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before rehearsed, Edonus, Gigemorus, Meritus, and Melam-
phyllon ; Rivers falling into Hebrus, Bargus, and Suemus.
The Length of Macedonia, Thracia, and Hellespontus, is set
down before. Some make it 720 Miles. The Breadth is 380
Miles. The Sea ^Egeum took that Name from a Rock, be-
tween Tenedos and Chios, more truly than from an Island
named MX, resembling a Goat, and therefore so called of the
Greeks ; which suddenly riseth out of the midst of the Sea.
The People that sail from Achaia to Andros, discover it on
the right Hand, dreadful and mischievous. Part of the
-^Egean Sea is given to Myrtoum, and is so called from a
little Island which sheweth itself to them that sail from
Gerestus to Macedonia, not far from Charystos in Euboea.
The Romans comprehend all these Seas in two Names :

1 Macron-Tichos.


18 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Macedonicum, all that which toucheth Macedonia and
Thracia : and Grseciensum, where it beateth upon Greece.
For the Greeks divide the Ionian Sea, into Siculum and
Creticum, from the Islands. Also, Icarius (they call that),
between Samos and Mycionus. The other Names are given
by Bays, of which we have spoken. And thus much, indeed,
of the Seas and Nations contained in this Manner within the
third Bay of Europe.


Islands between those Lands, among which, Creta, Eubcea,
Cyclades, and Sporades: also, of Hellespont, Pontus,
Mceotis, Dacia, Sarmatia, and Scythia.

ISLANDS over against Thresprotia, Corey ra: 12 Miles from
Buthrotus, and the same from Acroceraunia, 50 Miles, with
a City of the same Name, Corcyra, of free Condition ; also,
the Town Cassiope, and the Temple of Jupiter Cassiopceus :
it lieth out in Length 97 Miles. Homer called it Scheria
and Phseacia : Callimachus also, Drepane\ About it are
some others : but verging toward Italy, Thoronos : and to-
ward Leucadia, the two Paxae, five Miles divided from Cor-
cyra. And not far from them before Corcyra, Ericusa,
Marate, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachise, Pytionia, Ptychia,
Tarachie. And beyond Pholachrum, a Promontory of Corcyra,
the Rock into which it is feigned that the Ship of Ulysses was
turned, on Account of its Resemblance. Before Leucadia,
Sybota. But between Leucadia and Achaia there are very
many: of which are Teleboides, the same as Taphise.: of the
Inhabitants before Leucadia, they are called Taphias ; Oxiae
and Prinoessa : and before jEtolia, the Echinades, JEgialia,
Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cyrnus, Chalcis,
Pinara, and Mystus. Before them in the deep Sea, Cepha-
lenia and Zacynthus, both free States : Ithaca, Dulichium,
Same, Crocylea, and Paxos. Cephalenia, formerly called
Meloena is 11 Miles off, and 44 Miles in Circuit. Sam was
destroyed by the Romans : nevertheless, it hath still three
Towns : between it and Achaia is Zacynthus, with a Town, a

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 19

stately Island, and remarkably fertile. In Times past it was
called Hyrie, and is 22 Miles distant from the South-coast of
Cephalenia. The famous Mountain of Elatus is there. The
Island itself is in Circuit 25 Miles. Twelve Miles from it is
Ithaca, wherein is the Mountain Neritus. And in the whole
it taketh up the Compass of 25 Miles. From it 12 Miles off
is Araxum, a Promontory of Peloponnesus. Before this, in
the main Sea, Asteris and Prote. Before Zacynthus, 35
Miles in the Wind Eusus, are the Strophades, called by
others, Plotae : and before Cephalenia, Letoia. Before Pylos,
three Sphagise ; and as many before Messene, called GEriussae.
In the Bay Asinaeus, three Thyrides : in the Laconian Gulf,
Teganusa, Cothon, Cythera, with the Town formerly named
Porphyris. This lieth five Miles from the Promontory of
Malea, doubtful for Ships to come about it, by Reason of the
Straits there. In the Argolic Sea are Pityusa, Irine and
Ephyre : and against the Territory Hermonium, Typarenus,
Epiropia, Colonis, Aristera : over against Trcezenium Ca-
lauria, half a Mile from Platese : also, Belbina, Lacia and
Baucidias. Against Epidaurus, Cecryphalos, and Pytionesos,
six Miles from the Continent. Next to it is .ZEgina, of free
Condition, 17 Miles off, and the Navigation of it is 20 Miles
about. The same is distant from Pyrseeum, the Port of the
Athenians, 12 Miles, and in old Time it was usually called
CEnone. Over against the Promontory Spiraeum, lie Eleusa,
Dendros, two Craugise, two Caeciae, Selachusa, Cenchreis, and
Aspis. Also, in the Megarian Bay, there are four Methu-
rides. But ./Egilia is 15 Miles from Cythera; and the same
is from Phalasarna, a Town in Greta, 25 Miles. And Creta
itself, lying with one Side to the South, and the other to the
North, stretcheth forth in Length East and West ; famous
and noble for 100 Cities. Dosiades saith it took that Name
from the Nymph Creta, Daughter of Hesperis : but according
to Anaximander, from a King of the Curetes. Philistides,
Mallotes, Crates, have thought it was called first ^Eria, and
afterwards Curetis, and some have thought it was named
Macaros, on Account of the excellent Temperature of the
Air. In Breadth it exceedeth in no Place 50 Miles, and in

20 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

the middle Part it is broadest : in Length it is full 270
Miles : in Circuit, 589 Miles : and bending itself into the
Cretic Sea, so called from it, where it stretcheth out furthest
Eastward, it putteth forth the Promontory Sarnmonium,
opposite Rhodos ; and Westward, Criu-Metopon, toward
Cyrense. The principal Towns are Phalasarnae, Elaea, Cysa-
mum, Pergamum, Cydon, Minoum, Apteron, Pantoma-
trium, Amphimalla, Rhythymna, Panhormum, Cyteurn,
Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hiera-
pytna, Lebena, Hierapolis. And in the midland Parts, Cor-
tyna, Phaestum. Gnossus, Potyrrhenium, Myrina, Lycastus,
Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium, Asum, Pyloros, Rhytion, Clatos,
Pharae. Holopyxos, Lasos 1 , Eleuthernse, Therapne, Mara-
thusa, Mytinos. And other Towns to about the Number of
60 stand yet upon Record. The Mountains : Cadiscus,
Idaeus, Dictaeus, and Morycus. The Isle itself, from the
Promontory in it called Criu-Metopon, as Agrippa reporteth,
is distant from Phycus, a Promontory of the Cyrense, 225
Miles. Likewise to Capescum from Malea in Peloponnesus,
it is 80 Miles. From the Island Carpathus, from the Pro-
montory Sammonia, in the Favonian Wind, 60 Miles. This
Island lieth between it and Rhodos. The Rest about it are
these : before Peloponnesus two Coricae, and as many Mylae :
and on the North Side, with Creta on the right Hand, there
appeareth Leuce over against Cydonia, with the two Budorae;
against Matium, Cia: against the Promontory Itanum Onisa
and Leuce : against Hierapytna, Chrysa, and Caudos. In
the same Tract are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Rhamnus : and
doubling Criu-Metopon, the Isles called Musagores. Before
the Promontory Sammonium, Phocse, Platiae, Sirnides, Nau-
lochos, Armedon, and Zephyre. But in Hellas, yet still in
.ZEgeum, Lichades, Scarphia, Maresa, Phocaria, and very
many more over against Attica ; but without Towns, and
therefore obscure : but against Eleusina, the noble Salamis,

1 Dr. Bloomfield (" Recens. Synop." in loco} thinks this place was the
Lasea of Acts xxvii. 8. Pliny makes it an inland town, but by inland
towns he only means such as were not ports ; and that Lasea was not a
port is clear, the Fair Havens being its port. Wern. Club.

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 2J

and before it Psytalia: and from Sunium, Helen, five Miles
off: and Ceos, from thence as many ; which our Countrymen
have named Caea ; but the Greeks Hydrussa : cut off from
Euboea. In Times past it was 500 Stadia long : but soon
after, almost four Parts, which verged towards Boaotia, were
devoured by the same Sea : and now the Towns remaining
are Julis and Cartheea. For Coressus and Peecessa are
perished. From hence, as Varro saith, came the more deli-
cate Dress that Women use. Euboea itself hath been torn
from Boeotia, being divided with so little a Euripus, that a
Bridge joineth the one to the other : it is well marked by
Reason of two Promontories in the South Side, which are,
Genestum, bending toward Attica ; and Caphareus to Helles-
pontus : and upon the North Side, Ceeneus. In no Part doth
it extend broader than 40 Miles ; and no where doth it con-
tract beyond 20. But in Length from Attica, as far as Thes-
salia, it lieth along Boeotia for 150 Miles; and contained! in
Circuit 365. From Hellespont, on the Part of Caphareus, it
is 225 Miles. In Times past it was illustrious for these
Cities: Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerinthus, Oreum, Dium,
^Edepsum, Ocha, CEchalia, now Calcis, over against which
standeth Aulis on the Continent : but now noble for Geres-
turn, Eretria, Carystus, Oritanum, Artemisium, the Fountain
Arethusa, the River Lelantum, the hot Waters called Hel-
lopige ; but yet more known for the Marble of Carystus.
In former Time it was called commonly Chalcodontis or
Macris, as Dionysius and Ephorus say ; but Macra, ac-
cording to Aristides : and according to Callidemus, Chalcis,
from the Brass there first found: and as Mencecmus saith,
Abantias : and Asopis, as the Poets commonly name it. Be-
yond, in the Myrtoom Sea, are many Isles, but those prin-
cipally famous are Glauconnesus and jEgilia. And from the
Promontory Gerestuui, about Delos, some lying in a Circle
together, whence they took their Name Cyclades. The first
of them, Andrus, with a Town, is from Gerestum, 10 Miles ;
and from Ceum, 39. Myrsilius saith it was called Cauros,
and afterwards Antandros. Callimachus nameth it Lasia,
others Nonagria, Hydrussa, and Epagris. It lieth in Com-
pass 93 Miles. A Mile from the same Andros, and 15 from

22 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Delos, lieth Tenos, with a Town stretched out 15 Miles in
Length : which, for the Plenty of Water, Aristotle saith, was
called Hydrussa, but others name it Ophiussa. The Rest are
these: Myconos, with the Mountain Dimastos, 15 Miles
from Delos. Scyros Syphnus, formerly named Meropia and
Acis, in Circuit 28 Miles : Seriphus, 12 Miles, Praepesinthus,
Cythnus. And Delos itself, of all others the most illustrious,
the midmost of the Cyclades, celebrated for the Temple of
Apollo, and for Merchandise; which, having a long Time
floated up and down (as it is reported), was the only Island
that never felt an Earthquake 1 unto the Time of M. Varro.
Mutianus hath recorded that it was twice shaken. Aristotle
giveth a Reason of the Name in this Sort, because it was
produced and discovered on a sudden. jEylosthenes termeth
it Cynthia : others Ortygia, Asteria, Lagia, Chlamydia,
Cynethus, and Pyrpile ; because in it Fire was first found
out. It is but five Miles about, and riseth up by the Moun-
tain Cinthus. Next to it is Rhene, which Anticlides calleth
Celadussa, and Helladius, Artemite. Moreover, Syros, which
ancient Writers have reported to be in Circuit 20 Miles,
and Mutianus, 160. Oliatos, Paros, with a Town, 38 Miles
from Delos, of great Name for white Marble, which at
first they called Pactia, but afterwards Minois. From it
seven and a half Miles is Naxus, 18 Miles from Delos;
with a Town, which they called Strongyle, afterwards Dia,
soon after Dionysius, from its Fertility of Vines ; and by
others, Sicily the Less, and Callipolis. It reacheth in Cir-
cuit 75 Miles, and is half as long again as Paros. And thus
far, indeed, they note for the Cyclades: the Rest that follow,
for the Sporades. And these are Helenum, Phocussa, Phae-
casia, Schinussa, Phalegandros ; and 17 Miles from Naxos,
Icaros : which gave Name to the Sea, lying out as far in
Length ; with two Towns, for the third is lost : beforetime
it was called Dolichum, Macris, and Ichtyoessa. It is situated

1 Thucydides, book ii., says : " There was also a little before the time
of the Peloponnesian war, an earthquake at Delos, which, in the memory
of the Grecians, never shook before ; and was interpreted for, and seemed
to be a sign of, what was to come afterwards to pass." HOBBES. Wern.

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 23

North-east, from Delos 50 Miles : and from Samos it is 35
Miles. Between Euboea and Andros there is a Strait 12
Miles over. From it to Gerestum is 112^ Miles. And then
no Order forward can be kept ; the Rest, therefore, shall be
set down promiscuous!}'. los from Naxos is 24 Miles, vene-
rable for the Sepulchre of Homer : it is in Length 25 Miles,
and in former Time was called Phaenice. Odia, Letandros ;
Gyaros, with a Town, in Circuit 12 Miles. It is distant from
Aneros, 62 Miles. From thence to Syrnus, 80 Miles. Cyne-
thussa ; Telos, famous for costly Ointment, and called by
Callimachus, Agathussa. Donysa ; Pathmos, in Circuit 30
Miles. Corasise, Lebinthus, Leros, Cynara, Sycinus, which
beforetime was (Enoe ; Heratia, the same as Onus ; Casus,
otherwise Astrabe; Cimolus, otherwise Echinussa ; Melos,
with a Town, which Aristides nameth Byblis ; Aristotle, Ze-
phyria ; Callimachus, Himallis ; Heraclides, Syphnus and
Acytos. And this, of all the Islands, is the roundest. After it
Machia; Hypere, sometime Patage, or after some Platage,
now Amorgos ; Potyaegos, Phyle, Thera ; when it first
appeared, called Calliste. From it afterwards was Therasia
torn away : and between those two soon after arose Auto-
mate, the same as Hiera : and Thia, which in our Days
appeared new out of the Water near Hiera. los is from
Thera, 25 Miles. Then follow Lea, Ascania, Anaphe, Hip-
puris, Hippurissusa. Astipalsea of free Condition, in Com-
pass 88 Miles : it is from Cadiscus, a Promontory of Creta,
125 Miles. From it is Platea, distant 60 Miles. And from
thence Camina, 38 Miles. Then Azibnitha, Lanise, Tragia,
Pharmacusa, Techedia, Chalcia ; Calydna, in which are
the Towns Coos and Olymna. From which to Carpathus,
which gave the Name to the Carpathian Sea, is 25 Miles :
and so to Rhodes with an African Wind. From Carpathus
to Casos, seven Miles : from Casos to Samonium, a
Promontory of Creta, 30 Miles. Moreover, in the Euboic
Euripus, almost at the first Entrance, are the four Islands,
Petalise ; and at the Outlet, Atalante, Cyclades, and Spo-
rades : inclosed on the East with the Icarian Sea-coasts of
Asia; on the West, with the Myrtoan Coasts of Attica;

24 History of Nature. [Boox IV.

Northward, with the ^Egean Sea ; and South, with the Cretic
and Carphacian Seas : and they lie in Length 200 Miles.
The Bay Pagasicus hath before it Eutychia, Cicynethus, and
Scyrus abovesaid : but the Outermost of the Cyclades and
Sporades, Gerontia, Scadira, Thermeusis, Irrhesia, Solinnia,
Eudemia, Nea, which is sacred to Minerva. Athos before
it hath four; Preparethus, with a Town, sometime called
Euonos, nine Miles off: Scyathus, five Miles: and Imbrus,
with a Town, 88 Miles off. The same is from Mastusia in
Corinthos, 75 Miles. Itself is in Circuit 72 Miles. It is
watered by the River Ilissus. From thence to Lemnos, 22
Miles : and the latter from Athos, 87. In Compass it con-
taineth 22J Miles. Towns it hath, Hepheestia and Myrina,
into the Market-place of which the Mountain Athos casteth a
Shadow at the Solstice. Thassos, a free State, is from it five
Miles : in Times past, called JEria, or jEthria. From thence
Abdera in the Continent is 20 Miles : Athos, 62 : the Isle
Samothrace as much, which is free, and lieth before Hebrus :
from Imbrus, 32 Miles: from Lemnus, 22 J Miles: from the
Borders of Thracia, 28 Miles : in Circuit it is 32 Miles, and hath
a Rising of the Hill Saoces for the Space of 10 Miles : and
of all the Rest is fullest of Harbours. Callimachus calleth it
by the old Name Dardania : between Cherronesus and
Samothrace is Halomesus, about 15 Miles from either of
them : beyond lieth Gethrone, Larnponia, Alopeconnesus
not far from Coelos, a Port of Cherronesus : and some
others of no importance. In this Bay are rehearsed also
the deserted Islands, of which the Names only can be disco-
vered : Desticos, Larnos, Cyssicos, Carbrusa, Celathusa,
Scylla, Draconon, Arconesus, Diethusa, Scapos, Capheris,
Mesat&, .ZEantion, Phaterunesos, Pateria, Calete, Neriphus,
and Polendus.

The fourth of those great Bays in Europe, beginning
from Hellespont, endeth in the Mouth of Mceotis. But we
are briefly to describe the Form of the whole Sea, that the
Parts may be more easily known. The vast Ocean lying
before Asia, and driven out from Europe in that long Coast
of Cherronesus, breaketh into the Land with a narrow

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 25

Passage of seven Stadia (as hath been said) dividing Europe
from Asia. The first Straits they call Hellespontus. Over
this, Xerxes, King of the Persians, made a Bridge upon
Ships, and so led his Array across. From thence is extended
a small Euripus for the space of 86 Miles, to Priapus, a
City of Asia, where Alexander the Great passed over. From
that Place the Sea groweth wide, and again gathereth into
a Strait : the largeness is called Propontis ; the Straits, the
Thracian Bosphorus, 500 Paces over : by which Darius, the
Father of Xerxes, made a Bridge and transported his Forces.
The whole Length from Hellespont is 239 Miles. From
thence the vast Sea called Pontus Euxinus, and in Times
past Axenus, taketh up the space between Lands far remote,
and with a great winding of the Shores, bendeth backward
into Horns, and lieth stretched out from them on both Sides,
resembling evidently a Scythian Bow. In the midst of this
bending, it joineth close to the Mouth of the Lake Mreotis.
That Mouth is called Cimmerius Bosphorus, two Miles and
a half Broad. But between the two Bosphori, Thracius and
Cimmerius, there is a direct Course, as Polybius saith, of
500 Miles. But the Circuit of all this Sea, as Varro and
almost all the old Writers witness, is 2150 Miles. Nepos
Cornelius addeth thereto 350 Miles. Artemidorus maketh
it 2919 Miles: Agrippa, 2360 Miles: Mutianus, 2865
Miles. In like sort, some have determined the Measure
to the Side of Europe to be 4078J Miles: others, 11,072
Miles. M. Varro taketh his Measure in this manner : from
the Mouth of Pontus to Apollonia, 188J Miles: to Calatis,
as much : to the Mouth of Ister, 125 : to Borysthenes, 250 :
to Cherroriesus, a Town of the Heracleates, 375 Miles : to
Panticapaeus, which some call Bosphorus, the utmost Coast
of Europe, 222 1 Miles : the sum of which makes 1336J Miles.
Agrippa measureth, from Bizantium to the River Ister, 560
Miles : to Panticapseurn, 630 : from thence the very Lake
Mceotis, receiving the River Tanais which runneth out of
the Riphaean Mountains, is supposed to be in Compass 1306
Miles ; being the furthest Bound between Europe and Asia.
Others make 11,025 Miles. But it is evident, that from its

26 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Mouth to the Mouth of Tanais, by a straight Course, it is 375
Miles. The Inhabitants of that Bay have been named in
the mention of Thracia, as far as to Istropolis. From thence
the Mouths of Ister. This River riseth among the Hills of
Abnoba, a Mountain of Germany, over against Rauricum, a
Town in Gallia, and passing many Miles beyond the Alps, and
through innumerable Nations, under the Name of Danubius,
with a mighty increase of Waters, and whence he first be-
ginneth to wash Illyricum taking the Name of Ister, after
he hath received 60 Rivers, and almost the one-half of them
navigable, rolleth into Pontus with six vast Streams. The
first Mouth of it is Peuces : soon after, the Island Peuce
itself, from which the next Channel took its name, and is
swallowed up in a great Marsh of 19 Miles. Out of the
same Channel, and above Astropolis, a Lake is produced of
63 Miles' compass ; which they call Halmyris. The second
Mouth is called Naracustoma : the third, Calostoma, near
the Island Sarmatica : the fourth, Pseudostoma, and the
Island Conopon Diabasis. After that, Boreostoma, and
Spireostoma. Each of these is so great, that by Report
the Sea, for 40 Miles' length, is overmatched with the
same, and the fresh Water may so far be tasted. From it,
into the inland Parts, the People are all Scythians : but
various other Nations inhabit close on the Coasts : in some
Places the Getae, called by the Romans Daci : in others the
Sarmatse, by the Greeks Sauromatse ; and among them, the
Hamaxobii or Aorsi. Elsewhere the degenerate Scythians,
who are sprung from Servants, or the Troglodites : presently,
the Alani and Rhoxalani. But the higher Parts between Da-
nubius and the Forest Hercynius, as far as to the Panrionian
wintering Places of Carnuntum, and the Confines there of
the Germans, the Fields and Plains of Jazyge, the Sar-
matians possess. But the Mountains and Forests, the Daci,
who were expelled by them, inhabit, as far as to the River
Parhyssus from Morus ; or this is Duria, dividing them
from the Suevi and the Kingdom of Vanni. The Parts
against these the Bastarnae hold ; and from thence other
Germani. Agrippa hath set down that whole Tract, from

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 27

the Ister to the Ocean, as amounting to 2000 Miles, and
400 less in Breadth, from the Deserts of Sarmatia to the
River Vistula : the Name of Scythae everywhere continually
runneth into Sarmatae and Germani. Neither hath that old
denomination remained in any others but those, who, as I
have said, live the furthest off of these Nations, almost
unknown to all other Men. But the Towns next to the
Ister are Cremniscos and ^Epolium : the Mountains Ma-
crocrennii : the noble River Tyra, giving Name to the Town,
whereas before time it was called Ophiusa. Within the same
is a spacious Island, inhabited by the Tyragetae. It is from
Pseudostomum, a Mouth of the Ister, 130 Miles. Soon
after are the Axiacae, named after the River : beyond whom
are the Crobyzi : the River Rhode : the Bay Sagaricus, and
the Port Ordesus. And, 120 Miles from Tyra, is the River
Borysthenes, and a Lake and Nation of that Name :
and a Town 15 Miles within from the Sea, called by the
ancient Names Olbropolis and Miletopolis. Again, on the
Shore, the Harbour of the Achaeans : the Island of Achilles,
famous for the Tomb of that Man. And from it 135 Miles,
is a Peninsula, lying out across in the Form of a Sword,
and called Dromos Achilleos, upon occasion of his Exercise
there : the Length of which Agrippa hath declared to be 80
Miles. All that Tract, the Taurisci, Scythae, and Sarmatae
inhabit. Then the woody Region gave the name to the Sea
Hylaeum, by which it is encircled. The Inhabitants are called
Enaecadloae. Beyond is the River Panticapes, which divideth
the Nomades and Georgi : and soon after, Acesinus. Some
say that Panticape, with Borysthenes, run together beneath
Olbia ; but the more exact name Hypanis : so much they
erred who have described it in a part of Asia. The Sea
retires with a very great Ebb, until it is distant from Moeotis
with an interval of five Miles, compassing a vast Space, and
many Nations. There is a Bay called Corcinites, and a
River Pacyris. Towns, Naubarum and Carcine. Behind
is the Lake Buges, let out into the Sea by a foss. And
(Buges) itself is disjoined from Coretus, a Bay of the Lake
Moeotis, by a rocky Back. It receiveth the Rivers Buges,

28 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Gerrhus, Hypanis, coming from different quarters : for
Gerrhus parteth the Basilides and Nomades. Hypanis
floweth through the Nomades and the Hyleans into Buges,
by a Channel made by Man's Hand, but in his natural
Channel into Coretus. The Region of Scythia is named
Sendica. But in Carcinites, Taurica beginneth : which in
Times past was environed with the Sea, where now there
lie Fields : afterwards it mounteth up with very great Hills.
Thirty People are in it : and of them 24 are within Land.
Six Towns, Orgocyni, Caraseni, Assyrani, Tractari, Archi-
lachitse, and Caliordi. The Crest of the Hill the Scytotauri
hold. They are shut in Westward by Cherronesus ; East-
ward by the Scythian Satarchi. In the Coast from Car-
cinites are these Towns : Taphrae, in the very Straits of the
Peninsula : then, Heraclea, Cherronesus, endowed with
Liberty by the Romans. Formerly it was called Megarice,
and is the most Elegant in all that Tract, as retaining the
Manners of the Greeks ; and it is encompassed with a Wall
of five Miles' extent. Then the Promontory Parthenium.
A City of the Tauri, Placia. The Harbour Symbolon : the
Promontory Criu-Metopon, over against Charambes, a Pro-
montory of Asia, running through the middle of Euxinus
for the space of 170 Miles : which is the cause especially
that maketh the Form abovesaid of a Scythian Bow. Near
to it are many Harbours and Lakes of the Tauri. The
Town Theodosia, distant from Criu-Metopon 122 Miles, and
from Cherronesus 165 Miles. Beyond, there have been
the Towns Cyte, Zephyrium, Acre, Nymphseum, and Dia.

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