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And by far the strongest of them all remaineth still in the
very entrance of Bosphorus, namely, Panticapaeum of the
Milesians, from Theodosia 1035 Miles : but from Cim-
merum, a Town situated beyond the Strait, a Mile and a half,
as we have said. And this is all the Breadth there that
divideth Asia from Europe : and even that is for the most
part passable on Foot, when the Strait is frozen over. The
Breadth of Bosphorus Cimmerius is 12 Miles. It hath the
Towns Hermisium, Myrmecium ; and within it, the Island
Alopece. But through Mceotis, from the furthest part of

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 29

the Isthmus, which Place is called Tapbrse, to the Mouth of
Bosphorus, it containeth 260 Miles. From Taphrae, the
Continent within is inhabited by the Anchetae, among whom
the Hypanis springeth : and Neuri, where Borysthenes hath
his Head ; also, the Geloni, Thussagetae, Budmi, Basilidae,
and the Agathyrsi, with blue Hair on their Heads. Above
them, the Nomades ; and then the Anthropophagi. From
Buges, above Moeotis, the Sauromates and Essedones dwell.
But along the Borders, as far as Tanais, the Mceotae, from
whom the Lake was so called ; and the last behind them,
the Arimaspi. Within a little are the Riphaean Mountains,
and a Country called Pterophoros, for the resemblance of
Wings (Feathers 1 ) occasioned by the continual fall of
Snow : a Part of the World condemned by the nature of
Things, and immersed in thick Darkness, having no shelter-
ing Places but the work of Cold, the produce of the freezing
North Wind. Behind those Mountains, and beyond the
North Pole, there is a happy Nation (if we may believe it)
whom they call Hyperborei 2 , who live exceeding long, and

1 " A race of men there are, as fame has told,
Who shivering suffer Hyperborean cold,
Till nine times bathing in Minerva's lake
Soft feathers, to defend their naked sides, they take."

DBTDEN'S Ovid. Metam. lib. xv.

Herodotus, Melpo. 31, says: " In respect to the feathers wherewith
the Scythians affirm the air to be filled, my opinion is this : above that
country snow falls continually ; now any one that has seen snow falling
thick, and close to himself, must understand what I say. The snow does, in
fact, bear great resemblance to feathers. I think, therefore, that the
Scythians and the surrounding nations compare the snow to feathers.
LAURENT. Wern. Club.

2 The ancients denominated those people and places Hyperborean
which were to the northward of the Scythians. They had, indeed, but
very little acquaintance with these regions ; and all they tell us of them
is very precarious, while much of it is false. Herodotus, as well as Pliny,
doubts whether or not there were any such nations ; while Strabo pro-
fesses to believe that they really existed. See a very amusing account of
these fabulous Hyperboreans in Herodotus, Melpo. 32-36. From whence
much that Pliny says was borrowed. Wern. Club.

30 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

are celebrated for fabulous Wonders. There are believed to
be the Poles of the World, and the very Ends of the revo-
lution of the Heavens, having for six Months together one
entire Day ; and Night as long, when the Sun is turned from
them : but their Day is not from the Spring Equinox (as
the Ignorant say) to the Autumn : for once in the Year, at
the Solstice, the Sun riseth with them : and once likewise
it setteth in Mid-winter. The Region is open to the Sun,
of a happy Temperature, void of all hurtful impulse of Air.
The Woods are their Habitations, and the Groves where
they worship the Gods Man by Man, and in Companies :
Discord and all Disease are unknown ; and they never die,
but when they are satiated with Life : when the aged Men,
having feasted and anointed their bodies, leap from a certain
Rock into the Sea. This kind of Sepulture is the most happy.
Some Writers have placed them in the first Part of the Sea-
coast in Asia, and not in Europe; because some are there re-
sembling them in manners and situation, named Atocori ;
others have set them in the midst, between both Suns ; that
is, the Setting of it with the Antipodes, and the Rising of it
with us : which cannot possibly be, so vast a Sea lying
between. Those that have placed them nowhere but in the
six Months' daylight, have written of them, that they sow in
the Morning, reap at Noon, at Sunset gather the Fruits from
the Trees, and by Night lie within Caves. Neither may we
make doubt of that Nation, since so many Authors testify,
that they were accustomed to send their first Fruits to
Delos, to Apollo, whom they chiefly worship. They were
Virgins that conveyed these Fruits ; who for certain Years
were venerated and entertained by all Nations, until, upon
breach of Faith, they appointed to bestow those sacred ob-
lations in the next Borders of their Neighbours : and these
again to convey them to those that bordered upon them, and
so on as far as to Delos : and, soon after, this custom wore
out. The Length of Sarmatia, Scythia, and Taurica, and of all
that Tract from the River Borysthenes, is 980 Miles, the
Breadth 717, as M. Agrippa hath delivered it. But I judge

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 31

that the Measure of this Part of the Earth is uncertain.
But after the appointed Order, the remainder of this Gulf
may be spoken of; and we have already shewn the Seas of it.

The Islands of Pontus.

HELLESPONT hath no Islands to be spoken of in Europe.
In Pontus are two, a Mile and a half from Europe, and 14
Miles from the Mouth : Cyaneae, of others called Symple-
gades : and by Report of Fables, they ran one into another :
because they being severed by a small Space, to them that
enter the Sea full upon them they seemed a Pair: but if
the Eye be a little turned aside, they made a Show as if they
met together. On this Side the Ister there is one, pertaining
to the Apolloniates, 80 Miles from Bosphorus Thracius : out
of which M. Lucullus brought Apollo Capitolinus 1 . What
were within the Mouths of the Ister we have declared al-
ready. Before Borysthenes is the above-named Achillea, and
the same is called Leuce and Macaron. This the modern
demonstration places 140 miles from Borysthenes : from
Tyra, 120 : from the Island Pence, 50. It is in Compass
about ten Miles. The rest are in the Bay Carcinites : Ce-
phalonnesos, Rhosphodusa, and Macra. I cannot pass by
the Opinion of many Writers, before we depart from Pontus,
who have thought that all the inland Seas arise from that
head, and not from the Straits of Gades ; and they lay for
their argument, not without some probability, because out
of Pontus the Tide always floweth, and never returneth.

But now we are to depart thence, that other Parts of

1 Apollonia was a colony of the Milesians in Thrace, the greatest
part of whose chief town was situated in a small island in the Euxine,
and contained a temple dedicated to Apollo. The colossal statue of the
god which Lucullus is said to have removed from thence, and placed in
the Capitol at Rome, is described by Pliny (lib. xxxiv. c. 7), as being 30
cubits high, and costing 500 talents. After its removal, it acquired the
name of Apollo Capitolinus. (Note. HOLLAND'S Translation says 150
talents only.) Wem. Club.

32 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Europe may be spoken of; and passing the Riphaean Moun-
tains, we must proceed along the Shore of the Northern
Ocean to the left, until we come to Gades. In which
Tract there are reported to be very many Islands without
Names, of which, by the Report of Tim&us, there is one be-
fore Scythia called Bannomanna, distant from Scythia one
Day's Sailing, into which, in the Time of Spring, Amber is
cast up by the Waves. The other Coasts are of uncertain
Report. The North Ocean from the River Paropamisus,
where it washeth Scythia, Hecatceus nameth Amalchium,
which Word, in the language of that Nation, signifieth
Frozen. Philemon writeth, that the Cimbrians call it Mori-
marusa, that is Mortuum Mare [the Dead Sea], even as far
as to the Promontory Rubeae: then beyond, Cronium.
Xenophon Lampsacenus saith, That in three Days' sailing
from the Scythian Coast there is the Island Baltia, of ex-
ceeding magnitude. The same doth Pythias name Basilia.
There are reported the Isles Oonae, wherein the Inhabitants
live on Birds' Eggs and Oats. Others also, wherein men
are born with the Feet of Horses, and called Hippopodes.
Others of the Panoti 1 , who, being otherwise naked, have
immensely great Ears that cover their whole Bodies. Then
begins a clearer Report to open from the Nation of the
Ingevoni, the first of the Germans in those Parts. There is
the exceeding great Mountain Sevo, not inferior to the high
Crags of Riphaeus, which maketh a very large Gulf, as far
as to the Cimbrians' Promontory, called Codanus, and it is
full of Islands, of which the most celebrated is Scandinavia,
the Magnitude whereof is not yet discovered. A Part
only thereof, as much as is known, the Nation of Helle-
viones inhabiteth, in 500 Villages: and they call it a second
Worldj and as it is thought Enigia is not less. Some say,
that these Parts, as far as to the River Vistula, are in-
habited by the Sarmati, Veneti, Scyri, and Hirri : also that

1 Some editions read Fanesii, but Panotii seems the more correct ; for
as the Oonae were so called in consequence of their living on eggs, and the
Hippopodes because they had horses' feet, so the Panoti derived their
name from having immensely great ears that covered their whole bodies.

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 33

the Gulf of the Sea is called Clylipenus : and that in the
Mouth of it is the Island Latris. Also that not far from it,
there is another Bay bounding upon the Cirnbri. The Pro-
montory of the Cimbriaris shooting far into the Seas; maketh
a Peninsula, which is called Cartris. Thence three-and-
twenty Islands are known by the Roman Armies. The
noblest of them are Burchana, called by our countrymen
Fabaria, from the Plenty of Vegetables growing there un-
sown. Likewise Glessaria, so called by the Soldiers from
Amber ; but by the Barbarians, Austrania ; and besides them
Actania. Along this Sea, until you come to the River Scaldis,
the German Nations inhabit : but the Measure of that Tract
can scarcely be declared, such very great Discord there
is among Writers. The Greeks and some of our own Writers
have described the Coast of Germany to be 2500 Miles.
Agrippa again, joining with it Rhaetia and Noricum, saith,
that it is in Length 686 miles, and in Breadth 268. And
of Rhaetia alone, the Breadth is almost greater, at least at
the time that it was subdued, and the People departed out
of Germany : for Germany was discovered many years after,
and is not all, even now. But if it be permitted to guess, there
will not be much wanting in the Coasts, from the opinion
of the Greeks ; nor in the Length as set down by Agrippa.


OF Germans, there are five Kinds ; the Vindili, a part of
whom are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini, and Gurtones.
A second kind, the Ingaevones, part of whom are the Cimbri,
Teutoni, and the Nations of the Cauchi. The Istaevones are
the nearest to the Rhine (Rhenus), and part of them are the
Cimbri. Then the Midland Hermiones, among whom are
the Suevi, Hermunduri, Chatti, and Cherusci. The fifth
part are the Peucini, and Basternae, bordering upon the
abovenamed Dacae. Notable Rivers that run into the
Ocean; Guttalus, Vistillus or Vistula, Albis, Visurgis, Ami-

34 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

sius, Rhenus, Mosa. And within, the Hircynium Hill, 1 infe-
rior to none in estimation, is stretched forward.

Islands in the Gallic Ocean.

IN the Rhine itself, for almost an hundred Miles in
Length, is the most noble Island of the Batavi, Cannenu-
fates ; and others of the Frisii, Cauchi, Frisiaboni, Sturii,
and Marsatii, which are spread between Helius and Flevus.
For so are the Mouths called, into which Rhenus, as it gushes,
scatters itself: from the North into Lakes; from the West
into the River Mosa. But in the middle Mouth between
these, he keepeth a small Channel, of his own name.

Britannia and Hybernia England and Ireland.*

OVER against this Tract lieth the Island Britannia, be-
tween the North and West ; renowned in Greek and Roman

1 The Hercynian Hill (jugum) is elsewhere called the Hercynian
Forest (saltus).

Although Pliny had served with the army in Germany, and had
written a history of the war in which he was engaged, yet he makes no
mention, in this work, of any city or region of that country ; a proof
that the celebrity of a place as estimated at Rome, was the measure of its
importance with him. Wern. Club.

a Different suggestions have been offered in explanation of the word
" Britannia." By some it has been supposed to be derived from the British
word " Brithy" painted ; from a practice by the inhabitants of staining
their skin of a blue colour with woad, to render themselves formidable to
their enemies. But a name thence derived would only be applied by
strangers, who would not have selected a word foreign to their own lan-
guage to express the custom. It is more likely, therefore, to have been
derived from a foreign source ; and it is Bochart's opinion that it was
first applied by the Phrenicians, in whose language the word " Baratanac"
signifies the land of tin : the chief produce which tempted these adven-
turous merchants to visit this country, and make settlements in its most
western extremity, at a very remote period. The word became after-
wards translated into the Greek name " Cassiterides," which was applied by

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 35

Records. It is opposite to Germania, Gallia, and Hispania,
the greatest Parts by far of Europe, and no small Sea lying be-
tween. Albion was its Name, when all the Islands were called
Britanniae, of which by and by we will speak. This (Island)
is from Gessoriacum, a Coast of the Nation of the Morini,
50 Miles by the nearest Passage. In Circuit, as M. Pytheas
and Isidorus report, it containeth 3825 Miles. And now for
about 30 Years the Roman Armies growing into further
knowledge, yet have not penetrated beyond the neighbour-

the latter people, more particularly to the Scilly Islands and the County
of Cornwall. Albion was more properly the Roman name of the coun-
try ; and was probably derived from its white appearance, as seen on their
approach to it from Gaul. This latter name was retained in official docu-
ments, even under the Saxon dominion, as appears from a charter of
JEthelred in the 10th century; in which he terms himself " Ego JEthel-
redus, totius Albionis, Dei gubernante moderamine, Basileus :" and end-
ing, " Ego JEthelredus Rex Anglorum." HEARNE'S Leland, vol. ii.

As natives of the British Islands, we cannot but regret that, while the
Author has been so minute in the mention of places lying round the
borders of the Mediterranean Sea, he has passed over with neglect the
regions and towns of Britain and Ireland, as well as those of the north of
Europe. Although his knowledge of these was probably limited, the
omission can scarcely have proceeded from ignorance alone, for Suetonius
informs us, that the Emperor Vespasian, who was the great patron of Pliny,
had subdued twenty cities in Britain, together with the Isle of Wight ; and
we cannot suppose that Pliny remained unacquainted with the names of
any of them. In another place he names Camelodunum, which is be-
lieved to be Doncaster, as a station sufficiently known, from which to
measure the distance to the Island Mona, or Anglesea ; and the city of
the Trinobantes had been previously mentioned by Julius Caesar. His
distribution of the islands lying round Britain is contradictory as well
as obscure ; but he appears to regard all that are situated west of the
ordinary place of passage from the Continent into Britain, (Gessoriacum,
which is probably Boulogne on the one side, and the British port of the
Morini, whether Dover or Folkestone,) as being necessarily situated be-
tween Britain and Ireland. Vectis is admitted to be the Isle of Wight ;
but by some authors the same name is given to an island to which tin
was carried from Cornwall in carts, and from which it was afterwards
exported. From a comparison of ancient authors, Sir Christopher Haw-
kins was persuaded that this could be no other that St. Michael's Mount,
in Cornwall ; and the argument urged against this supposition, built on
the tradition that it once stood within the land, and was surrounded by

36 History of Nature. [BoOK IV.

hood of the Caledonian Forest. Agrippa belie veth that it
is in Length 800 miles, and in Breadth 300 ; and also that
Ireland is as broad, but not so long by 200 Miles. This
Island is seated above it, and but a very short Passage
distant ; 30 Miles from the Nation of Silures. Of the
other Islands there is none, by report, in Compass more than
125 Miles. But there are the Orcades 40, divided from each
other by small spaces : Acmodse 7, and 30 Hsebrides. Also
between Britannia and Hibernia are Mona, Monapia, Ricnea,

a wood, may be answered by believing that these facts refer to very different
ages of the world. The Mictis of Pliny may be this Cornish island ;
his error in the distance having arisen from confounding the place
of export for tin with the islands producing it. To the latter, or Scilly
Islands, it appears the Britons were accustomed to sail in their wicker boats
covered with leather, or coracles ; a mode of navigation perhaps not less
secure than the somewhat similar vessels at present in use among the
Greenlanders. That they were capable of a considerable voyage appears
from the fact, that they have been employed in crossing the channel
from Armorica to Cornwall so late as about the 7th century. It must
have been from misinformation that Pliny assigns the Cassiterides (Chap.
XXII.) to Spain ; but even this great error may be excused, by recol-
lecting that in a preceding age the merchants had succeeded in concealing
the situation of this Cornish group from the inquiry of Julius Caesar,
when he was tempted to invade the seat of pearls and tin; and that
Cadiz was the Continental port, from which this profitable intercourse
with Cornwall and Scilly had from the remotest ages been carried on.
The Islands mentioned by Pliny may be judged the following :

Orcades . . . Orkneys.

AcmodcB . probably Zetland.

Habredes, Hebrides . Western Islands.

Mona . . . Anglesea.

Monapia, Monaadia, and by others Menavia, Isle of Man.

Ricnea, qu. Ricina f . Birdsey, between Wales and Ireland.

Vectzs . . . Isle of Wight.

Silumnus ... ?

Andros ... ?

Siambis ... ?

Axantos ... ?

Mictis . . .St. Michael's Mount.

Glessaria ) Nordstant, in the German Sea.

Electrides )

Wern. Club.

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 37

Vectis, Silimnus, and Andros : but beneath Siambis and
Axantos: and on the contrary side, toward the German
Sea, there lie scattered the Glessariae, which the later Greek
Writers have named Electrides, because Amber was pro-
duced there. The farthest of all, which are spoken of, is
Thule ; in which there are no Nights, as we have declared,
at the Solstice, when the Sun passeth through the Sign
Cancer ; and on the other hand no Days in Midwinter ; and
each of these Times they supposed to last Six Months.
Timceus the Historiographer saith, That farther within, at
Six Days' sailing from Britannia, is the Island Mictis, in
which White Lead is produced, and that the Britanni sail
thither in Wicker Vessels, sewed round with Leather. Some
make mention of others, as Scandia, Durnna, and Bergos ;
and the biggest of all, Nerigos; from which Men sail to
Thule. Within one Day's Sail from Thule is the Frozen
Sea, named by some Cronium.


ALL Gallia, by one Name called Comata, is divided into
three Kinds of People, and those for the most part divided
one from the other by Rivers : Belgica, from Scaldis to
Sequana : Celtica, from it to Garumna ; and this Part of
Gallia is also named Lugdunensis. From thence to the lying
out of the Mountain Pyrenseus, Aquitania, formerly called
Aremorica. Agrippa hath made this Computation of all
the Gallise lying between Rhenus, Pyrenaeus, the Ocean,
and the Mountains Gehenna and Jura ; whereby he ex-
cludeth Narbonensis Gallia; in Length 420 Miles, and in
Breadth 313. Next to Scaldis, the Toxandri inhabit the
utmost Borders, under many Names. Then the Menapii,
Morini, and Oromansaci ; joining upon that District which is
called Gessoriacus, the Brinanni, Ambiani, Bellonici, and
Hassi. Within, the Castologi, Atrebates, and the free Nervii.
TheVeromandui, Sueconi, and free Suessiones,free Ulbanectes,
Tungri, Rinuci, Frisiabones, Betasi, free Leuci. TheTreviri,

38 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

free formerly : the Lingeries Confederates : the Remi Confe-
derate : the Mediomatrici, the Sequani, the Raurici, and Hel-
vetii. Colonies, Equestris and Rauriaca. But, of German
Nations in the same Province, that dwell near the Rhenus,
the Nemetes, Tribochi, and Vangiones : then the Ubii, Co-
Ionia Agrippensis, Gugerni, Batavi, and those whom we
spake of in the Islands of the Rhenus.

Lugdunensis Gallia.

LUGDUNENSIS GALLIA containeth the Lexovii, Velocasses,
Galleti, Veneti, Abricatui, Osismii, and the noble River Li-
geris : but a remarkable Peninsula running out into the
Ocean from the Extremity of the Osismii, having in cir-
cuit 625 Miles: with its Neck 125 Miles broad. Beyond
it dwell the Nannetes : within, the Hcedui Confederates,
the Carnuti Confederates, the Boii, Senones, Aulerici,
surnamed Eburovices, and the Cenomannes, arid Meldi,
free. Parrhisii, Trecasses, Andegavi, Viducasses, Vadicasses,
Unelli, Cariosvelites, Diablindi, Rhedones, Turones, Itesui,
and free Secusiani, in whose Country is the Colony Lug-
dun urn.


To Aquitania belong the Ambilatri, Anagnutes, Pictones,
the free Santones (Bituriges), named also Vibisci, Aquitani,
from whom the Province is named, and the Sediboniates.
Then such as were enrolled into a Town from various Parts :
Begerri, Tarbeli, who came under 4 Ensigns; Cocossati,
under 6 Ensigns ; Venami, Onobrisates, Belendi, and the
Forest Pyrenseus. Beneath them, the Monesi ; Osquidates,
Mountaineers ; Sibyllates, Camponi, Bercorates, Bipedimui,
Sassumini, Vellates, Tornates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusates,
Sottiates, the Field Osquidates, Succasses, Latusates, Basa-
bocates, Vassei, Sennates, Cambolectri, Agesinates joined to

BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 39

the Pictones. Then the free Bituriges, who are also called
Cubi. Next to them, Lemovices, the free Arverni, and Ga-
bales. Again, those that border upon the Province Narbo-
nensis ; the Rutheni, Cadurci, Autobroges, and the Petro-
gori divided from the Tolosani by the River Tarne. Seas
about the Coast: upon the Rhenus the North Ocean : between
the Rhenus and Sequana, the British Ocean : between it and
Pyrenseus, the Gallic Ocean. Islands : many of the Veneti,
which are called also Veneticse : and in the Gulf of Aquitaine,


The Hither Hispania.

AT the Promontory of Pyrenseus beginneth Hispania
(Spain) ; narrower not only than Gallia, but also than itself
(as we may say), so vast a Quantity is wrought into it by
the Ocean of the one Coast, and the Iberian Sea on the
other. The Mountains of Pyrenseus, which from the
East spread all the way to the Southwest, make Hispania
shorter on the North Side than the South. The nearest
Border of this hither Province is the same as the Tract
of Tarracon, from Pyrenseus along the Ocean, to the
Forest of the Vascones. In the Country of the Varduli :
the Towns Olarso, Morosgi, Menosca, Vesperies, the Port
Amanum, where now is Flaviobriga, a Colony of nine Cities.
The Region of the Cantabri, the River Sada, the Port of
Victoria, inhabited by the Juliobrigenses. From that Place
the Fountains of Iberus, 40 Miles. The Port Biendium, the
Origeni, intermingled with the Cantabri. Their Harbours,
Vesei and Veca : the Country of the Astures, the Town
Noega, in the Peninsula Pesicus. And then the Conventus
Lucensis, from the River Navilubio, the Cibarci, Egovarri,
surnamed Namarini, ladoni, Arrotrebse, the Promontory
Celticum. Rivers, Florius and Nelo. Celtici, surnamed
Neriae : and above the Tamirici, in whose Peninsula are
three Altars called Sestianse, dedicated to Augustus ; Crepori,
the Town Noela. The Celtici, surnamed Prsesamarci, Cileni.
Of Islands worth the naming, Corticata and Aunios. From

40 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

the Cileni, the Conventus of the Bracae, Heleni, Gravii, the

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