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called Isthmos. In which Place the Seas above-named,
bursting from various ways, from the North and the East,
devour all the Breadth of it there : until, by the contrary
running in of such Seas, the Sides on both hands being
eaten away, and leaving a Space between, five Miles over,
Hellas, with a narrow Neck, meeteth with Peloponnesus.
The one Side thereof is called the Corinthian Gulf, the
other, the Saronian. Lecheum on the one hand, and Cen-
chreae on the other, are the Bounds of the Straits : where
such Ships as for their bigness cannot be conveyed over upon
Waggons, make a great compass about with some Danger.
For which cause, Demetrius the King, Caesar the Dictator,

1 Dionysius, the geographer, also compares the form of the Morea, or
ancient Peloponnesus, to the leaf of a plane-tree, making the footstalk to
be the isthmus by which it is joined to Greece. And in Martyn's " Virgil,"
a figure of this leaf is engraved to illustrate the subject. Wern. Club.



6 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Prince Caius, and Domitius Nero, endeavoured to cut
through the narrow portions, and make a navigable Channel :
but the attempt was unhappy, as appeared by the issue of
them all. In the midst of this narrow Strait which we
have called Isthmos, the Colony Corinthus, formerly called
Ephyra, situated on a little Hill, is inhabited, three score
Stadia from each Shore : which from the top of its Citadel,
which is named Acrocorinthus, wherein is the Fountain
Pirene, hath a prospect into both those opposite Seas.
Through the Corinthian Gulf is a Passage from Leucas to
Patrae, of 87 Miles. Patrse, a Colony, built upon the Pro-
montory of Peloponnesus that shooteth furthest into the
Sea, over against ./Etolia and the River Evenus, of less dis-
tance, as hath been said, than a Mile, in the very entrance,
sendeth out the Corinthian Gulf 85 Miles in Length, even
as far as Isthmos.

CHAPTER V.
Achaia.

ACHAIA, the name of a Province, beginneth at the
Isthmus : formerly it was called .ZEgialos, because of the
Cities disposed in order upon the Strand. The first there is
Lecheae above named, a Port of Lechese of the Corinthians.
Next to it Oluros, a Castle of the Pellensei. The Towns,
Helic, Bura, and (into which the Inhabitants retired when
these before-named were swallowed up in the Sea) Sicyon,
JSgira, -ZEgion, and Erineos. Within, Cleone and Hysiae.
Also the Port Panhormus, and Rhium, described before :
from which Promontory, five Miles off, standeth Patrse,
above mentioned, and the Place called Pherae. Of nine
Mountains in Achaia, Scioessa is most known ; also the
Spring Cymothoe. Beyond Patrae is the Town Olenum, the
Colony Dymae. Places called Buprasium and Hirmene :
and the Promontory Araxum. The Bay of Cyllene, the
Cape Chelonates : from whence to Cyllene is two Miles.
The Castle Phlius. The Tract also by Homer named
Arethyrea, and afterwards Asophis : then the Country of



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 7

the Elii, who before were called Epei. Elis itself is in the
Midland, 12 Miles from Pylos. Within is the Shrine of
Jupiter Olympius, which, for the fame of the Games there,
containeth the Calendars of the Greeks (fasti) : also, the
former Town of the Pisaei, before which the River Alpheus
runneth ; but in the Borders, the Promontory Icthys. The
River Alpheus is navigated to the Towns Aulos and Leprion.
The Promontory Platanestus. All these lie Westward. But
towards the South, the Bay Cyparissius, the City Cyparissa,
72 Miles in circuit. The Towns, Pylos, Methone, a Place
called Helos : the Promontory Acritas : the Bay Asinaeus of
the Town Asinum, and Coronseus of Corone : and these are
bounded by the Promontory Jsenarus. There also is the
Region Messenia with 22 Mountains : the River Paomisus.
But within, Messene itself, Ithome, Occhalia, Arene, Pteleon,
Thryon, Dorion, Zancluin, famous at various times. The
Compass of this Bay is 80 Miles, the Passage over 30 Miles.
Then from Taenarus, the Laconian Land pertaining to a free
People, and a Bay there in circuit about 206 Miles, but 39
Miles over. The Towns Taenarum, Amiclae, Pherae, Leuctra,
and within, Sparta, Theranicum : and where stood Car-
damyle, Pitan, and Anthan. The Place Thyrea, and
Gerania : the Mountain Taygetus : the River Eurotas, the
Bay ^Egylodes, and the Town Psammathus. The Bay
Gytheates, of a Town thereby (Gythaeum), from whence to
the Island Greta there is a very direct course. All these
are enclosed within the Promontory Maleum. The Bay
next following to Scyllaeus is called Argolicus, and is 50 Miles
over, and 172 Miles round. The Towns upon it, Boaa,
Epidaurus, Limera, named also Zarax : the Port Cyphanta.
Rivers, Inachus, Erasinus : between which standeth Argos,
surnamed Hippium, upon the Lake Lern, from the sea two
Miles, and, nine Miles further, Mycenae. Also, where they
say Tiryntha stood, and the Place Mantinea. Mountains,
Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and 11 others
besides. Fountains, Niobe, Amymone, Psammoth. From
Scyllseum to the Isthmus, 177 Miles. Towns, Herraione,
Troezen, Coryphasium, and Argos. called of some Inachium,



8 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

of others Dipsium. The Port Caenites, the Bay Saronicus,
encircled in old Time with a Grove of Oaks, from whence it
had the Name, for so old Greece called an Oak. Within it
the Town Epidaurum, celebrated for the Shrine of JEscu-
lapius; the Promontory Spirseum, the Harbours Anthedon
and Bucephalus : and likewise Cenchreae, which we spoke of
before, being the other limit of the Isthmus, with the Shrine
of Neptune, famous for its Games every five Years. So
many Bays cut up the Peloponnesian Coast : so many Seas
roar against it. For on the North side the Ionian Sea
breaketh in : on the West it is beaten upon by the Sicilian.
From the South the Crethean Sea driveth against it : the
^gean from the South-east, and Myrtoan on the North-
east, which beginning at the Megarian Bay, washeth all
Attica.

CHAPTER VI.
Of Arcadia.

THE midland Parts of this, Arcadia most of all taketh
up, being every way remote from the Sea : at the beginning
it was named Drymodis, but soon after Pelasgis. The
Towns in it are Psophis, Man tinea, Stymphalum, Tegea,
Antigonea, Orchomenum, Pheneum, Palatium, from whence
the Mount Palatium at Rome took the Name, Megalepolis,
Catina, Bocalium, Carmon, Parrhasise, Thelphusa, Melansea,
Hersea, Pil, Pellana, Agree, Epium, Cynsetha, Lepreon of
Arcadia, Parthenium, Alea, Methydrium, Enespe, Macistum,
Lamp, Clitorium, Cleone ; between which Towns is the
Tract Nemea, usually called Berubinadia. Mountains in
Arcadia, Pholoe, with the Town : also Cyllene, Lyceus,
wherein the Shrine of Jupiter Lyceus, Msenalus, Artemisius,
Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris : and eight besides of
base account. Rivers, Ladon, issuing out of the Fens of
Pheneus, Erymanthus out of a Mountain of the same Name,
running both down into Alpheus. The rest of the Cities to
be named in Achaea, Aliphiraei, Albeatae, Pyrgerises, Pareatse,
Paragenitiae, Tortuni, Typansei, Thryasii, Trittenses. All



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 9

Achaea Domitius Nero endowed with Freedom. Pelo-
ponnesus, from the Promontory of Malea to the Town
Lechaeum upon the Corinthian Bay, lieth in Breadth 160
Miles: but across, from Elis to Epidaurum, 125 Miles:
from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia, 63 Miles : from
the same Place to Phlius is the said measure. And the
whole, as if Nature weighed out a Recompense for the
irruptions of the Seas, riseth up into three score and sixteen
Mountains.

CHAPTER VII.
Greece and Attica.

FROM the Straits of the Isthmus beginneth Hellas, by our
Countrymen called Graecia. The first Tract thereof is Attica,
in old Time named Acte. It reacheth the Isthmus on that
Part of it which is called Megaris, from the Colony Megara,
from the Region of the Pagae. These two Towns, as Pelo-
ponnesus lieth out in Length, are seated on either Hand, as
it were, upon the Shoulders of Hellas. The Pagaei, and
more especially the ^Egosthenienses, lie annexed to the
Magarensians. In the Coast is the Harbour Schoenus.
Towns, Sidus, Cremyon, the Scironian Rocks for three Miles
long, Geranea, Megara, and Elcusin. There were besides,
CEnoa and Probalinthus, which now are 52 Miles from
the Isthmus. Pyraeeus and Phalera, two Ports joined to
Athens by a Wall, within the Land five Miles. This City
is free, and needeth no more any Man's praise : so abund-
antly noble it is. In Attica are these Fountains, Cephissia,
Larine, Callirrhoe, and Enneacreunos. Mountains, Brilessus,
Megialcus, Icarius, Hymettus, and Lyrabetus : the River
Ilissos. From Pyraeeus 42 Miles is the Promontory
Sunium ; likewise the Promontory Dpriscum. Also Po-
tamos and Brauron, Towns in time past. The Village
Rhamnus, the Place Marathon, the Plain Thriastius, the
Town Melita and Oropus, in the Border of Boeotia. To
which belong Anthedon, Onchestos, Thesprae, a free Town,
Lebadea : and Thebes, surnamed Boeotia, not inferior in



JO History of Nature. [BOOK IV.

Fame to Athens, as being the native Country (as Men will
have it) of two Gods, Liber and Hercules. Also, they attribute
the Birth of the Muses to the Grove Helicon. To this Thebes
is assigned the Forest Cithseron and the River Ismenus.
Moreover, Fountains in Boeotia, GEdipodium. Psammate,
Dirce, Epigranea, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and
Gargaphiae. Mountains, besides the forenamed, Mycalessus,
Adylisus, Acontius. The rest of the Towns between Megara
and Thebes, Eleutherse, Haliartus, Plateae, Pherae, Aspledon,
Hyle, Thisbe, Erythrse, Glissas, and Copse. Near the River
Cephissus, Lamia and Anichia : Medeon, Phligon, Grephis,
Coronsea, Chseronia. But in the Borders, beneath Thebes,
Ocal&, Elseon, Scolos, Scoanos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalessus,
Hyreseon, Pteleon, Olyros, Tanagia, a free People ; and in
the very Mouth of Euripus, which the Island Euboea maketh
by its opposite Site, Aulis, renowned for its large Har-
bour. The Boeotians in old Time were named Hyantes.
The Locrians also are named Epicnemidii, in Times past
Letegetes, through whom the River Cephissus runneth into
the Sea. Towns, Opus (whereof cometh the Opuntinean
Bay), and Cynus. Upon the Sea-coast of Phocis, one
Daphnus. Within, among the Locrians, Elatea, and upon
the Bank of Cephissus (as we have said) Lilaea : and toward
Delphos, Cnemis and Hiarnpolis. Again, the Borders of
the Locrii, wherein stand Larymna arid Thronium, near
which the River Boagrius falleth into the Sea. Towns,
Narycion, Alope, Scarphia. After this, the Vale, called
by the People there dwelling, Maliacus Sinus, wherein are
these Towns, Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara. Then Doris,
wherein are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, Cytirium.
On the Back of Doris is the Mountain (Eta. Then fol-
loweth jEmonia that so often hath changed Name : for
the same hath beea called Pelasgicum, Argos, and Hellas,
Thessalia also, and Dryopis, and evermore it took the Name
of the Kings. In it was born a King called Gracus, from
whom Greece was named : there also was Hellen born,
from whence came the Hellenes. These being but one
People, Homer hath called by three Names: Myrmidons,



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 1 1

Hellense, and Achaei. Of these, they are called Phthiotae
who inhabit Doris. Their Towns are Echinus, in the entrance
of the River Sperchius : and the Straits of Thermopylae, so
named by reason of the Waters : and, four Miles from
thence, Heraclea was called Trachin. There is the Mountain
Callidromus : and the famous Towns, Hellas, Halos, Lamia,
Phthia, and Arne.

CHAPTER VIII.
Thessalia.

MOREOVER, in Thessalia, Orchomenus, formerly called
Minyeus ; and the Town Almon, by some Elmon ; Atrax,
Pelinna, and the Fountain Hyperia. Towns, Pherse, behind
which Pierius stretcheth forth to Macedonia: Larissa, Gomphi,
Thebes of Thessalia, the Grove Pteleon, and the Bay Pa-
gasicus. The Town Pagasa, the same named afterwards
Demetrias ; Tricca, the Pharsalian Plains, with a free City :
Cranon, and Iletia. Mountains of Phthiotis, Nymphaeus,
beautiful for the natural Harbours and Garden-works there :
Buzigaeus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphista, Chimerion, Atha-
mas, Stephane. In Thessalia there are 34, of which the
most famous are Cerceti, Olympus, Pierus, Ossa : over
against which is Pindus and Othrys, the Seat of the Lapithae ;
and those lie toward the West : but Eastward, Pelios ; all of
them bending in the manner of a Theatre : and before them,
in form of a W T edge, 72 Cities. Rivers of Thessalia,
Apidanus, Phoenix, Enipeus, Onochomus, Pamisus : the
Fountain Messeis, the Lake Boebeis : and illustrious above
all the rest, Peneus, which, rising near Gomphi, runneth
for 500 Stadia in a woody Dale between Ossa and Olympus,
and half that Way is navigable. In this Course are the
Places called Temp, five Miles in Length, and almost an
Acre and a half Broad, where on both Hands the Hills arise
by a gentle Ascent above the reach of Man's Sight. Within,
Peneus glideth by, in a fresh green Grove, clear as Crystal,
over the gravelly Stones; pleasant for the Grass upon the
Banks, and melodious with the Harmony of Birds. It



12 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

taketh in the River Eurotas, but receiveth him not, but, as
Homer expresseth it 1 , floweth over him like Oil: and within a
very little while rejecteth the Burden, as refusing to mingle
with his own silver Streams those penal and cursed Waters
so direfully produced.

CHAPTER IX.
Magnesia.

To Thessalia, Magnesia is annexed : the Fountain there
is Libethra. The Towns, lolchos, Hirmenium, Pyrrha,
Methone, Olizon. The Promontory Sepias. Towns, Cas-
tana, Sphalatra, and the Promontory ^Enantium. Towns,
Meliboea, Rhisus, Erymne. The Mouth of Peneus. Towns,
Homolium, Orthe, Thespise, Phalanna, Thaumaciae, Gyrton,
Cranon, Acarne, Dotion, Melitsea, Phylace, Potinae. The
Length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessalia, lying strait
out, is by report 480 Miles, the Breadth 287.

CHAPTER X.
Macedonia.

MACEDONIA, so called afterwards (formerly it was named
Emathia) is a Kingdom, consisting of 150 several People,
renowned for two Kings, and once ennobled for the Empire
of the World. This Country passing behind Magnesia and
Thessalia toward the Nations of Epirus Westward, is much
troubled with the Dardani. The North Parts thereof are
defended by Paeonia and Pelagonia, against the Triballi.
The Towns are these, -^Ege, wherein it was the Custom to inter

1 As Homer expresseth it. See " Iliad," b. 750 :

" To these were join'd, who till the pleasant fields
Where Titaresius winds : the gentle flood
Pours into Peneus all his limpid stores,
But with the silver-eddied Peneus flows
Unmixt as oil ; for Stygian is his stream,
And Styx is the inviolable oath.

COWPER'S Homer. Wern. Club.



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 13

their Kings : Beroea, and jEginium, in that Quarter which,
from the Wood, is called Pieria. In the Borders, Heraclea,
and the River Apilas : Towns, Phina and Oloros : the River
Haliacmon. Within are the Haloritae, the Vallei, Phylacei,
Cyrrhestae, Tyrissaei : Pella, the Colony : the Town Stobi, of
Roman Citizens. Presently, Antigonia, Europus, upon the
River Axius, and another of the same Name, through which
Rhaedias runneth : Heordeco, Scydra, Mieza, Gordinise. Soon
after, in the Borders, Ichnae ; and the River Axius. To this
Extremity the Dardani : Treres and Pieres border upon
Macedonia. From this River are the Nations of Paeonia,
Parorei, Heordenses, Almopii, Pelagones, and Mygdones.
The Mountains Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus. Then the
Lap of the Earth spreading along, Arethusii, Antiochienses,
Idomenenses, Doberienses, Trienses, Allantenses, AndarU
stenses, Moryllii, Garesci, Lyncestae, Othrionei, and the free
States of the Amantini and Orestae. Colonies, Bulledensis
and Diensis. Xilopolitae, Scotussaei, free ; Heraclea, Sintica,
Tymphei, and Coronaei. In the Coast of the Macedonian
Bay, the Town Calastra, and within, Phileros, and Let :
and in the middle bending of the Coast, Thessalonica, of
free condition. To it from Dyrrhachium, is 114 Miles;
Thermae. In the Bay Thermaicus, are these Towns, Dicaea,
Pydna, Derrha, Scione : the Promontory Canastraeum.
Towns, Pallenei, Phlerga. In which Region these Moun-
tains, Hypsizorus, Epitus, Alchion^, Leuomn. Towns,
Nissos, Brygion, Eicon, Mendae, and in the Isthmus of Pal-
lene, the Colony sometime called Potidaea, and now Cas-
sandria ; Anthemus, the Bay Holophyxus, and Mecyberna ;
Towns, Phiscella, Ampelos, Torone, and Singos : the Creek
(where Xerxes, King of the Persians, cut the Mountain
Athos from the Continent), in Length a Mile and a half.
The Mountain itself shooteth out from the Plain into the
Sea, 75 Miles. The Compass of the Foot thereof taketh
150 Miles. A Town there was on the Summit, Acroton.
Now there be Vranopolis, Palaeotrium, Thyssus, Cleon,
Apollonia, the Inhabitants whereof are named Macrobii. The
Town Cassera, and a second Gullet of the Isthmus, Acan-



14 History of Nature. [BOOK IV.

thus, Stagira, Sitone, Heraclea, and the Region lying under
Mygdonia, wherein are, receding from the Sea, Apollonia
and Arethusa. Again, in the Coast, Posidium, and a Bay,
with the Town Cermorus : Amphipolis, a free State, and the
Nation Bisaltse. Then, the River Strymon, which is the
Bound of Macedonia, and which springeth in Haemus : of
which this is worthy to be remembered, that it runneth into
seven Lakes before it keepeth a direct Course. This is
Macedonia, which once obtained the Dominion over all the
Earth : this overran Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappa-
docia, Syria, Egypt, Taurus, and Caucasus : this ruled over
the Bactri, Medi, and Persi, and possessed all the East :
this having the Conquest of India, wandered through the
Tracts of Father Liber and Hercules. This is the very
same Macedonia, of which in one Day Paulus jEmylius,
our Imperator, sold 72 plundered Cities. So great a
Difference of Fortune befel two Men.

CHAPTER XI.
Thracia.

Now followeth Thracia, among the most valiant Nations of
Europe, divided into 52 Regiments (strategias) of Soldiers.
Of those People in it, whom it does not grieve me to name,
the Denseletes and Medi inhabit near the River Strymon, on
the right Side, as far as to the Bisaltse above-named : on the
left, the Digeri, and many Names of the Bessi, to the River
Nestus, which environeth the Bottom of the Mountain Pan-
gseus, between the Eleti, Diobesi, and Carbilesi ; and so
forward to the Brysae and Capaei. Odomanta, a Nation of
the Odrysee, poureth out the River Hebrus to the Neighbour-
borderers, the Carbiletes, Pyrogeri, Drugeri, Caenici, Hyp-
salti, Beni, Corpilli, Botisei, and Edoni. In the same Tract
are the Selletae, Priautae, Diloncae, Thyni, Celetse, the greater
under Haemus, the less under Rhodopae : between whom
runneth the River Hebrus. The Town situate beneath Rho-
dop, before-time named Poneropolis ; soon after by the
Founder, Philippopolis ; but now, from its Site, Trimontium.



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 15

The Elevation of Haemus taketh six Miles : the Back and
declining thereof down to Ister, the Moesi, Getae, Aoti,
Gaudae, and Clariae, and under them the Arraei, Sarmatae,
whom they call Areatae, and Scythae : and about the Sea-
coast of Pontus, the Moriseni and Sithonii, from whom the
Poet Orpheus descended, do inhabit. Thus Ister boundeth
it on the North : in the East, Pontus and Propontus : South-
ward, the Sea Jgaeum, in the Coast of which, from Strymon,
stand Apollonia, CEstima, Neapolis, and Polis. Within, the
Colony of Philip; and 325 Miles from Dyrrhachium, Sco-
tusa, Topiris, and the Mouth of the River Nestus. The
Mountain Pangaeus, Heraclea, Olynthos Abdera, a free City;
the Marsh and Nation of the Bistoni. There stood the Town
Tinda, terrible for the Stables of the Horses of Diomedes.
Now there are the Diceae, Ismaron, the Place Parthenion,
Phalesina, Maronea, called Ortagurea before-time. The
Mountain Serrium and Zonae : then, the Place Doriscus,
able to receive 1 0,000 1 Men : for so there Xerxes numbered
over his Army. The Mouth of Hebrus : the Port of Stentor:
the free Town .ZEnea, with the Tomb of Polydorus ; the
Region, sometime, of the Cicones. From Doriscus, the
Coast bendeth to Macron -Tichos for 122 Miles. About
which Place the River Melas, from which the Bay taketh its
Name. Towns, Cypsella, Bisanthe, and that which is called
Macron-Tichos, whence stretching forth the Walls from Pro-
pontis to the Bay Melanes, between two Seas, it excludeth
Cherronesus as it runneth out. For Thracia, on one Side,
beginning at the Sea-coast of Pontus, where the River Ister
is discharged, hath in that Quarter the very beautiful Cities,
Istropolis of the Milesii, Tomi, and Calatis, which before
was called Acernetis. It had Heraclea and Bizon, which
was destroyed in a Chasm of the Earth ; now it hath Diony-
sopolis, formerly called Crunos. The River Ziras runneth by
it. All that Tract, the Scythians named Aroteres possessed.
Their Towns, Aphrodisius, Libistos, Ziger, Borcob&, Eu-
menia, Parthenopolis, Gerania, where it is reported were the

1 Or 100,000.



16 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Nation of the Pygmei 1 , whom the Barbarians call Catizi, and
they believe that they were chased away by Cranes. In the
Borders from Dionysopolis is Odessus of the Milesii; the River
Pomiscus, the Town Tetranaulochos : the Mountain Haemus
bending down with a huge Top into Pontus, had in the Sum-
mit the Town Aristseum. Now in the Coast is Mesembria
and Anchialum, where Messa was. The Region Astice.
There was the Town Anthium, now there is Apollonia. The
Rivers Panissa, Rira, Tearus, Orosines. Towns, Thynnias,
Almedessos, Develton, with the Marsh which now is called
Deultum, belonging to the Veterans. Phinopolis, near which
is Bosphorus. From the Mouth of Ister to the Entrance of
Pontus others have made 555 Miles. Agrippa hath added
40 Miles more. From thence to the Wall above-named,
150 : and from it to Cherronesus, 126. But from the Bos-
phorus is the Bay Gasthenes. The Port Senum, and an-
other which is called the Port Mulierum. The Promontory
Chrysoceras, whereon standeth the Town Bizantium of free
Condition, and formerly called Lygos. From Dyrrhachium
it is 71 1 Miles. Thus much lieth out the Length between
the Adriatic Sea and Propontis. Rivers, Bathynias, Pydaras,
or Atyras. Towns, Selymbria, Perinthus, annexed to the
Continent, 200 Paces broad. Within, Byzia, the Castle of
the Thracian Kings, hated by Swallows 2 for the horrible
Crime of Tereus. The Region Camica : the Colony Flavio-
polus, where formerly the Town was called Zela. And 50
Miles from Byria, the Colony Apros, which is from Philippi
188 Miles. But in the Borders, the River Erginus, where
was the Town Gonos. And there you leave Lysimachia,

1 The Pygmies are frequently spoken of by ancient writers, and the
existence of the diminutive race was never doubted. We defer the parti-
cular consideration of the monstrous races of mankind to the 7th Book,
c. 2, where they are all mentioned together ; but the Pygmies appear to
have attracted more of the imagination of the poets than any of the
others. The origin of their royal tyrant, the crane, is referred to by
Ovid, "Metamorphoses," b. vi. Wern. Club.

2 See the story of Tereus, Procne, and Philomela, in Ovid's " Metamor-
phoses," lib. vi. Wern. Club.



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 17

now in Cherronesus. For there is another Isthmus of like
Straigbtness, of the same Name, and of equal Breadth.
On both Sides two Cities beautify the Shores, which they
hold in a Manner not unlike : Pactiae from Propontis, and
Cardia from the Bay Melane : this taketh its Name from the
Appearance of the Place : and both, afterwards, were en-
closed within Lysimaehia, three Miles from the long Walls 1 .
Cherronesus from Propontis had Tiristasis and Crithotes,
also Cissa, upon the River ^Egos : now it hath from the
Colony Apros 32 Miles ; Resistos, over against the Colony
Pariana. And Hellespontus, dividing Europe from Asia by
seven Stadia (as we have said), hath four Cities, opposite one
against another : in Europe, Calippolis and Sestos ; in Asia,
Lampsacum and Abydos. Then, is the Promontory of Cher-
ronesus, called Mastisia, opposite to Sigeum, in the crooked
Front whereof is Cynossema : for so is Hecuba s Tomb
named, the Station of the Achaei. The Tower and Shrine
of Proiesilaus : and in the utmost Front of Cherronesus,
which is called folium, the Town Elaeus. After it, as a
Man goeth to the Bay Melan, the Port Cselos, Panhormus,
and the above-named Cardia. The third Bay of Europe is in
this Manner shut in. Mountains of Thracia above those



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