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Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books online

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from it to Melitene in Cappadocia, 74 Miles. To Elegia in
Armenia, Ten Miles: where it receiveth the Rivers, Lycus,
Arsania, and Arsanus. Near Elegia it meeteth the Moun-

1 Euphrates rises in Armenia, near Mount Aba, and after flowing by
Syria, Mesopotamia, and the site of Babylon, empties itself into the Per-
sian Gulf. It overflows its banks at certain seasons, and in consequence
its banks are very fertile.

The Euphrates is universally allowed to take its rise in Armenia
Major ; but in what particular spot, or in what direction it afterwards
shapes its course, is still a matter of the greatest disagreement. Pliny's
account entirely differs from those of Strabo and Mela. The best com-
pendium of the discoveries of modern geographers and travellers on
this subject will be found in the Penny Cyclopaedia articles "Asia" and
" Euphrates." See also Macdonnald Kinneir's large map. Wern. Glrtb.

76 History of Nature. [BooR V.

tain Taurus : yet stayeth it not, but prevaileth, although it
be in Breadth Twelve Miles. Where it breaketh through
they call it Omiras : and so soon as it hath cut through it is
named Euphrates : full of Rocks and very violent. There
it separateth Arabia on the Left Hand, called the Region of
the Meri, by the Measure of Three Schcenae, and on the
Right, Comagene. Nevertheless, even there where it con-
quereth Taurus, it suffers a Bridge. At Claudiopolis in Cap-
padocia, it taketh its Course westward. And here the
Taurus, although resisted at first, hindereth him of his Course:
and notwithstanding it was overcome and dismembered, it
conquereth in another way, and drives it thus broken into
the South. Thus Nature matcheth these Forces: The one
proceeding whither it chooseth, and the other not suffering
it to run which way it will. From the Cataracts it is Navi-
gable, and Forty Miles from that place standeth Samosata,
the Head of all Comagen. Arabia aforesaid hath the Towns
Edessa, sometime called Antiochea ; Callirrhoe, taking its
Name from the Fountain ; and Carrse, famous for the
slaughter of Crassus. Here joineth the Prefecture of Meso-
potamia, which taketh its beginning from the Assyrians, in
which stand the Towns Anthemusa and Nicephorium. Pre-
sently the Arabians, called Rhetavi, whose Capital is Sin-
gara. But from Samosatae, on the side of Syria, the River
Marsyas runneth into Euphrates. Gingla limiteth Coma-
gene, and the City of the Meri beginneth it. The Towns
Epiphania and Antiochia have the River running close to
them, and they are called Euphrates. Zeugma likewise,
72 Miles from Samosatse, is ennobled by the Passage over
Euphrates : for it is joined to Apamia, over against it, by a
Bridge, built by Seleucus the Founder of both. The People
that join to Mesopotamia are called Rhoali. But the Towns
of Syria are Europum ; Thapsacum, formerly, now Amphi-
polis; Arabian Scsenitse. Thus it passeth as far as to the
Place Ura, in which turning to the East, it leaveth the
Deserts of Palmyra in Syria, which reach to the City Petra
and the Country of Arabia called the Happy.

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 77

Palmyra. 1

THE City Palmyra, noble for its situation, the Riches of
its Soil, and its pleasant Streams, encloseth its Fields with a
vast compass of Sand. Arid as if shut out by Nature from
all other Lands, it is by a peculiar lot between two mighty
Empires, the Romans and the Parthians ; wherein Dis-
cord is ever the first object on both Sides. It is distant
from Seleucia of the Parthians, which is called, on the
Tigris, 537 Miles : and from the nearest Coast of Syria, 252 :
and from Damascus, 27 nearer.


BENEATH the Solitudes of Palmyra, lieth the Country
Stelendena, 2 wherein are the Cities named at this Day
Hierapolis, Beroea, and Chalcis. Beyond Palmyra also,
Heinesa taketh up some part of those Deserts : and likewise
Elutium, nearer to Petra by one-half than is Damascus.
And next to Astura standeth Philiscum, a Town of the Par-
thians, on Euphrates. From which by Water it is a Journey

1 We are at a loss to account for the praise bestowed on the site of
Palmyra, situated as it is on the borders of a vast wilderness ; it can only
be from comparison with the surrounding sterility, and the supply of
water obtained here, which is so rare a blessing in the sandy plains of the
East. The country does not appear to have undergone any change from
the period of the foundation of this ancient city, until now ; Tadmor (its
original name) was built by king Solomon, probably for the purpose of
cutting off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopotamians, and it
rose into note in consequence. In later times it was also much frequented
by the caravans of Persia and the countries beyond. Wern. Club.

2 Stelendena does not appear to be mentioned by any other writer than
Pliny. Hierapolis has been just before spoken of under the name of
Bambyce or Magog, as the Syrians call it. It is the Magog of Holy
Scripture (Ezekiel, xxxviii.) concerning the situation of which great
diversity of opinion has been entertained. Wern. Club.

78 History of Nature. [BooK V.

of Ten Days to Seleucia, and about as many to Babylon.
Euphrates is divided Fourscore and Three Miles from Zeug-
ma, about the Village Massice, and on the Left Side it
passeth into Mesopotamia, through Seleucia, it being poured
into the River Tigris as it runneth by : but on the right
Channel it passeth toward Babylon, formerly the Chief City
of Chaldsea ; and passing through the midst of it, as also of
another which they call Otris, it is drawn off into Marshes.
It riseth at certain Times after the manner of the Nilus,
but with a little difference ; for it overfloweth Mesopotamia
when the Sun is the 20th degree of Cancer, and beginneth
again to diminish when the Sun is past Leo, and is entered
into Virgo: so that in the 29th degree of Virgo, it is reduced


Cilicia, and the Nations adjoining, Isauricce, Homonades,
Pisidia, , Lycaonia, Pamphylia : the Mountain Taurus,
and Lycia.

BUT we will return to the Coasts of Syria, to which
Cilicia is the nearest. The River Diaphanes, the Mountain
Crocodilus, Passages of the Mount Amanus : Rivers, Andri-
con, Pinarus, and Lycus, the Gulf Issicus. The Town Issa,
then the River Chlorns, the Free Town Mge, the River Pyra-
mus, and the Passages of Cilicia. The Towns Mallos and
Magarsos ; and within Tarsos, the Plains, Aleii ; the Towns,
Cassipolis and Mopsum, which is free, and standeth upon the
River Pyramus ; Thynos, Zephyrium, and Anchialae. The
Rivers Saros and Sydnus, which runneth through Tarsus, a
free City, far from the Sea : the Country Celenderitis, with
the Town. The Place called Nyraphaeum, and Soloe Cilicii,
now Pompeiopolis, Adana, Cibira, Pinara, Pedalie, Halix,
Arsinoe, Tabse, and Doron : and near the Sea ye shall find a
Town, an Harbour, and a Cave, all named Corycos. Soon
after, the River Calycadnus. The Promontory Sarpedon,
the Towns Olme and Mylse, the Promontory and Town of
Venus, nearest to which is the Isle of Cyprus. But in the
Mainland are the Towns Myanda, Ariemurium, Corace-

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 79

slum : and the River Melas, the ancient Bound of Cilicia.
Within are to be spoken of, the Anazarbeni, at this Day
named Caesar- Augustani ; Castabla ; Epiphania, formerly
Eniandos; Eleusa, and Iconium. Seleucia upon the River
Calicadmus, surnamed also Trachiotis, removed backward
from the Sea, where it was called Hormia. Furthermore,
within the Country, the Rivers Liparis, Bombos, and Para-
disus. The Mountain Jubarus. All Authors have joined
Pamphylia to Cilicia, and never regarded the Nation Isau-
rica. The Towns within it are, Isaura, Clibanus, Lalassis ;
and it shooteth down to the Sea-side of the Country Anemu-
rium abovesaid. In like sort, as many as have set forth
Descriptions of these Matters, had no Knowledge of the
neighbouring Nation, the Homonades, which have a Town
within their Country called Homona. Other Fortresses, to
the number of 44, lie hidden among the rugged Valleys.
The Pisidae, formerly called Solymis, are placed on the top ;
a Colony of which is Csesarea, the same as Antiochia. The
Towns are Oroanda and Sagalessos. This Nation is enclosed
within Lycaonia, lying within the Jurisdiction of Asia : with
which are joined the Philomelienses, Tymbrians, Leucolithi,
Pelteni, and Hyrienses. There is given a Tetrarchy out of
Lycaonia, on that side that bordereth upon Galatia: to
which belong 14 Cities, whereof the most celebrated is Ico-
nium. In Lycaonia itself, those of celebrity are Tembasa
upon Taurus, Sinda in the Confines of Galatia and Cappa-
docia. But on the Side thereof above Pamphylia, the Myliae,
descended in old Time from Thrace, whose Town is Aricanda.
Pamphylia was in ancient Time called Mopsopia. The Pam-
phylian Sea joineth to the Cilician. Its Towns are Sid, As-
pendus on the Mountain, Platanistus, and Perga. Also the
Promontory Leucolla, the Mountain Sardemisus, the River
Eurymedon running near Aspendum. Cataractes, near which
stand Lyrnessus and Olbia ; and the furthest of that Coast,
Phaselis. Joined to it is the Lycian Sea, and the Nation of
the Lycians, where is a great Gulf. The Mountain Taurus,
coming from the Eastern Shores, fixeth the limit by the
Promontory Chelidonium. This (Taurus) is a mighty Moun-

80 History of Nature. [BooK V.

tain, and is an overlooker to a very great Number of Nations.
So soon as it is risen from the Indian Sea, it parteth : and the
right Hand passeth Northward, the left Southward, bending
toward the West : dividing Asia through the midst : and
(but that it meeteth the Seas) ready to oppress the whole
Earth. It retireth, therefore, toward the North, fetching a
great Circuit, and so making way, as if the Industry of
Nature continually opposed the Seas against it; on one side
the Phoenician Sea, on another the Sea of Pontus ; here the
Caspian and Hyrcanian Seas, and full against him the Lake
Mceotis. And notwithstanding these Bars, within which it
is pent and entwined, yet at last Conqueror ; it winds away
and passeth on until it encounters its kindred Riphaean
Mountains : and wherever it goeth, it is distinguished by a
Number of new Names. For in the Beginning of its Course
it is called Imaus : a little forward Emodus, Paropamisus,
Circius, Camibades, Parphariades, Choatras, Oreges, Oro-
andes, Niphates, Taurus ; and where it is predominant, Cau-
casus ; where it stretcheth forth its Arms, as if now and then
endeavouring toward the Seas, it taketh the Name Sarpedon,
Coracesius, and Cragus ; and then again Taurus, even where
it gapeth, and opening itself to the People. And yet it
claimeth its Unity still, and (these Passages are called) by
the Names of Gates ; as in one Place Armenise, in another
Caspise, and again Cilicise. And besides being broken into
Parcels, and escaped far from the Sea, it taketh here and
there many Names of Nations ; as, on the right Hand Hyr-
canus and Caspius ; on the left, Pariedrus, Moschicus,
Amazonicus, Coraxicus, and Scythicus. And throughout all
Greece, Ceraunius.

To return to Lycia, beyond its Promontory, is the Town
Simena, the Mountain Chimsera, emitting Flames by Night;
the City Hephsestium, where the Hills likewise oftentimes
are known to burn. Formerly the City Olympus stood there ;
but now the Mountain Towns, Gage, Corydalla, and Rhodio-
polis. Near the Sea, Lymira with a River, into which
Arycandus runneth : also the Mountain Massy rites, the
Cities Andriarca and Myra. These Towns, Apyre and Anti-

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 8 1

phellos, which formerly was called Habessus, and in a cor-
ner, Phellus. Then Pyrrha, and also Xanthus, J5 Miles
from the Sea, and a River of the same Name. Soon after
Patara, formerly named Sataros ; and Sydinia on a Hill ;
the Promontory Ciagus. Beyond which is a Gulf equal to
the former. There is Pinara ; and Telmessus, that boundeth
Lycia. In ancient Time Lycia possessed threescore Towns,
but now 36; of which the most celebrated, besides the above-
named, are Canae, Candyba, where the Wood Oenium is
praised ; Podalia, Choma upon the River Adesa, Cyane,
Ascandalis, Amelas, Noscopium, Tlos, and Telanorus. It
containeth in the midland Parts Chabalia, with three Towns
thereto belonging : Oenonda, Balbura, and Bubon.

Beyond Telmessus is the Asiatic Sea, otherwise called
Carpathium, and the Country which is properly called Asia.
Agrippa hath divided it into two Parts, of which the one by
his Description boundeth Phrygia and Lycaonia, eastward :
but on the West Side it is limited by the JEgean Sea.
Southward it boundeth upon Egypt: and in the North upon
Paphlagonia. The Length thereof by his Computation is
470 Miles, the Breadth 300. The other he hath limited
Eastward from Armenia the Less: Westward by Phrygia,
Lycaonia, and Pamphylia; on the North by the Province of
Pontus ; and on the South by the Pamphylian Sea : it con-
taineth 575 Miles in Length, and 325 in Breadth. The next
Coast bordering upon it is Caria : and near it, Ionia;
beyond that, .ZEolis. For Caria encloseth Doris in the midst,
environing it round on every Side to the Sea. In it is the
Promontory Pedalium, and the River Glaucus, charged
with (the River) Telmessus. The Towns, Daedala and Crya,
peopled with Fugitives ; the River Axon, and the Town

The River Indus.

THE River Indus, rising in the craggy Mountains of the
Cybiratae, receiveth threescore regularly running Rivers, but
of Torrents above an hundred. The Free Town Caunos, and


82 History of 'Nature. [BooK V.

a little off, Pyrnos. The Port Cressa, from which the Island
Rhodus is distant 20 Miles. The Place Loryma ; the Towns
Tysanusa, Taridion, Larymna; the Bay Thymnias, and the
Promontory Aphrodisias ; the Town Hyda, the Bay Schoenus.
The Country Bubassus ; where stood the Town Acanthus,
otherwise called Dulopolis. On the Promontory is the Free
(Town) Gnidos, Triopia, then Pegusa, called likewise Stadia.
Beyond which Doris beginneth. But first it is convenient to
have pointed out the midland Jurisdictions and the Parts
which lie behind : one is named Cibiratica. The Town itself
is in Phrygia, and to it are joined 25 Cities.

Laodicea, Apamia, Ionia, Ephesus.

THE most celebrated City is Laodicea. 1 It is seated on
the River Lycus, Asopus and Caper washing its Sides. This
City was first called Diospolis, and afterwards Rhoas. The
other Nations belonging to that Jurisdiction worth the Nam-
ing are the Hydrelitae, Themisones, and Hierapolitse. Another
Jurisdiction taketh its Name from Synnada : and to it repair
the Licaones, Appiani, Eucarpeni, Dorylaei, Midsei, Julienses,
and fifteen other ignoble People. A third (Jurisdiction)
goeth to Apamia, which in old Time was called Celsense, and
afterwards Ciboton. It is situated at the Foot of the Moun-

1 Laodicea, so named in honour of Laodice, wife of Antiochus II., by
whom the city was enlarged. From all accounts it appears to have been
built on a volcanic hill, and boasted, in its prosperity, many public build-
ings of note, of which the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre are
still to be seen.

Ephesus was the capital of Proconsular Asia, and was situated in Ionia
(now Natolia), about five miles from the .ZEgean Sea, on the sides and
at the foot of a range of mountains overlooking a fine plain watered and
fertilised by the river Cayster. The city was celebrated for the Temple
of Diana, a most magnificent edifice, erected at the common expense
of the inhabitants of Asia Proper, and described by Pliny, b. xxxvi. c. 14,
but of which the site is now unknown. Ephesus was finally overthrown
in tbe fourteenth century, after continued struggles. There are numerous
traces of its magnificence still extant, though the neighbouring country
bears all the marks of desolation and decay. Wern. Club.

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 83

tain Signia, environed with the Rivers Marsyas, Obrima,
and Orga, which fall into the Maeander. The River Marsyas,
which a little from his Spring is hidden under Ground,
where Marsyas contended with Apollo in playing on the
flute, sheweth itself again in Aulocrense, for so is the Valley
called, ten Miles from Apamia, as Men travel to Phrygia.
Under this Jurisdiction we should do well to Name the
Metropolitan Dionysopolitae, Euphorbeni, Acmoneses, Pel-
teni, and Silbiani. There are besides 60 ignoble Towns.
Within the Bay of Doris, Leucopolis, Amaxitos, Elaeus, and
Euthene. Then Towns of Caria, Pitaium, Eutaniae, and
Halicarnassus. To this (City) were annexed by Alexander
the Great, six Towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmossa, Eura-
nium, Pedasium, and Telmessum. It is inhabited be-
tween the two Gulfs, Ceramicus and Jasius. From thence
Myndus, and where formerly stood Palaemyndus, Neapolis,
Nariandus, Carianda, the Free City Termera, Bergyla, and
the Town Jasus, which gave Name to the Gulf Jasius. But
Caria is most renowned for the Places of Name within it,
for therein are these Cities : Mylasa Free, and Antiochia,
where sometime were the Towns Seminethos and Cranaos :
and it is now environed about with the Maeander and Mos-
sinus. In the same Tract also stood Maeandropolis. There
is Eumenia close by the River Cludrus ; the River Glaucus ;
the Town Lysias and Orthasia. The Tract of Berecinthus,
Nysa, Trallis, which also is named Euanthia, and Seleucia,
and Antiochia. It is washed by the River Eudone, and
Thebanis passeth through it. Some report that the Pigmaei 1

1 The Pygmaei were a fabulous nation inhabiting Thrace and other
regions, who brought forth young at five years of age, and were old at
eight. Homer has celebrated their memorable defeats by cranes. Iliad,
3d Book.

" When inclement winters vex the plain

With piercing frosts, or thick descending rain,
To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,
With noise, and order, through the mid- way sky :
To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring,
And all the war descends upon the wing." Pope.

Pliny has described these tiny creatures in Lib. vi. c. 22 and 35, and

84 History of Nature. [BooK V.

formerly there dwelt. Besides, there are Thydonos, Pyrrha,
Eurome, Heraclea, Amyzon, and the Free Alabanda, from
which that Jurisdiction took its Name. The Free Stratonicea,
Hynidos, Ceramus, Trcezene, and Phorontis. There are
Nations farther remote that resort to that Court: the
Othronienses, Halydienses or Hyppini, Xystiani, Hydis-
senses, Apolloniates, Trapezopolitse, and the Free Aphro-
disienses. Besides these, there are Cossinus and Harpasa,
close by the River Harpasus, which also ran under Trallicon,
when such a Town existed. Lydia is watered by the wind-
ings of the River Mseander: and it reacheth above Ionia:
being near upon Phrygia in the East, upon Mysia in the
North, and in the South side enclosing Caria; and was for-
merly named Mceonia. It is celebrated chiefly for Sardis,
seated upon the side of the Mountain Trnolus, formerly
called Timolus, planted with Vineyards ; and from it flows
Pactolus, called likewise Chrysorrhoa : as also the Fountain
Tames. This City was commonly by the Mceonise called
Hyde, and was famous for the Lake of Gyges. That Juris-
diction is at this Day called Sardiana. Thither resort besides
the abovenamed, the Macedonian Caduenes, the Loreni,

again in lib. vii. c. 2. See also Aristotle's Hist. Anim. lib. viii., and
Mela, lib. iii. There can be no question but that the ancient fictions of
pygmies, satyrs, cynocephali, cynoprosopi, &c., and other supposed tribes
of human monsters, originated in vague accounts of different species of
simiae, though the Bushmen of South Africa are supposed also to have
been referred to as a nation of pigmies. The earliest unquestionable
reference to any of the true apes is found in the Periplus of Hanno, circ.
500 B.C.

" For three days," says the Carthaginian admiral, " we passed along a
burning coast, and at length reached a bay called the Southern Horn.
In the bottom of this bay we found an island similar to that already men-
tioned ; this island contained a lake, that in its turn contained another
island, which was inhabited by wild men. The greater number of those
we saw were females ; they were covered with hair, and our interpreters
called them Gorilloi. We were unable to secure any of the men, as they
fled to the mountains, and defended themselves with stones. As to the
women, we caught three of them, but they so bit and scratched us that
we found it impossible to bring them along; we therefore killed and
flayed them, and carried their hides to Carthage." Wern, Club.

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 85

Philadelpheni, and those Moeonians inhabiting on the
River Cogamus, at the Foot of Tmolus ; and the Tripoli-
tani, who, together with the Antoniopolitae, are washed by
the River Maeander ; also, the Apollonos-Hieritae, Myso-
tmolites, and others of mean Reputation.

Ionia beginneth at the Bay of Jasius, and all its Coast is
full of Indentations. The first Bay in it is Basilicus ; the
Promontory Posideum, and the Town called the Oracle of
the Branchidae, but at this Day, of Apollo Didymaeus, 20
Stadia from the Sea-side. And beyond this 180 Stadia,
standeth Milletus, the Head (City) of Ionia, named in Time
past Lelegeis ; Pitylisa, also named Anactoria. From which,
as from a Mother, are descended more than eighty others,
built along the Sea-coast. Neither is this City to be de-
frauded of the Citizen Cadmus, who taught first to declaim
in Prose. The River Maeander issueth out of a Lake in the
Mountain Aulocrene ; and passing by many Towns, and
filled with Abundance of Rivers, it fetcheth such windings
to and fro, that oftentimes it is thought to run backward
again. The first Country it passeth through is Apamia : and
presently Eumenitica, and so through the Plains Bargyl-
letici. Last of all, it cometh gently into Caria, and watering
all that Land with a very fruitful Mud, about ten Stadia
from Miletus it glideth into the Sea. Near (to that River) is
the Mountain Latmus : the Town Heraclea, surnamed
Caryca, from a Hill of that Name; also Myus, which,
as the Report goeth, was first founded by the lones after
their proceeding from Athens ; Naulochum, and Pyrene.
Upon the Sea-coast the (Town) called Trogilia ; the River
Gessus. This Region is sacred to all the lonians, and there-
fore it is named Panionia. Near it was Phygela, built for
Fugitives, as appeareth by the Name : and the Town Mara-
thesium : and above it Magnesia, designated with the sur-
name On-Mseander, sprung from the Thessalian Magnesia.
From Ephesus it is distant 15 Miles ; and from Tralleis it is
three Miles farther. Formerly it was called Thessaloce and
Androlitia : and being situated upon the Shore, it took away
with it from the Sea other Islands called Dera*ides. Within-

86 History of Nature. [BooK V.

land Thyatira (in old Time called Pelopia and Euhippa) is
washed by the Lycus. But upon the Sea-coast is Manteium ;
and Ephesus, a Work of the Amazons. But many Names
it had gone through before ; for in the Time of the Trojan
War it was called Alopes : soon after, Ortygia and Morges :
and it took the Name of Smyrna, with addition of Trachsea
(i. e. Rough), Samornium, and Ptelea. It is mounted on
the Hill Pione, and is washed by the Caystrus, which spring-
eth out of the Cilbian Hills, and bringeth down with it
many other Rivers, and the Lake Pegaseum, which dis-
chargeth itself by the River Phyrites. From these Rivers
proceedeth a large quantity of Mud, which increaseth the
Land : so that it hath thrown good way within the Land the
Island Syrie. There is a Fountain within the City called
Callipia : and two (Rivers) Selinuces, coming from different
Countries, encircle the Temple of Diana. From Ephesus
you come to another Manteium, inhabited by the Colo-
phonii : and within, the Country Colophon itself, with the
(River) Halesus flowing by it. Then the Sacred Place
(Fane) of Apollo Clarius, and Lebedos. And there formerly
was the Town Notium. The Promontory Coryceon : the
Mountain Mimas, which reacheth out 250 Miles, and
endeth at length in the Plains within the Continent. This
is the place where Alexander the Great commanded the
Plain to be cut through for seven Miles and a half in Length,
to join the two Gulfs, and to bring Erythrae and Mimas
together, to be environed around therewith. Near this Ery-
thrae were the Towns, Pteleon, Helos, andiiDorion: now,
there is the River Aleon, and Corineum : upon the Mount
Mimas, Clazomene, Partheniae; and Hippi, called Chyto-
phoria, when they were Islands : the same Alexander united
them to the Continent for the Space of two Stadia. There

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