the Elder Pliny.

Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books online

. (page 14 of 60)
Online Librarythe Elder PlinyPliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books → online text (page 14 of 60)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


with him ? For he finished the Portico begun according to
the Designation and Memorials appointed by the Sister of
M. Agrippa.

CHAPTER III.
The nearer Spain.

THE old Form of the nearer Spain is somewhat changed,
as also of many other Provinces, as Pompey the Great in the



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 157

Trophies which he erected in Pyrenaeus, testifieth, that
846 Towns between the Alps and the Borders of the further
Spain, were by him brought to Obedience. Now the
whole Province is divided into seven Jurisdictions : the Car-
thaginian, the Tarraconensian, Caesar Augustanian, Cluni-
ensian, Asturian, Lucensician, and of Bracarum. There are
besides Islands, which we set aside without naming them,
and excepting the Cities that are annexed to others, the
Province itself containeth 294 Towns. In which Colonies
there be twelve Towns, of Roman Citizens thirteen, of old
Latins seventeen, of Allies one, stipendiary 136. The first
in the Frontiers be the Bastulians : behind them, in such
Order as shall be said, those receding Interiorly, the Men-
tesani, Oretani, and the Carpetani, upon the River Tagus.
Near to them, the Vaccaei, Vectones, Celtiberi, and Arrebaci.
The Towns next to the Borders, Urci and Barea, assigned to
Bcetica : the Country of Mauritania, then Deitania : after
that, Contestania, and New Carthage, a Colony. From the
Promontory of which, called Saturn s Cape, the Passage
over the Sea to Caesaries, a City in Mauritania, is 187 Miles.
In the residue of that Coast is the River Tader : the Free
Colony Illici, of which the Bay took the name Illicitanus.
To it are annexed the Icositani : soon after, Lucentum, a
Town of the Latins. Dranium, a Stipendiary ; the River
Sucro, and what was sometime the Frontier Town of Con-
testania. The Region Edetania, which retireth to the Cel-
tiberians, having a pleasant Pool bordering along the Front
of it. Valentia, a Colony lying three Miles from the Sea.
The River Turium ; and just as far from the Sea, Saguntum,
a Town of Roman Citizens renowned for their Fidelity.
The River Idubeda, and the Region of the Ilergaoni. The
River Iberus, rich by Commerce and Navigation, which
beginneth in the Cantabrian's Country, not far from the
Town luliobrica, and holdeth on its course 430 Miles, and,
for 260 of them, from the Town Varia, carrieth Vessels; in
regard of which River, the Greeks named all Spain Iberia.
The Region Cossetania, the River Subi, the Colony Tarraco,
built by the Scipios, like as Carthage of the Poani. The



1 58 History of Nature. [BooK 111.

Country of the Illergetes, the Town Subur, the River Ru-
bricatum ; from thence the Lacetani and Indigetes. After
them in this order following : retiring within at the Foot of
Pyrenaeus, the Ausetani, Itani, and Lacetani : and along
Pyrenaeus, the Cerretani, and then the Vascones. But in
the Borders, the Colony Barcino, surnamed Faventia :
Towns of Roman Citizens, Baetulo, Illuro, the River Lar-
num, Blandee : the River Alba, Emporiae: two there be of
these, of the old Inhabitants, and of Greeks, who were
descended from the Phocaeans. The River Tichis; from
whence to Pyrenaea Venus on the other side of the Pro-
montory, are forty Miles. Now, besides the forenamed,
shall be related the principal places as they lie in every
Jurisdiction. At Tarracon there plead in Court four and
forty States. The most famous among them are, of Roman
Citizens, the Dertusani and Bisgargitani : of Latins, the
Ausetani and Cerretani, surnamed Juliani : they also who
are named Augustani, the Sedetani, Gerundenses, Ges-
sorienses, Teari, the same with Julienses. Of Stipendiarii,
the Aquicaldenses, Onenses, and Baetulonenses. Caesar Au-
gusta, a free Colony, upon which the River Iberus floweth,
where the Town before was called Salduba : these are of
the Region Sedetania, and receiveth 152 States, and among
these, of Roman Citizens, the Bellitani and Celsenses ; and
out of the Colony, the Calaguritani, surnamed also Nascici.
The Ilerdenses of the Surdaon's Nation, near to whom
runneth the River Sicoris : the Oscences, of the Region Ves-
cetania, and the Turiasonenses. Of old Latins, the Cas-
cantenses, Erganicenses, Gracchuritani, Leonicenses, Ossi-
gerdenses : of Confederates, the Tarragenses. Stipendiarii,
the Arcobricenses, Andologenses, Arocelitani, Bursaonenses,
Calaguritani, surnamed Fibularenses, Complutenses, Ca-
renses, Cincenses, Cortonenses, Dammanitani, Larrenses,
Iturisenses, Tspalenses, Ilumberitani, Lacetani, Vibienses,
Pompelonenses, and Segienses. There resort to Carthage
for Law sixty-two several States, besides the Inhabitants of
the Islands. Out of the Colony Accitana, the Gemellenses,
also Libisosona, surnamed Foroaugustana, which two are



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 159

endued with the Franchises of Italy : out of the Colony
Salariensis, the Citizens of Old Latium, Castulonenses, whom
Ccesar calleth Venales. The Setabitani, who are also Au-
gustani, and the Valerrienses. But of the Stipendiarii, of
greatest name be the Babanenses, the Bastiani, the Con-
saburenses, Dianenses, Egelestani, Ilorcitani, Laminitani,
Mentesani, the same as Oritani ; arid Mentesani, who other-
wise are Bastuli ; Oretani, who also are called Germani ;
the Chief of the Celtiberians, the Segobrigenses, and the
Toletani of Carpetania, dwelling upon the River Tagus :
next to them, the Viacienses and Virgilienses. To the Juris-
diction of Cluniensis the Varduli bring fourteen Nations, of
which it is necessary to name none but the Albanenses ;
the Turmodigi four, among whom are the Segisamonenses,
Sagisainejulienses. To the same Jurisdiction the Carietes
and the Vennenses go out of five Cities, of which the Ve-
lienses are. Thither repair the Pelendones, with four States
of the Celtiberians, of whom the Numantini were famous ;
as in the eighteen Cities of the Vaccsei. the Intercatienses,
Pallantini, Lacobricenses, and Caucenses: for in the four
States of the Cantabrici only Juliobrica is named. In the
ten Cities of the Autrigoni, Tritium and Vironesca. To
the Arevaci the River Areva gave name. Of them there be
seven Towns : Saguntia and Uxama, which Names are often
used in other Places ; besides Segovia and Nova Augusta,
Termes, and Clunia itself, the very utmost bound of Cel-
tiberia. All the rest lie toward the Ocean ; and of the
above-named, the Verduli, together with the Cantabri. To
these there are joined twelve Nations of the Astures, divided
into the Augustanes and Transmontani, having a stately
City, Asturica. Among these are Giguri, Pesici, Lancienses,
and Zoclae. The number of the whole Multitude ariseth to
240,000 Polls of free Men. The Jurisdiction Lucensis com-
priseth sixteen Nations (besides the Celtici and Lebuni) of
base Condition, and having barbarous Names ; but of Free-
men, almost 166,000. In like manner, twenty-four Cities,
having 275,000 Polls of Bracari; of whom, besides the
Bracari themselves, the Vibali, Celerini, Galleeci, ^Equesilici,



1 60 History of Nature. [ BOOK III.

and Quinquerni, may be named without Disdain. The
length of the hither Spain, from Pyrenaeus to the Bound of
Castulo, is 607 Miles, and the Coast thereof somewhat more.
The Breadth from Tarracon to the Shore of Alarson, 307
Miles ; and from the Foot of Pyrenseus where, between two
Seas, it is Pointed with the Straits, and so opening itself
by little and little until it come to touch the farther Spain,
it is as much, and addeth somewhat more to the Breadth.
All Spain is full of Metal, as Lead, Iron, Copper, Silver,
and Gold : the hither part thereof aboundeth with Specular
Stone, 1 and Bostica, particularly, with Vermillion. There
are also Quarries of Marble. Unto all Spain, Vespasianus
Augustus, the Emperor, tossed with the Tempests of the
Commonwealth, granted the Franchises of Latium. The
Mountains Pyreuaei define the Boundaries of Spain and Gaul,
their Promontories projecting into two opposite Seas.

CHAPTER IV.
The Province Narbonensis.

THAT Part of Gallia which is washed by the Mediter-
ranean Sea is called the Province Narbonensis, named for-
merly Braccata ; divided from Italy by the River Varus and
the Alps, most Friendly Mountains to the Roman Empire ;
and from the other Parts of Gaul, on the North side, by the
Mountains Gehenna and Jura. For Tillage of the Ground,
for reputation of Men, regard of Manners, and for Wealth,
worthy to be set behind no other Provinces whatever ; and,
in one word, to be counted Italy more truly than a Pro-
vince. In its Borders lyeth the Country of the Sardoni ;
and within, the Region of the Consuarani. The Rivers be
Tecurn and Vernodubrum ; the Towns, llliberis (a poor
relic of a City that was once Great), and Ruscio, inhabited
by the Latins. The River Atax, springing out of Pyrenaeus,
runneth through the Lake Lubrensis: Narbo Martins, a
Colony of the Tenth Legion, twelve Miles distant from the

' i. e. Talc. See Lib. xxxvi. cap. 22.



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 161

Sea : Rivers Araris nnd Liria. Towns in the other Parts
scattered here and there, by reason of Pools lying before
them : Agatha, in Times past belonging to the Massilians,
and the Region of Volscae Tectosages. Also, where Rhoda
of the Rhodians was, whereof Rhodanus took its name, the
most fruitful River of all Gallia, running swiftly out of the
Alps through the Lake Lemanus, and carrying with it
the slow Araris ; and Isara running as fast as itself,
together with Druentia ; of which the two small Mouths are
called Lybica; of which the one is Hispaniensum, the other
Metapinum : there is a third, which is the most Wide
and Large, named Massalioticum. Some write that the
Town Heraclea likewise stood at the Mouth of Rhodanus.
Beyond the Ditch, out of Rhodanus, which was the Work
of C. Marius and beareth his Name, there was remarkable
Pool ; moreover, the Town Astromela, and the maritime
Tract of the Avsetici ; and above, the stony Plains, the Me-
morial of the Battles of Hercules. The Region of the
Anatilii, and within, of the Desuviates and Caviarae. Again,
from the Sea, Tricorium ; and within, the Region of the
Tricolli, Vocantii, Segovellauni, and presently of the Allo-
broges ; but in the Borders, Massilia of Greek Phocaeans
confederate : the Promontory Citharista, Zaopartus, and the
Region of the Camatullici. After them the Suelteri ; and
above them, Verucines; but in the Coast, Athenopolis of
the Massilians ; Forum Julii, a Colony of the ninth Legion,
which also is called Parensis and Classica : in it is the River
Argenteus, the Region of the Oxubii and Ligaunii ; above
whom are the Suetri, Quariates, and Adunicates : but in the
Borders, a Latin Town, Antipolis. The Region of the
Deciates, the River Varus gushing out of a Mountain of the
Alps, called Acema : in the middle Part thereof, the Colonies
Arelate of the sixth Legion, Bliterae of the seventh, and
Arausia of those belonging to the second . In the Territory
of the Caviarae, Valentia and Vienna, of the Allobroges.
Latin Towns, Aquas Sextiae of the Saiyi, and Avenio of the
Caviarae, Apta Julia of the Vulgienties, Alebecerriorum of
the Apollinares, Alba of the Helvi, Augusta of the Tricos-



162 History of Nature. [BOOK III.

tines ; Anatilia, Aeria, Bormannico, Comacina, Cabellio,
Carcasum of the Volscan Tectosages ; Cessero, Carpen-
toracte of the Menines ; the Cenicenses, Cambolecti, who
are named Atlantici, Forum Voconii, Glanum, Livii, Lu-
tevani, who are the same as the Foro-neronienses : Ne-
rnausum of the Arecomici, Piscense, Ruteni, Sanugenses, and
Tolosani of the Tectosages. The Borderers upon Aquitane,
Tasco-dumetari, Canonienses, Umbranici : two capital
Towns of the confederate City of the Vocontians, Vasco and
Lucus Augusti ; but Towns of no importance nineteen, as
twenty-four annexed to the Nemausienses. To this Charter
Galba the Emperor added of the Alpine Inhabitants, the
Avantici and Eproduntii, whose Town is named Dima.
Agrippa saith that the Length of the Province Narbonensis
is 270 Miles, and the Breadth 248.

CHAPTER V.
Italy, Tiber, Rome, Campania.

NEXT to them is Italy ; and the first of it the Ligurians :
then Hetruria, Umbria, Latium, where are the Mouths of
Tiberis and Rome, the Head of the whole Earth, sixteen
Miles distant from the Sea. After it is the maritime Country
of the Volscians, and Campania : then Picentium, Lu-
canum, and Brutium, the furthest Point in the South, to
which, from the moonshaped Mountains of the Alps, Italy
shooteth out to the Seas. From it is the Sea-coast of
Graecia, and soon after, the Salentini, Pediculi, Apuli,
Peligni, Ferentani, Marrucini, Vestini, Sabini, Picentes,
Galli, Urnbri, Tusci, Veneti, Carni, lapides, Istri, and
Liburni.

Neither am I ignorant that it might be thought justly a
point of an unthankful and stupid Mind, if briefly in this
sort, and cursorily, that Land should be spoken of which is
the Nurse of all Lands. She also is the Mother, chosen by
the Power of the Gods, to make even Heaven itself more
Glorious ; to gather into One the scattered Empires, to
soften the Fashions of other Countries ; and whereas the



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 163

Languages of so many Nations were repugnant and savage,
to draw them together by commerce of Speech, to a Con-
ference ; to endue Man with Humanity; and briefly, that of
all Nations in the World there should be one only Country.
But so noble are all the Places that a Man shall come to,
so excellent is every thing, and each State so famous, that I
am at a loss what to say. The City of Rome, the only fair
Face therein worthy to stand upon so stately a Neck, what
Work would it ask to be described as it ought l ? The very
Tract of Campania by itself, so pleasant and happy, how
should it be described? So that it is evident in this one
Place there is the Work of rejoicing Nature. Besides this,
the whole Temperature of the Air is evermore so vital, the
Fields so fertile, the Hills so open to the Sun, the Forests
so harmless, the Groves so shady, the kinds of Wood so
bounteous, the Mountains so breezy ; the Corn, the Vines,
the Olives so fertile ; the Sheep so enriched with such noble
Fleeces.; such Necks to the Oxen ; so many Lakes, such
abundance of Rivers and Springs watering it throughout ; so
many Seas and Havens, that it is the very Bosom lying open
to receive the Commerce of all Lands ; and as of itself
earnestly desiring to lie far into the Sea to help all Mankind.
Neither do I speak now of the Natures and Manners of the
Men ; nor of the Nations subdued by their Tongue and
Hand. Even the Greeks (a Nation of all other most given
to praise themselves) have given their judgment of her, in
that they called a certain Part thereof Great Greece. But
that which we did in the mention of the Heaven, namely, to
touch some known Planets and a few Stars, the same must



1 The Romans were proud of the glory of their city ; and believed it
to be the only one worthy the regard of the gods :

" Jupiter arce sua cum totum spectat in orbem,

Nil nisi Romanum, quod tueatur, habet." OVID, Fasti, lib. i.

From his high citadel when Jove surveyed

The extended earth beneath his sovereign sway,

Nought but the Roman widely spread he spied.
Worthy t'engage his care. Wern. Club.



164 History of Nature. [BooK III.

we do in this Part : only I pray the Readers to remember
that I hasten to rehearse every particular Thing through
the whole Globe.

Italy is fashioned like to an Oak leaf, being much larger
in Length than in Breadth: to the left Side bending with
the Top, and ending in the Figure of an Amazonian Shield :
and where, from the middle Extension, it is called Cocin-
thos, it putteth forth through two moonshaped Promontories
two Horns : the one, Leucopetra, on the right Hand ; the other,
Lacinium, on the left. In Length it reacheth from the Foot
of the Alps to Prsetoria Augusta, through the City of Rome,
and so to Capua, with a course leading to Rhegium, a Town
situated upon the Shoulder thereof: from which beginneth
the bending, as it were, of the Neck, and beareth 1020
Miles. And this Measure would be much more if it went
as far as Lacinium ; but such an Obliquity might seem to
decline out too much to one Side. Its Breadth is various ;
being 410 Miles between the two Seas, the Higher and
the Lower, and the Rivers Varus and Arsia. The middle
portions of this Breadth, which is much about the City of
Rome, from the Mouth of the River Aternus running into
the Adriatic Sea, unto the Mouths of Tiber, 136 Miles; and
somewhat less from Novum Castrum by the Adriatic Sea, to
Alsium, and so to the Tuscan Sea : and in no Place ex-
ceedeth it in Breadth 300 Miles. But the full Compass of
the whole, from Varus to Arsia, is 20,049 Miles. It is
distant by Sea from the Lands round about, that is, from
Istria and Liburnia, in some Places 100 Miles; from Epirus
and Illyricuni, 50 Miles ; from Africa, less than 200, as Varro
affirmeth ; from Sardinia, 120 Miles ; from Sicily, a Mile and
a half ; from Corey ra, less than 70 ; from tssa, 50. It goeth
along the Seas even to the Meridional Line of the Heaven ;
but if a Man examine it very exactly, it lieth between the
Sun-rising in Mid-winter, and the Point of the Meridian.

Now we will describe the Circuit of this Country, and
reckon the Cities : wherein it is necessary to be premised,
that we shall follow our Author Divus Augustus, and the
Description by him made of all Italy ; arranged into eleven



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 1 65

Regions. The Maritime Towns I will set down in the order
as they stand, according to their vicinity one to another.
But as in so running a Speech, the rest cannot be so
orderly described, therefore in the Inland part thereof I
will follow him as he hath digested them in Letters, but
mentioning the Colonies by Name which he hath delivered
in that number. Neither is it easy to follow thoroughly
their Positions and Origins, considering the Ingaun Li-
gurians (to say nothing of all the rest) were endowed with
Lands thirty times. To begin with the River Varus, there-
fore, there is the Town Nicsea, built by the Massilians ; the
River Po ; the Alps ; the People within the Alps, of many
Names, but chiefly the Capillati : the Town Vediantiorum,
the City Cemelion (or a Town belonging to the State of the
Vedianti, called Cemelion) ; the Port of Hercules Monoscus ;
the Ligustian Coast. Of the Liguri, the most renowned
beyond the Alps are the Sally i, Deceates, and Oxubii : on
this Side, the Veneni, and, descended from the Caturiges,
the Vagienni, Statilli, Vibelli, Magelli, Euburiates, Cas-
monates, Veliates, and those whose Towns we will declare
in the next Coast. The River Rutuba, the Town Albium,
Intemelium, the River Merula, the Town Albium Ingaunum,
the Port Vadum Sabatium, the River Porcifera, the Town
Genua, the River Feritor ; the Port Delphini, Tigulia :
within, Segesta Tiguliorum : the River Macra, which limiteth
Liguria. But on the back of all these Towns above-named
is Apenninus, the highest Mountain of all Italy, reaching
from the Alps, with a continual ridge of Hills, to the
Straits of Sicily. From the other Side of this to Pad us,
the richest River of Italy, all the Country shineth with noble
Towns : Liberna, Dertona a Colony, Iria, Barderates, In-
dustria, Pollentia, Cartea, which also is named Polentia;
Foro Fulvii the same as Valentinum ; Augusta of the Va-
gienni : Alba Pompeia, Asta, and Aquae Statiellorum. This
is the ninth Region, according to the Arrangement of Au-
gustus. The Coast of Liguria lieth between the Rivers Varus
and Macra, 211 Miles. To it is adjoined the seventh,



166 History of Nature. [BooK III.

wherein is Hetruria, from the River Macra : and itself,
with the Names often changed. In old Time the Pelasgi
drove the Umbri from thence : and by them the Lydi did
the like, of whose King they were named Tyrrheni: but
soon after, of their Ceremonies in Sacrificing, in the Greek
Language Thusci. The first Town of Hetruria is Luna, with
a famous Harbour ; then the Colony Luca, lying from the
Sea : and nearer to it is Pisae, between the River Auser
and Arnus, which took the Beginning from Pelops and the
Pisi, or Atintani, a Greek Nation. Vada Vollaterranea, the
River Cecinna. Populonium of the Hetrusci, in Times past
situate only upon this Coast. After these, the Rivers Prille,
and, soon after, Umbro, navigable : so forward the Tract of
Umbria, and the PortTelamon : Cossa Volscientium, planted
by the People of Rome ; Graviscae, Castrum Novum, Pyrgi,
the River Cseretanus, and Caere itself, standing four Miles
within ; Agylla, named by the Pelasgians, who built it ;
Alsium and Frugenae. The River Tiber, distant from
Macra 284 Miles. Within are these Colonies : Falisca,
descended from Argi (as Cato saith), and called Hetrus-
corum : Lucus Feronise, Russellana, Senensis, and Sutriva.
For the rest : Aretini the Old, Aretini Fidentes, Aretini
Julienses, Amitinenses, Aquenses, surnamed Taurini : Blerani,
Cortonenses, Capenates, Clusini the Old, Clusini the New,
Fluentini, fast upon the River Arnus that runneth before
them, Fesulse, Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, Herbanum,
Nepet, Novempagi, Prefectura Claudia, Foro Clodii : Pis-
torium, Perusia, Suanenses, Saturnini, who beforetime were
called Aurinini, Sudertani, Statones, Tarquinienses, Tus-
canienses, Vetulonienses, Veientani, Vesentini, Volaterrani,
surnamed Hetrusci, and Volsinienses. In the same Part lie
the Territories Crustuminus and Cseletranus, bearing the
Names of the old Towns. Tiber, before named Tybris,
and, before that, Albula, from almost the middle of the
Length of the Apennine runneth along the Borders of the
Aretini : small at the first, and not Navigable without being
gathered together by Fishponds into an Head, and so let



BOOK III.] History of Nature. 167

go : as Tinia and Glanis, which run into him ; and which
require nine Days for the collection of Waters, and so are kept
in for running if they have no Help from Rain. But Tiber,
hy reason of the rough and rugged Channel, notwithstanding
that Device, holdeth on no long Course together, but only
for Troughs, more truly than Boats ; and thus it doth for
150 Miles, to not far from Tifernum, Perusia, and Otriculum :
dividing as it passeth Hetruria from the Umbri and Sa-
bini : and presently, within thirteen Miles of the City
(Rome), it parteth the Veientian country from the Crustu-
mine: and soon after, the Fidenate and Latin Territories from
the Labican. But, besides Tinia and Glanis, it is augmented
with forty-two Rivers ; and especially with Nar and Anio :
which River being also itself Navigable, encloseth Latium
from behind, and that notwithstanding so many Waters
and Fountains are brought thereby into the City ; whereby
it is able to receive large Ships from the Italian Sea, being
the kindest Merchant of Things growing in the whole World :
it is the only River of all others to speak of, and more Vil-
lages stand upon it and see it, than all other Rivers in any
lands soever. No River hath less Liberty than it, as having
the Sides thereof enclosed on both Hands ; and yet he doth
not resist, although he hath many and sudden Swellings,
and in no Place more than in the City itself do his Waters
overflow : yet is he taken to be a Prophet rather, and a
Counsellor, and in Swelling more truly Religious than Cruel.
Old Latium, from Tiber to Circeios, was observed to be in
Length fifty Miles; so slender were at first the Roots of
this Empire. The Inhabitants thereof changed often, and
held it, some one time, some another; that is, the Abo-
rigines, Pelasgi, Arcades, Siculi, Aurunci, and Rutili. And
beyond Circeios, the Volsci, Osci, Ausones, from whence the
Name of Latium reached soon after, as far as to the River
Liris. In the beginning of it standeth Ostia, a Colony,
brought thither by a Roman King : the Town Laurentum,
the Grove of Jupiter Indiges, the River Numicius, and Ardea,
built by Dande, the Mother of Perseus. Then the Colony
Antium, once Aphrodisium ; Astura, the River and the



168 History of Nature. [BooK III.

Island. The River NymphaBUS, Clostra Romana, Circeii 1 ,
in Times past an Island, environed with a mighty Sea (if we
believe Homer\ but now with a Plain. A Wonder it is what
we are able to deliver concerning this thing, to the know-
ledge of Men. Theophrastus, who of Foreigners was the first
that wrote any Thing diligently concerning the Romans (for
Theopompus, before whom no Man made any mention, said
only, That the City was taken by the Gauls : and Clitarchus
next after him, spake of nothing but an Embassage sent
to Alexander} ; this Theophraslus^ with more certainty than



Online Librarythe Elder PlinyPliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books → online text (page 14 of 60)