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Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books online

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of the Town Caulon : Mystia, the Camp Consilinum, Cerin-
thus, which some think to be the longest Promontory of
Italy. Then the Bay of Scylaceum, which was called by the
Athenians, when they built it, Scylletium. Which Place the
Bay Terinaeus meeting with, maketh a Peninsula : in which
there is a Port called Castra Annibilis : and in no Place is
Italy narrower, being but twenty Miles broad. And, therefore,
Dionysius the Elder wished to have there cut it off, and
added it to Sicily. Rivers navigable there : Caecinos, Cro-
talus, Semirus, Arocha, Targines. Within is the Town Pe-
tilia, the Mountain Alibanus, and the Promontory Lacinium :
before the Coast of which is an Island ten Miles from the
Land, called Dioscoron ; and another Calypsus, which Homer

1 Wheelwright, in his translation of Pindar, thinks the following lines
from the seventh Nemean Ode refer to the circumstance mentioned by
Pliny :

" Three days ere yet the tempest rise,
The skilful mariner descries," &c.

Wern. Club.

180 History of Nature. [BOOK III.

is supposed to have called Ogygia ; and also Tyris, Eranusa,
Meloessa. And this is seventy Miles from Caulon, as Agrippa
hath recorded.


The second Bay of Europe.

FROM the Promontory Lacinium beginneth the second
Bay of Europe, bent with a great Winding ; and it endeth at
Acrocerauriium, a Promontory of Epirus, from which it is
seventy Miles distant. In it is the Town Croto, and the
River Naeathus. The Town Thurium, between the two
Rivers, Arathis and Sybaris ; where there was a Town of the
same Name. Likewise, between Siris and Aciris there
standeth Heraclea, once called Siris. Rivers, Acalandrum,
Masuentum ; the Town Metapontum, in which the third
Region of Italy endeth. The inland Inhabitants, the Aprus-
tani only, are of the Brutians : but of the Lucani, Thoati-
nates, Bantini, Eburini, Grumentini, Potentini, Sontini,
Sirini, Tergilani, Ursentini, Volcentani, to whom the Nu-
mestrani are joined. Besides these, Cato writeth, that Thebes
of the Lucani hath perished. And Theopompus saith, that
Pandosia was a City of the Lucani, wherein Alexander the
Epirote was slain. Attached to it is the second Region,
containing within it the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the
Salentini, within a Bay, in Compass 250 Miles ; which is
called Tarentinus, from a Town of the Laconi, situated in
the Recess : and to it was annexed the maritime Colony
which was there : it is distant from the Promontory Laci-
nium 136 Miles ; putting forth Calabria into a Peninsula
against it. The Greeks called it Messapia, from the Name
of a Leader, and before this, Peucetia, of Peucetius, the bro-
ther of CEnotrus. In the Salentine Country, between the
Promontories, there is the Distance of 100 Miles. The
Breadth of this Peninsula, from Tarentum to Brundisium, by
Land, is two-and-thirty Miles ; but far shorter from the Port
Sasina. The Towns in the Continent from Tarentum, are
Varia, surnamed Apula, Cessapia and Aletium. But in the
Coast of the Senones, Gallipolis, now Auxa, sixty-two Miles

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 181

from Tarentum. Two-and-thirty Miles off is the Promontory
which they call Acra Japygia, from which Italy runneth
furthest into the Sea. Beyond it is the Town of Basta, and
Hydruntum, the Space of nineteen Miles, to make a Par-
tition between the Ionian and the Adriatic Sea ; through
which is the shortest Passage into Greece, over against the
Town of Apollonia ; where the Strait running between is not
above fifty Miles over. This Space between, Pyrrhus King
of Epirus, intending to have a Passage over on Foot, first
thought to make Bridges across : after him, M. Varro, at the
Time when in the Pirates' War, he was Admiral of Pompeys
Fleet. But both of them were stopped by other Cares. Next to
Hydrus, is Soletum, a City not inhabited : then, Fratuertium :
the Port Tarentinus, the Garrison Town Lupia, Balesium,
Caelium, Brundusium, fifteen Miles from Hydrus, much re-
nowned among the chief Towns of Italy for the Harbour,
especially for the surer sailing, although it be the longer ;
and the City of lllyricum Dyrrhagium is ready to receive the
Ships : the Passage over is 220 Miles. Upon Brundusium
bordereth the Territory of the Psediculi. Nine young Men
there were of them, and as many Maids, descended from the
Illyrians, who begat thirteen Nations. The Towns of the
Psediculi are Rhudia, Egnatia, Barion, formerly Japyx, from
the Son of Dedalus ; who also gave Name to Japygia.
Rivers, Pactius and Aufidus, issuing out of the Hirpine
Mountains, and running by Canusium. Then followeth
Apulia of the Dauni, so named from their Leader, Father-
in-law to Diomedes. In which is the Town Salapia, famous
for the Love of an Harlot loved by Annibal: then, Sipontum
and Uria : also the River Cerbalus, where the Dauni end :
the Port Agasus, the Cape of the Mountain Garganus, from
Salentinum or Japygium 234 Miles, fetching a Compass
about Garganus : the Harbour Garnae, the Lake Pantanus.
The River Frento, full of Harbours ; and Teanum of the
Apuli. Also, Larinum, Aliternia, and the River Tifernus.
Then the Region Frentana, So there be three Kinds of
Nations : Teani, of their Leader, from the Greeks : the
Lucani, subdued by Calchas ; which Places now the Atinates

182 History of Nature. [BooK III.

hold. Colonies of the Dauni besides the above-named, Lu-
ceria and Venusia : Towns, Canusium ; Arpi, sometime Argos
Hippium, built by Diomedes, but soon after called Argyrippa.
There Diomedes destroyed the Nations of the Monadi and
Dardi, with two Cities, which grew to a laughable Proverb;
Apina and Trica. The rest be inward in the second Region :
one Colony of the Hirpini, called Beneventum, more auspici-
ously by a Change of Name ; whereas, in Times past, it was
denominated Maleventum : the ^Eculani, Aquiloni, and
Abellinates, surnamed Protropi : the Campsani, Caudini ;
and Ligures, surnamed Corneliani : as also Bebiani, Vescel-
lani, Deculani, and Aletrini : Abellinates, surnamed Marsi ;
the Atrani, .ZEcani, Asellani, Attinates, and Arpani : the
Borcani, the Collating Corinenses : and, famous for the
overthrow of the Romans there, the Cannenses : the Dirini,
the Forentani, the Genusini, Hardonienses and Hyrini : the
Larinates, surnamed Frentani, Metinates, and out of Gar-
ganus the Mateolani, the Neritini and Natini, the Robustini,
the Sylvini and Strapellini, the Turmentini, Vibinates, Venu-
sini and Ulurtini, the inland Inhabitants of the Calabri, the
.ZEgirini, Apanestini and Argentini. The Butuntinenses and
Brumbestini, the Deciani, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses,
Sturnini, and Tutini. Also of Salentini, the Aletini, Baster-
bini, Neretini, Valentini, and Veretini.

The fourth JReyion of Italy.

Now followeth the fourth Region ; even of the most
valiant Nations of Italy. In the Coast of the Frentani, next
to Tifernus, is the River Trinium 1 , full of Harbours.
The Towns Histonium, Buca, and Ortona ; with the River
Aternus. Inland are the Anxani, surnamed Frentani: the
Carentini, both higher and lower; the Lanuenses; of Maurici,
the Teatini : of Peligni, the Corsinienses ; Super- .ZEquani and
Sulmonenses : of Marsi, the Anxantini and Atinates, the
Fucentes, Lucentes, and Maruvii : of Alpenses, Alba upon

1 Now Trigno.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 183

the Lake Fucinus : of Jjlquiculani, the Cliternini and Carseo-
lani : of the Vestini, the Augulani; Pinnenses; Peltuinates,
to whom are joined the Aufinates on this Side the Moun-
tains : of Samnites, whom the Greeks called Sabelli and
Saunitse ; the Colony Bovianum, the old ; and another, sur-
named Undecimanorum : the Aufidenates, Esernirii, Fagi-
sulani, Ficolenses, Sepinates, Treventinates : of Sabini, the
Amiternini, Curenses, Forum Decii, Forum Novum, the
Fidenates, Interamnates, Nursini, Nomentani, Reatini, Tre-
bulani, who are surnamed Mutuscaei, and also Suflfonates ;
the Tiburtes, and Tarinates. In this Quarter of the JSqui-
culse, there have perished the Comini, Tadiates, Acedici, and
Alfaterni. Gellianus writeth, that Archippe, a Town of the
Mar si, built by Marsyas^ a Leader of the Lydi, was swallowed
up by the Lake Fucinus. Also Valerianus reporteth, that a
Town of the Vidicini in Picenum was utterly destroyed by
the Romans. The Sabini, as some have thought, were, for
their Religion and worship of the Gods, called Seveni : they
dwell close by the Veline Lakes, upon the dewy Hills. The
River Nar draineth them with its sulphury Waters. Which
River running from these toward Tiberis, filleth it : and flow-
ing from the Mountain Fiscelius, near to the Groves of
Vacuna and Reate, it is hidden in the same. But from ano-
ther Side, the River Anio, beginning in the Mountain of the
Trebani, bringeth into Tiberis three Lakes of noble Beauty,
which gave the Name to Sublaqueo 1 . In the Reatine Ter-
ritory is the Lake Cutilise, wherein floateth an Island : and
this Lake, M. Varro saith, is the very midst of Italy. Be-
neath the Sabini lieth Latium ; on the Side, Picenum ; be-
hind, Umbria; and the Crags of the Apennine on either
Hand enclose, as with a Rampart, the Sabini.

The fifth Region of Italy.

THE fifth Region is Picene, in Times past exceedingly
populous; 360,000 of the Picentes came under the Protec-

1 Now Subiaquo.

184 History of Nature. [BOOK III.

tion of the People of Rome. They are descended from the
Sabini, upon a Vow truly sacred. They dwelt by the River
Aternus, where now is the Territory Adrianus, and the Colony
Adria, seven Miles from the Sea. There is the River Voma-
num and the Preetutian and Palmensian Territories. Also,
Castrum Novum, the River Batinum, Truentum with the
River ; which is the only Remains of the Liburnians remain-
ing in Italy. The Rivers Alpulates, Suinum, and Helvinum,
at which the Praetutian Country endeth, and the Picentian
beginneth. The Town Cupra, a Castle of the Firmans, and
above it the Colony Ascuum, of all Picenum the most noble.
Within standeth Novana. In the Borders are Cluana, Po-
tentia, and Numana, built by the Siculi. Next to those is
the Colony Ancona, with the Promontory Cumerum, lying
close by it, in the very Elbow of the Border thereof as it
bendeth; and it is from Garganus 183 Miles. Within are
the Auximates, Beregrani, Cingulani, Cuprenses, surnamed
the Mountaineers ; Falarienses, Pausulani, Pleninenses,
Ricinenses, Septempedani, Tollentinates, Triacenses, the City
Sal via, and the Tollentini.

The sixth Region of Italy.

To these adjoineth the sixth Region, embracing Umbria
and the Gallic Country about Ariminum. From Ancona
begin the Gallic Borders, by the Name of Togata Gallia. The
Siculi and Liburni possessed most Parts of that Tract, and
principally the Territories Palmensis, Prsetutianus, and
Adrianus. Them the Umbrii expelled : these Etruria, and
these again the Galli. The People of Umbria are supposed,
of all Italy, to be of greatest Antiquity ; as being they whom
Men think to have been by the Greeks named Ombri, be-
cause in the Deluge of the Country by Rain, they only re-
mained alive. The Thusci are known to have subdued 300
Towns of theirs. At this Day, in the Border, there are,
the River .^Esus, and Senogallia : the River Metaurus, the
Colony Fanurn Fortunse. Pisaurum, with the River. And
within, Hispellum and Tuder. In the Rest, the Amerini,

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 185

Attidiates, Asirinates, Arnates, and ^Esinates. Camertes,
Casventillani, Carsulani, Delates surnamed Salentini, Ful-
ginates, Foro - flaminienses, Foro-Julienses, named also
Concubienses, Foro-bremitiani, Foro-Sempronienses, Iguini,
Interamnates, surnamed Nartes, Mevanates, Mevanienses,
and Matilicates, Narnienses, whose Town formerly was
called Nequinum. Nucerini surnamed Favonienses, and
Camelani. The Otriculani and Ostrani. The Pitulani, sur-
named Pisuertes, and others surnamed Mergentini ; the
Pelestini, Sentinates, Sarsinates, Spoletini, Suarrani, Sesti-
nates, and Suillates, Sadinates, Trebiates, Tuficani, Tifer-
nates, named also Tribertini ; also others named Metau-
renses. The Vesionicates, Urbinates, as well they that be
surnamed Metaurenses, as others Hortenses ; the Vettio-
nenses, Vindenates and Viventani. In this Tract there are
extinct the Feliginates, and they who possessed Clusiolum
above Interamna : also the Sarranates, with the Towns
Acerrae, called also Vafriae; and Turceolum, the same as
Vetriolum. Also, the Solinates, Suriates, Fallienates, Apien-
nates. There are gone, likewise, the Arienates, with Crino-
volum, and the Usidicani and Plangenses, the Pisinates and
Caelestini, As for Amera above written, Cato hath left in
Record, that it was built 964 Years before the War against


The eighth Region of Italy.

THE eighth Region is bounded by Ariminum, Padus, and
Apennine. In the Borders thereof is the River Crustumi-
num, the Colony Ariminum, with the Rivers Ariminum and
Aprusa. Then the River Rubico, once the utmost Limit of
Italy. After it, Sapis, Vitis, and Anemo ; Ravenna, a Town of
the Sabini, with the River Bedeses, 102 Miles from Ancona.
And not far from the Sea of the Umbri, Butrium. Within
are these Colonies ; Bononia, usually called Felsina, when it
was the head City of Etruria ; Brixillum, Mutina, Parma,
Placentia. Towns, Caesena, Claterna, Forum-Clodii, Livii
and Popilii, pertaining to the Truentini: also, [Forum]
Cornolii, Laccini r Faventini, Fidentini, Otesini, Padinates,

186 History of Nature. [BooK III.

Regienses a Lepido, Solonates : also the Forests Galliani,
surnamed Aquinates ; Tanetani, Veliates, surnamed Vecteri,
Regiates and Umbranates. In this Tract the Boii have
perished; who had 112 Tribes, as Cato maketh Report.
Likewise the Senones, who took Rome.

Of the River Padus.

PADUS issuing out of the Bosom of the Mountain Vesulus,
bearing up his Head into a very lofty Height, runneth from
a Spring 1 worth the seeing, in the Borders of the Ligurian
Vagienni ; and hiding itself within a narrow Passage under
the Ground, and rising up again in the Territory of the Foro-
vibians, is inferior to no other Rivers in Excellency. By the
Greeks it was called Eridanus, and well known for the
Punishment of Phaeton. It increaseth about the Rising of
the Dog-star, by Reason of the melting Snow : more violent
to the Fields thereby, than to the Vessels : nevertheless,
nothing is stolen away to itself; but when it hath left the
Fields, its Bounty is more abundant by their Fruitfulness :
from its Head it holdeth on its Course 300 Miles, adding, for
its meandering, 88 Miles. It receiveth not only the navi-
gable Rivers of the Apennines and the Alps, but large Lakes
also that discharge themselves into it : so that in all it car-
rieth into the Adriatic Sea, 30 Rivers. The most celebrated
of them are these, sent out of the Side of Apennine : Tanarus,
Trebia, Placentinus, Tarus, Nicia, Gabellus, Scultenna, Rhe-
nus. But running out of the Alps, Stura, Morgns, two
Duriae, Sessites, Ticinus, Lambrus, Addua, Olius, and Min-
cius. And there is no River that in so little Way groweth to
a greater Stream ; because it is driven on with the Mass of
Water, and stirred to the Bottom, heavy to the Earth, al-
though it be drawn into Rivers and Trenches between Ra-
venna and Ativum, for 120 Miles : yet because it casteth
them out in great Abundance, it is said to make seven

1 Pliny tells us (lib. ii. 106) that this wonderful spring ceased to flow
at mid-day in the summer season. Under the modern name of Po, this
river is not less celebrated than in ancient times. Wern. Club.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 187

Seas. It is drawn to Ravenna by a narrow Channel, where
it is called Padusa, and in Times past, Messanicus. The
next Mouth that he maketh from thence, carrieth the Big-
ness of a Harbour, which is named Vatreni : at which Clau-
dius Ctesar, as he came triumphant from Britain, entered
into Adria, with that Vessel, more like a huge House than a
Ship. This Mouth of it was formerly called Eridanum : by
others, Spineticum, from the neighbouring City Spinae, built
by Diomedes (as some think), with the Treasures of Delphi.
There the River Vatrenus, from out of the Territory of
Forum Cornelii, increaseth Padus. The next Mouth is
Caprasise, then Sagis, then Volane, which before was named
Olane. All those Rivers and Trenches, the Thusci were the
first to make out of Sagis, carrying the forcible Stream of the
River across into the Atrian Ponds, which are called the seven
Seas ; and they made the famous Harbour of Atria, a Town
of the Thusci ; of which the Atriatic Sea took the Name
aforetime ; which now is called Adriaticum. From thence
are the full Mouths of Carbonaria, and the Fosses Phylis-
tinse, which others call Tartarus ; but all spring out of the
overflowing of the Foss Phylistina, with Athesis coming out of
the Tridentine Alps, and Togisonus out of the Territory of the
Patavini. Part of them made also the next Port Brundulum :
like as the two Medoaci and the Foss Clodia, make Edron.
With these Padus mingleth itself, and by these it runneth
over ; and, as it is said by most Writers, like as in Egypt
Nilus maketh that which they call Delta, so it shapeth a
triangular Figure between the Alps and the Sea-coast, two
Miles in Compass. It is a Shame to borrow from the Greeks
the Explanation of Things in Italy : but Metrodorus Scepsius
saith, that because about the Head of this River there grow
many Pitch Trees, called in the Gallic Language, Pades,
therefore it took the Name of Padus. Also, that in the
Ligurian Language, the River itself is called Bodincus,
which means bottomless. And to approve this Argument,
there is a neighbouring Town called Industria, but by an old
Name, Bodincomagum ; where beginneth its greatest Depth.

188 History of Nature. [BOOK III.

Italy beyond Padus, the eleventh Region.

NEXT to it is the Region called Transpadana, the eleventh 1
in Number ; and all in the Midland Part ; into which the
Seas bring all Things with fruitful Channel. The Towns
therein be, Vibi-Forum, and Segusius. The Colonies from
the Foot of the Alps, Augusta of the Taurini, an ancient
Descent from the Liguri : from whence Padus is navigable.
Then, Augusta Prsetoria, of the Salassi, near the two-fold
Passages of the Alps, Graijae and Peninse : for it is recorded,
that the Carthaginians (Pseni) came through the one, and
Hercules in at the other, named Graijae. There standeth the
Town, Eporedia, built by the People of Rome by direction
of the Books of the Sibyls. The Gauls, in their Tongue, call
good Horse-breakers Eporedicse. Also, Vercella of the
Lybici, descended from the Sallii : Novaria, from the Verta-
comacori ; which at this Day is a Village of the Vocontii,
and not, as Cato thinketh, of the Liguri ; of whom the Levi
and Marici built Ticinum, not far from the Padus : like as
the Boii coming over the Alps, founded Laus Pompeia ; arid
the Insubrias, Mediorlapum. That Comus and Bergomus,
and Licini- Forum, with other People thereabout, were of the
Orobian Race, Cato hath reported : but the Original of that
Nation, he confesseth that he knoweth not. Which Corne-
lius Alexander sheweth to have descended from the Greeks;
and this by the Interpretation of their Name, which signi-
fieth, Men living in Mountains. In this Tract, Barra, a
Town of the Orobians, is perished ; from whence, Cato saith,
the Bergomates took their Beginning ; discovering by their
Name, that they were seated more highly than happily.
There are perished also the Caturiges, banished Persons of

1 Pliny says, the eleventh region; and he may be accurate according
to his original authority: which was a survey ordered by Augustus
Caesar, and in some measure equivalent to the English Domesday survey.
This measure of the emperor may be, perhaps, the same that is referred
to by St. Luke, ii. 1. But in Pliny's order of reckoning it is only the
ninth region. Wern. Club.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 189

the Insubri : likewise Spina, before-named. Also, Melpum,
a Town remarkable for Wealth ; which, as Nepos Cornelius
hath written, was by the tnsubres, Boii, and Senones, razed
on that very Day on which Camillus took Veii.

Venetia, the tenth Region.

Now followeth the tenth Region of Italy, Venetia, lying
upon the Adriatic Sea : the River whereof, Silis, cometh from
the Mountains Taurisani : also the Town Altinum, the River
Liquentia, issuing from the Mountains Opitergeni ; and a
Harbour of the same Name; the Colony Concordia. Rivers
and Havens : Romatinum, Tilaventum, the greater and the
less : Anassum, by which Varranus runneth down : Alsa,
Natiso, with Turrus, running by Aquileia, a Colony situated
12 Miles from the Sea. This is the Region of the Carni,
joining that of Japides : the River Timavus, and the Castle
Pucinum, famous for good Wine. The Bay Tergestinus, the
Colony Tergeste, 23 Miles from Aquileia : beyond which six
Miles, is the River Formio, 189 Miles from Ravenna: the
ancient Limit of Italy enlarged, but at this Day of Istria,
which they report, was so named of the River Ister, flowing
out of the River Danubius into Adria : and over against the
same Ister, the Mouth of Padus : by the contrary rushing
Streams of which two Rivers, the Sea between beginneth to
be more mild ; as many Authors have reported, but untruly ;
and Cornelius Nepos, also, although he dwelt just by Padus :
for there is no River that runneth out of Danubius into the
Adriatic Sea. They were deceived (1 suppose), because the
Ship Argos 1 went down a River into the Adriatic Sea, not far

1 The Argonauts embarked at Jolcos, in Thessaly, and steered first to
Lemnos : from whence, after many adventures, they reached the Phasis,
which flows through Colchis into the Black Sea. It would be no easy
task to point out the course they took on their return. Pindar, in the
Fourth Pythian Ode, makes them pass the Erythraean Sea
" Then mingling in the ocean deep,
The Erythraean Sea they sweep."
By the Erythraean Sea the Indian Ocean is to be understood, through

190 History of Nature. [BOOK III.

from Tergeste; but what River it was, is unknown. The
more diligent Enquirers say, that it was carried upon Men's
Shoulders over the Alps : and that it was embarked into
Ister, and so into Saus, and then Nauportus, which upon
that occasion took his Name, which riseth between ^Emona
and the Alps.


ISTRIA runneth out like a Peninsula. Some have deli-
vered, that it is 40 Miles broad, and 122 Miles in Circuit.
The like they say of Liburnia adjoining to it, and of the Bay
Flanaticus. But others say, that the Circuit of Liburnia is
180 Miles. Some have set out Japidia to the Bay Flanaticus,
behind Istria, 130 Miles : and so have made Liburnia in Cir-
cuit 150 Miles. TuditanuSj who subdued the Istri, upon his
own Statue there set this Inscription : from Aquileia to
the River Titius, are 200 Stadia. The Towns in Istria, of
Roman Citizens, are ^Egida and Parentium. A Colony there
is, Pola, now called Pietas Julia ; built in old Time by the
Colchii. It is from Tergeste, 100 Miles. Soon after, the
Town Nesactium, and the River Arsia, now the Bound of
Italy. From Ancona to Pola, there is a Passage over the
Sea of 120 Miles. In the Midland Part of this tenth Region
are the Colonies, Cremona and Brixia, in the Country of
the Cenomanni : but in the Country of the Veneti, Ateste.
Also the Towns Acelum, Patavium, Opitergium, Belunum,
Vicetia : Mantua of the Tusci, the only Place left beyond
the Padus. That the Veneti were the Offspring of the Tro-

which it seems they came into Africa, and when arrived on land, carrying
the ship on their shoulders until they came to the Tritoniari Lake, they
sailed into the Mediterranean, and touched at Thera; thence through
the Ocean they came to the island of Lemnos. (See Wheelwright's
" Pindar.") But a more probable course would be one approaching that
given by Pliny in the text. The whole story of the Argonauts, how-
ever, having, in the lapse of time, become a mere fable, it is not worth the
attempt to illustrate it. Wern. Club.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 191

jans Cato informs us, and also, that the Cenomanni, near to
Massilia, dwell among the Volsci. Fertini, Tridentini, and
Bernenses, are Towns of Rhetia. Verona is of the Rheti and
Euganei; Julienses of the Garni. Then follow these, whom
we need to use no Strictness in naming ; Alutruenses, Asse-
riates, Flamonienses, Vannienses, and others surnamed
Gulici : Foro Julienses, surnamed Transpadani : Foretani,
Venidates, Querqueni, Taurisani, Togienses, Varvani. In

Online Librarythe Elder PlinyPliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books → online text (page 16 of 60)