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Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books online

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this Tract there have perished in the Borders, Itamine, Pel-
laon, Palsicium. Of the Veneti, Atina and Caelina : of the
Garni, Segeste and Ocra : and of the Taurissi, Noreia. Also
from Aquileia twelve Miles, there was a Town destroyed by
M. Claudius Marcellus, in spite of the Senate, as L. Piso
hath recorded. In this Region there are also ten remarkable
Lakes and Rivers, either issuing forth of them as their Off-
spring, or else maintained by them, if they send them out
again, when they have received them : as Larius doth Addua,
Verbanus Ticinus, Benacus Mincius, Sebinus Ossius, Eupi-
lius Lamber, all seated in the Padus. The Alps reach in
Length ten Miles from the upper Sea to the lower, as Ccdius
saith : Timogenes, two-and-twenty : but Cornelius Nepos, in
Breadth 100 Miles : T. Livius saith, 3000 Stadia. But both
of them take Measure in different Places ; for sometimes they
exceed 100 Miles, where they separate Germany from Italy :
and in other Parts they are so narrow, that they make not
full out three score and ten Miles ; as if by the Provi-
dence of Nature. The Breadth of Italy, from Varus under
the Foot of them through the Shallows of Sabatia, the Tau-
rini, Comus, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia,
Tergeste", Pola, and Aristia, maketh 702 Miles.

Of the Alps and Alpine Nations.

MANY Nations inhabit the Alps, but those of special
Name, from Pola to the Tract of Tergestis, are these : the
Secusses, Subocrini, Catili, Menocaleni : and near to the
Garni, those who in Times past were called Taurisci, but

192 History of Nature. [Boox III.

now Norici. To these are Neighbours the Rheti and Vin-
delici, all divided into many Cities. The Rheti are judged
to be descended from the Thusci, driven out by the Galli,
with their Leader Rhcetus 1 . But turning our Breast to Italy,
we meet with the Euganean Nations of the Alps, who en-
joyed the Right of the Latins, and whose Towns Cato reck-
oneth to the number of four and thirty. Of them, the
Triumpilini, both People and Lands, were sold. After them
the Camuni, and many such, were annexed to the next Muni-
cipii. The Lepontii and the Salassi, Cato thinketh to be of
the Tauric Nation. But almost all others suppose that the
Lepontici were a Residue left behind of the Companions of
Hercules , through the interpretation of the Greek Name, as
having their Members burned with the Alpine snows as they
passed through : that the Graii likewise were of the same
Company, planted in the Passage, and inhabiting the Alps
Graiae : also that the Euganei were noblest in Birth, from
which they took their Name. The Head of them is Stonos.
Of those Rhoeti the Vennonetes and Sarunetes inhabit the
Heads of the River Rhenus : and of the Leponti, those who
are called Viberi dwell by the Fountain of Rhodanus, in
the same quarter of the Alps. There be also Inhabitants
within the Alps endowed with the Liberty of Latium : as
the Octodurenses, and their Borderers the Centrones, the
Cottian Cities. The Caturiges, and the Vagienni, from
them descended ; Ligures, and such as are called the Moun-
taineers : and many kinds of the Capillati, on the Borders
of the Ligusticus Sea. In seemeth not amiss in this Place
to set down an Inscription out of a Trophy erected in
the Alps, which runneth in this Form : To the Emperor
Caesar, Son o/Divus Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Imperator
fourteen Times, and invested with the Authority of the
Tribune seventeen Times : the Senate and People of Rome :
For that under his Conduct and Auspices, all the Alpine

1 Justin, xx. 5, p. 181, says, " The Tusci, with their leader Koetus,
having lost their ancient territorial possessions, took possession of the
Alps, and laid the foundation of the nation of the Roeti, so called after the
name of their leader." Wern. Club.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. J93

Nations which reached from the Upper Sea to the Nether,
were reduced under the Empire of the People of Rome. The
Alpine Nations subdued: Triumpilini, Camuni, Vennonetes,
Isarci, Breuni, Naunes, and Focunates. Of the Vindelici
four Nations: the Consuanetes, Virucinates, Licates, and
Catenates. The Abisontes, Rugusce, Suanetes, Calucones,
Brixentes, Lepontii, Viberi, Nantuates, Seduni, Veragri,
Salad, Acitavones, Medulli, Uceni, Caturiges, Brigiani,
Sogiontiiy Ebroduntii, Nemaloni, Edenates, Esubiani, Veamini,
Gallitce, Triulatti, Ectini, Vergunni, Eguituri, Nementuri,
Oratelli, Nerusivelauni, Suetri. There were not reckoned
among these the twelve Cottian Cities, which were not in
any Hostility, nor yet those which were assigned to the
Municipii by virtue of the Law Pouipeia. This is that
Italy sacred to the Gods, these are her Nations, and these
be the Towns of the People. And more than this, that
Italy which, when L. JEnilius Paulus and Caius Attilius
Regulus were Consuls, upon news of a Tumult of the Gauls,
alone, without any Foreign aids, and without any Nations
beyond the Padus, armed 80,000 Horsemen and 700,000
Foot. In plenty of all Metals it giveth place to no Land
whatsoever. But it is forbidden to dig any by an old Act
of the Senate, commanding to spare Italy.


THE Nation of the Liburni joineth to Arsia, as far as
the River Titius. A Part of it were the Mentores, Hymani,
Encheleae, Dudini, and those whom Callimachus nameth
Pucetiae. Now, the whole in general is called by one Name,
Illyricum. The Names of the Nations are few of them
worthy or easy to be spoken. The lapides, and fourteen
Cities of the Liburni, resort to the Convention at Scordona :
of which it is not irksome to name the Laciniensi, Stulpini,
Burnistee, and Albonenses. And in that Convention these
Nations following have the Liberty of Italians : the Alutas
and Flanates, of whom the Gulf is named: Lopsi, Varubarini,

194 History of Nature. [BooK III.

and the Assesiates that are exempt from Tribute: also of
Islands, the Fulsinates and Curictae 1 . Moreover, along
the maritime Coasts, beyond Nesactiuni, these Towns : Al-
vona, Flavona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium,
Argyruntum, Corinium, the City ^Enona, the River Pausinus,
and Tedanium, at which lapida endeth. The Islands lying
in that Gulf, with the Towns, besides those above noted,
Absirtium, Arba, Tragurium, Issa ; Pharos, beforetime
Pares, Crexa, Gissa, Portunata. Again, within the Con-
tinent, the Colony laderon, which is from Pola 160 Miles.
From thence, 30 Miles off, the Island Colentum ; and 18
to the Mouth of the River Titius.


THE End of Liburnia and Beginning of Dalmatia is
Scordona, which is twelve Miles from the Sea, situate upon
the said River (Titius). Then followeth the ancient Country
of the Tariotae, and the Castle Tariota, the Promontory of
Diomed, or, as some would have it, the Peninsula Hyllis ;
in Circuit 100 Miles. Also Tragurium, inhabited by Roman
Citizens, well known for its Marble : Sicum, into which
Place Divus Claudius sent the old Soldiers : the Colony
Salona, 222 Miles from ladera. There repair to it for Law
those that are described into Decuries, 382 : of Dalmatise,
22; Decuni,239; Ditiones,69; and Mezaei, 52; Sardiates. In
this Tract are Burnum, Mandetrium, and Tribulium, Castles
illustrious for the Battles of the Romans. There come also
for Law, of the Islands the Isssei, Collentini, Separi, and
Epetini. From these, certain Castles, Piguntise and Ra-
taneum, and Narona, a Colony, pertaining to the third Con-
vention, 72 Miles from Salona, lying close by a River of the
same Name, and 20 Miles from the Sea. M. Varro writeth,
that 89 Cities used to repair thither for Justice. Now, about
these only are known, Cerauni in 33 Decuries ; Daorizi
in 17; Destitiates in 103; Docleatse in 34 ; Deretini in 14;

1 Now Vegia.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 195

Deremistae in 30 ; Dindari in 33 ; Glinditiones in 44 ; Mel-
comani in 24 ; Naresii in 102 ; Scirtari in 72 ; Siculotae
in 24 ; and the Vardsei, who formerly wasted Italy, in not
more than twenty Decuries. Besides these, there held this
Tract, Oenei, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae, and Armistae.
From the River Naron 100 Miles, is the Colony Epidaurum.
Towns of Roman Citizens, Rhizinium, Ascrinium, Butua,
Olchiniuin, which hefore was called Colchinium, built by
the Colchi. The River Drilo, and the Town upon it, Scodra,
inhabited by Roman Citizens, eighteen Miles from the Sea ;
besides many other Towns of Greece, and strong Cities, out
of all remembrance. For in that Tract were the Labeatae,
Enderoduni 1 , Sassgei, Grabsei, and those who properly were
called Illyrii, and Taulantii, and Pyrgei. The Promontory
Nymphgeum, in the Coast, keepeth the name : also Lissum,
a Town of Roman Citizens, 100 Miles from Epidaurum.


FROM Lissum is the Province of Macedonia : the Nations
there are the Partheni, and on their Back, the Dassaretes.
The Mountains of Candavia seventy-nine Miles from Dyr-
rhachium. But in the Borders, Denda, a Town of Roman
Citizens; also the Colony Epidamnum 2 , which, for that
inauspicious Name, was by the Romans called Dyrrhachium.
The River Aous, named of some ^Eas ; Apollonia, once a
Colony of the Corinthians, seven Miles from the Sea ;
in the Recesses of which is the famous Nymphaeum 3 . The
Foreigners inhabiting about it are the Amantes and Bu-
liones; but in the Borders, the Town Oricum, built by the
Colchi. Then beginneth Epirus, the Mountains Acroce-

1 Now Endero, in Albania.

2 Mela, ii. 3. The Romans changed the name Epidamnum, because
it seemed ominous to those ivho were going to their loss. It is now Durazzo.
Wern. Club.

8 The crater Nymphaei was a hot spring in the territory of Apollonia,
and is described by Pliny, lib. ii. 110. Wern. Club.

196 History of Nature. [BooK III.

raunia, with which we have bounded this Bay of Europe.
Oricum is from Salentinum (a Promontory of Italy) four
score and five Miles.


BEHIND the Garni and lapides, where the great River
Ister runneth, the Norici are joined to the Rhaeti. Their
Towns are Virunum, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum, Viana,
^Emona, Claudia, Flavium, Tolvense. Near the Norici are
the Lake Peiso, the Deserts of the Boii. Nevertheless now,
by the Colony of Divus Claudius, Salaria, and by the Town
Scarabantia Julia, they are inhabited.


THENCE beginneth Mast-bearing Pannonia: from which
the Crags of the Alps, becoming more Smooth, turn through
the midst of Illyricum from the North to the South, and
settle lower by an easy Descent, both on the right Hand and
the left. That Part which looks toward the Adriatic Sea is
called Dalmatia, and Illyricum, above-named. Pannonia
bendeth toward the North, and is bounded with the River
Danubius. In it are these Colonies : ^Emonia, Siscia. And
these remarkable and navigable Rivers run into Danubius :
Draus, with more Violence, out of the Noric Alps ; and
Saus out of the Carnic Alps more gently, 115 Miles between.
Draus passeth through the Serretes, Serrapilli, Jasi, and
Sandrozetes: Saus through the Colapiani and Breuci. And
these be the chief of the People. Moreover, the Arivates,
Azali, Amantes, Belgites, Catari, Corneates, Aravisci, Her-
cuniates, Latovici, Oseriates, and Varciani. The Mountain
Claudius, in the Front of which are the Scordisci, and upon
the Back, the Taurisci. The Island in Saus, Metubarris,
the biggest of all the River Islands. Besides, remarkable
Rivers : Calapis, running into Saus, near Siscia ; where,
with a double Channel, it maketh the Island called Segestica.

BOOK III.] History of Nature. 197

Another River, Bacuntius, running likewise into Saus at
the Town Sirmium : where is the City of the Sirmians and
Amantines. Forty-five Miles from thence, Taurunum, where
Saus is intermingled with Danubius. Higher above there run
into it Valdanus and Urpanus, which are no obscure Rivers.


To Pannonia is joined the Province called Mcesia, which
extendeth^'along Danubiusl unto Pontus. It beginneth
from the confluent above named. In it are the Dardani,
Celegeri, Triballi, Trimachi, Mcesi, Thraces, and the Scy-
thae, bordering upon Pontus. Fair Rivers, out of the
Dardanian Borders : Margis, Pingus, and Timachis. Out
of Rhodop, Oessus : out of Haemus, Utus, Essamus, and
Jeterus. Illyricum, where it is broadest, taketh up 325
Miles : in Length from the River Arsia to the River Drinius,
800 Miles. From Drinium to the Promontory Acroce-
raunium, 182 Miles. M. Agrippa hath set down this whole
Gulf, comprehending Italy and Illyricum, in the compass of
1300 Miles. In it are two Seas, bounded as I have said:
that is, the Lower, otherwise called the Ionian, in the first
Part : the Inner, called Adriaticum, which also they name
the Upper. In the Ausonian Sea there are no Islands worth
the naming, but those above specified. In the Ionian Sea
there are but few : upon the Calabrian Coast, before Brun-
dusium, by the interposition of which the Harbour is made :
and against the Apulian Coast, Diomedea, famous for the
Tomb of Diomedes. Another of the same Name, called by
some Teutria. The Coast of Illyricum is heaped with more
than 1000 ; such is the nature of the Sea, full of Shallows,
with narrow Channels running^ between. But before the
Mouth of Timavus, there are Islands famous for hot Waters,
which flow with the Sea. And near the Territory of the
Istri, Cissa, Pullariaj, and those which the'Greeks name Ab-
syrtides, from Absyrtis, Brother of Medea, there slain. Near

198 History of Nature. [BooK III.

them they called the Islands Electridse, wherein is produced
Amber, which they call Electrum : a very certain Argument
to prove the Vanity of the Greeks ; inasmuch as the matters
they assigned to him were never known. Opposite lader is
Lissa ; and certain others over against the Liburni, called
Creteae : and as many of the Liburni, Celadusse. Opposite
Surium is Brattia, commended for Oxen and Goats. Issa,
inhabited by Roman Citizens, and Pharia with the Town.
Next to these, Corcyra, surnamed Melsena ; with the Town
of the Guidii, distant 22 Miles : between which and Illy-
ricum is Melita ; from whence (as Callimachus) testifieth)
the little Dogs Melitaei took their Name 1 ; and twelve Miles
from thence, the three Elaphites. In the Ionian Sea, from
Oricum 1000 Miles, is Sasonis, well known for the Station of

1 There were two islands called Melita : one of them between Sicily
and Africa, famous for the shipwreck of St. Paul ; and from which, Strabo
says, the Melitean or Maltese dogs took their name. The other Melita
was on the coast of Illyria ; and from this, other authors besides Pliny
suppose these favourite animals to have been derived. Wern. Club.

Note. The reader will have observed in the preceding chapters a
strange diversity of opinion in the mind of the author : for whilst he
ascribes every ominous appearance to the deities presiding over the affairs
of men, yet, in other passages, he expresses his doubts as to their ex-
istence, or would limit to the earth itself the controlling power ; in other
words, he believed the earth to be a deity. From these incongruities we
can derive but one opinion, namely, that, heathen as he was, Pliny never-
theless doubted the truth of that which his countrymen and other heathen
nations believed, whilst he fell short of that true knowledge which, in
and before his day, had been vouchsafed to many like himself, who from
heathenism were converted to Christianity, either through the evidence
of miracles, by which its truth was supported, or through the opening of
the eyes of the understanding, by which means they acknowledged that
which seemed a mystery before. Considering these chapters in this light,
much interest is added to the style and spirit in which our author wrote.
Wern. Club.


History of Nature,


Roman Milliarium, from Montfattfon. See page 171.

London : Printed by George Barclay, Castle Street, Leicester Square.





ED. 1601.



bt> tijf Wtrnman Club.




PURSUANT to a Resolution to the following effect, passed at a meeting of
the Committee held on Wednesday, the 15th March, 1848,

" The best thanks of the Club are hereby presented to

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S., the Superintending Editor of this
Publication, and Translator of the Work.

Also to the following Gentlemen, viz. :

In the Department of Classics,


In the Department of Geography,

W. H. F. PLATE, Esq. LL.D.

In the Department of Natural History and Physiology,

C. J. B. ALDIS, Esq. M.D.
C. R. HALL, Esq. M.D.

For the Editorial Assistance rendered by them in the preparation of the
accompanying Work."







1. Epirus.

2. ^Etolia.

3. Locri.

4. Peloponnesus.

5. Achaia.

6. Arcadia.

7. Greece and Attica.

8. Thessaly.

9. Magnesia.

10. Macedonia.

11. Thracia.

12. The Islands lying between

those Countries : among
which, Greta, Euboea, the
Cyclades, Sporades : also,


the Isles within Hellespont,
near the Sea of Pontus,
within Moeotis, Dacia, Sar-
matia, and Scythia.

13. The Islands of Pontus.

14. The Islands of Germany.

15. Islands in the French Ocean.

16. Britain and Ireland.

17. Gaul.

18. Gallia Lugdunensis.

19. Aquitain.

20. High Spain (named Citerior).

21. Portugal.

22. Islands in the Ocean.

23. The Measure of all Europe.

Herein are contained many principal Towns and Countries, famous
Rivers and Mountains ; Islands, also, besides Cities or Nations that are
perished : in sum, Histories and Observations.


M. Varro, Cato Censorius, M. Agrippa, Divus Augustus, Varro Ata-
, Cor. Nepos, Hyginus, L. Vetas, Pomponius Mela, Licinius Mutianus,
Fabricius Thuscus, Atteius Capita, and Atteius Philologus.


Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Diccearchus,
Timosthenes, Ephorus, Crater the Grammarian, Serapion of Antioch, Cal-
limachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Eumachus Siculus the
Musician, Alexander Polyhistor, Thucydides, Dosiades, Anaximander,
Philistides, Mallotes, Dionysius, Aristides, Callidemus, Mencechmus, j*Edas-
thenes, Anticlides, Heraclides, Philemon, Menephon, Pythias, Isidorus,
Philonides, Xenagoras, Astyonomus, Staphylus, Ariatocritus, Metrodorus,
Cleobulus, and Posidonius.






From whence first arose all the fabulous Lies, and the
excellent Learning of the Greeks.

HE third Bay of Europe beginneth at the
Mountains of Acrocerannia, and endeth in
the Hellespont. It containeth, besides 19
smaller Bays, 25,000 Miles. Within it are
Epirus, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Phocis, Locris,
Achaia, Messania, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica,
Bceotia. And again, from another Sea, the same Phocis
and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Ma-
cedonia, Thracia. All the fabulous Vein, as well as the
illustrious learning of Greece, proceeded first out of this
quarter; on which account we will therein stay somewhat
the longer. The Country Epirus, generally so called, be-
ginneth at the Mountains of Acroceraunia. In it are, first,
the Chaones, of whom Chaonia taketh the Name : then the
Thesproti, and Antigonenses : the Place Aornus, and Exha-
lation so deadly to Birds. The Cestrini, and Perrhoabi, with
their Mountain Pindus : the Cassiopsei, the Dryopes, Selli,
Hellopes, and Molossi, among whom is the Temple of Jupiter

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 3

Dodonceus, so famous for the Oracle : the Mountain To-
marus, celebrated by Theopompus for the hundred Fountains
about its foot.


EPIRUS itself reaching to Magnesia and Macedonia, hath
behind it the Dassaretae above named, a free Nation; but
presently the savage People of the Dardani. On the left
side of the Dardani, the Treballi and Nations of Moesia lie
ranged : from the Front are joined to them, the Medi
and Denthelatse ; upon whom the Thraces border, who
reach as far as to Pontus. Thus it is environed with
Rhodope, and is fenced presently also with the Heights of
Haetnus. In the Coast of Epirus, among the Acroceraunia,
is the Castle Chimsera, under which is the Spring of the
King's Water. The Towns are Maeandria and Cestria : the
River of Thesprotia, Thyamis : the Colony Buthrotium :
and the Gulf of Ambracia, above all others most famous,
receiving at its Mouth the wide Sea, 39 Miles in Length
and 15 in Breadth. Into it runneth the River Acheron,
flowing out of Acherusia, a Lake of Thesprotia, 36 Miles
from thence : and the Bridge over it, 1000 Feet long, ad-
mirable to those that admire all Things of their own. In
the Gulf is the Town Ambracia. The Rivers of the Molossi,
Aphas and Arachtus. The City Anactoria, and the Lake
Pandosia. The Towns of Acarnania, called formerly Curetus,
are Heraclea and Echinus : and in the very entrance, Actium,
a Colony of Augustus, with the noble Temple of Apollo, and
the free City Nicopolis. When out of the Ambracian Gulf
and in the Ionian Sea, we meet with the Leucadian Coast
and the Promontory of Leucate. Then the Bay, and Leu-
cadia itself, a Peninsula, once called Neritis, but by the
Labour of the neighbouring Inhabitants cut off quite from
the Continent, but joined to it again by means of the Winds

4 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

blowing together heaps of Sand ; which Place is called
Dioryctus, and is in Length half a mile. A Town in it is
called Leucas, formerly Neritum. Then the Cities of the
Acarnani, Halyzea, Stratos, Argos, surnamed Amphilo-
chicum. The River Achelous running out of Pindus, and
dividing Acarnania from ^tolia ; and by continual addition
of Earth joining the Island Artemita to the main Land.


THE ^Etolian People are the Athamanes, Tymphei,
Ephiri, jEnienses, Perrhoebi, Dolopes, Maraces and Atraces,
from whom the River Atrax falleth into the Ionian Sea.
The Town Calydon in ^Etolia is seven Miles and a half from
the Sea, near to the River Evenus. Then followeth Ma-
cynia and Molychria ; behind which Chalcis standeth, and
the Mountain Taphiassus. But in the Borders, the Pro-
montory Antirrhium, where is the Mouth of the Corinthian
Gulf, not a Mile broad where it runneth in and divideth
the JEtoli from Peloponnesus. The Promontory that shooteth
out against it is named Rhion : but in the Corinthian Gulf
are the Towns of JEtolia, Naupactum, and Pylene : and in
the Midland parts, Pleuron, Halysarna. The Mountains of
name : in Dodone, Tomarus : in Ambracia, Grania : in
Acarnania, Aracynthus : in ^Etolia, Acanthon, Panaetolium,
and Macinium.


NEXT to the ^Etoli are the Locri, surnamed Ozolae, free :
the Town Oeanthe : the Port of Apollo Phastius : the Bay
Crissaeus. Within, the Towns Argyna, Eupalia, Phsestum,
and Calamissus. Beyond are Cirrhsei, the Plains of Phocis,
the Town Cirrha, the Port Chalseon : from which, seven
Miles within the Land, is the free City Delphi, under the

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 5

Mountain Parnassus, the most illustrious Place upon Earth
for the Oracle of Apollo. The Fountain Castalius, the River
Cephissus, running before Delphos, which ariseth in a former
City, Liloea. Moreover, the Town Crissa, and together with
the Bulenses, Anticyra, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa, a
free State, Trichone, Tritea, Auibrysus, the Region Drymaea,
named Daulis. Then, at the bottom of the Bay, the Angle
of Bceotia is washed by the Sea, with the Towns Siphae and
Thebae, which are surnamed Corsicae, near to Helicon. The
third Town of Breotia from this Sea is Pagse, from whence
projecteth the Neck of Peloponnesus.


PELOPONNESUS, called formerly Apia and Pelasgia, is a
Peninsula, worthy to come behind no other Land for noble-
ness ; lying between two Seas, ^Egeum and Ionium : like
the Leaf of a Plane Tree 1 , in regard of the indented Creeks
thereof: it beareth a circuit of 563 Miles, according to
Isidorus. The same, if you comprise the Creeks, addeth
almost as much more. The Straits whence it passeth is

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