illus-
trative of the external difference between these two wart-
hogs " (P. cethiopictM and P. jtEliani). It has yet to be
proved that the whole difference between the two neads does
not depend upon the age and sex of the animals whose heads
are figured. The heads are known to change in form, and
very probably the hair on the ears becomes more developed,
as the animal reaches the adult age; and it is one of the
scientific uses of the Zoological Grardens to observe such facts.
And I think it a pity that Dr. Sclater did not wait until he
could inform us wnether this was the case, more especially as
the nakedness of the ears is not the character given by iftllp-
pell of P. jEltant ; and if it should have been found that when
the animal reached the adult age it had such ears as are figured,
it would have been the addition of an important fact to our
knowledge of the genus, the existence of a second species of
which would give me great pleasure.

It is true that the oBservations of " M. F. Cuvier. Van der
Hoeven, and Owen," and I may add Ehrenberg, Sundevall,
and others, did not prevent me from imiting the two species,
which they wish to establish imder different names, m my
recent Catalogue, because I have always thought that in natural
science the result of examining a number of specimens was
more to be relied on and more conducive to the progress of
. science than deference to the opinion of the most scientific
and revered names. In this case I had under my eye more
skulls than I believe all the zoologists quoted taken together ha^
the opportunity of examininff when theymade their observations,
whicn were ail made on skulls and their teeth. I examined
patiently and repeatedly to discover if I could divide them
mto two kinds, according to the characters which the natu-
ralists quoted had used to separate the two presumed kinds ;
and I came to the conclusion that it was impossible to sepa-



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456 Dr. J. E. Gray an the Wart-Hoga.

rate them by any of those characters^ and at the same time
proved that the characters proposed were not sexaal, but only
accidental variations to be found in specimens from the same
locali^ and killed at the same time; and I felt convinced
that if any of the authors named had had the opportunity of
examining a similar series of skulls, they would have come to
the same conclusion as M. de Blainville had come to, from
the same cause, in his ' Ost^graphie des Mammiferes/ where
he considers all the skulls those otP. cethioptcus. I by no means
deny that there may not be two species to be distinguished by
external characters : but when I published my Catalogue no
such characters had been pointea out. and I have only had
the opportunity of examinmg very few preserved skins or
living animals.

K the difference in the ears pointed out by Dr. Sclater
proves to be permanent in all ages of the animal, and the pe-
culiarity of a species which has not been before observed, it
will be an interesting fact, and will be duly appreciated by me
and other zoologists.

I am perfectly aware that I have made many mistakes, in
the more than half century that I have been publishing, both
of omission and commission ; indeed the constant revision to
which I have submitted mv own papers on zoology show how
painfully conscious I am of the fact, and how anxious I am to
arrive at the truth. I have written many papers and de-
scribed many animals, and suggested various alterations in



Online LibraryTaylor and Francis William JardineThe Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology → online text (page 46 of 52)