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have perished within, Daphnus, Hermesia, and Sipylum,
called formerly Tantalis, the chief City of Moeonia, where
now is the Lake Sale. And for that cause Archaeopolis
succeeded to Sipylus, and after it Colpe, and to it Lebade.
Returning thence twelve Miles off is Smyrna, on the Coast,
built by an Amazon, but restored by Alexander the Great ;

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 87

made pleasant by the River Meles, which hath its Source
not far off. The most celebrated Mountains in Asia, for the
most part, spread themselves at large in this Tract, as Mas-
tusia, on the Back of Smyrna ; and Termetis that meeteth
close to the Foot of Olympus. This (Olympus) endeth in
Draco, and Draco in Tmolus ; Tmolus at Cadmus ; and Cad-
mus in Taurus. Beyond Smyrna are Plains, formed by the
River Hermus, and therefore adopting its Name. This
(River) hath its Beginning near Doryleus, a City of Phrygia,
and collecteth into it many Rivers ; among which is Phryg,
which giveth Name to the whole Nation and divideth Phry-
gia and Caria asunder. Moreover, Lyllus and Crios, which
are well filled by the other Rivers of Phrygia, Mysia, and
Lydia. In the Mouth of this River stood the Town Temnos :
now in the further portion of the Gulf are the Rocks Myr-
meces. Also the Town Leuce upon the Promontory, which
was an Island : and Phocaea, which boundeth Ionia. A large
part of ^Eolia, of which we will speak by and by, repaireth
commonly to the Convention of Smyrna : and likewise the
Macedonians, surnamed Hyrcani ; and the Magnetes from
Sipylum. But to Ephesus, which is another Light of Asia,
resort those that dwell farther off : the Caesarienses, Metro-
politse, Cylbiani, the Myso-Macedones, as well the Higher
as the Lower, the Mastaurenses, Brullitae, Hypprepeni, and


JEolis, TroaSj and Pergamus.

uEoms, in old Time called Mysia, 1 is nearest (to Ionia :)
and so is Troas, which boundeth upon the Hellespontus.

1 The people of Mysia, according to Cicero, " were despicable and base
to a proverb." Their country was bounded on the west by Troas, in
which region was situated the city of that name, of which numerous
vestiges remain, attesting its former splendour. "Indeed," says Mr.
Fellowes, who visited the spot in 1838, " for many miles round the soil is
rendered useless for agriculture, by the multitude of broken marbles,
stones, and arches, which lie under the surface in every direction."

Pergamus was the ancient capital of Mysia, and, as its ruins also attest,
was a magnificent city. Wern. Club.

88 History of Nature. [BooK V.

Being past Phocaea, there is the Port Ascanius : and then
the Place where Larissa stood : and now Cyme, and Myrina,
which calleth itself Sebastopolis. Within the Land, ^Egae,
Attalia, Posidea, Neon-tichos, and Temnos. Upon the Coast,
the River Titanus, and a City taking its Name from it. There
was also Grynia, now only a Port of the Ground ; the Island
being taken into it. The Town Elsea, and the River Caicus
corning out of Mysia. The Town Pytane, the River Canaius.
There are perished, Cause, Lysimachia, Atarnea, Carenae,
Cisthene, Cilia, Cocillum, Thebae, Astyre, Chrysa, Palce-
stepsis, Gergithos, and Neandros. At this Day, there is the
City Perperene, the Tract Heracleotes ; the Town Coryphas,
the River Chryliosolius, the Country called Aphrodisias,
which formerly was Politiceorgas, the Country Scepsis;
the River Evenus, upon the Bank of which have perished
Lyrmessos and Miletos. In this Tract is the Mountain Ida.
And in the Sea-Coast Adramytteos, formerly called Pedasus,
where the Bay and Convention are named Adramytteos.
Rivers, Astron, Cormalos, Eryannos, Alabastros, and Hieros
out of Ida. Within, Mount Gargara, and a Town of the
same Name. And then again on the Sea-side, Antandros,
formerly called Edonis : then, Cymeris, and Assos, which
also is Apollonia. Also there was a Town called Palaine-
dium. The Promontory Lecton, dividing .ZEolus and Troas.
There also was the City Polymedia, and Cryssa, with another
Larissa. The Temple Smintheum remaineth still. Within,
the Town Colone is destroyed, and the Business removed
to Adramytteum. The Apolloniatae, from the River Rhyn-
dicus : the Eresii, Miletopolites, Poemaneni, Macedones,
Aschilacae, Polychnaei, Pionitae, Cilices, and Mandagandeni.
In Mysia, the Abrettini, and those called Hellespontii ; be-
sides others of base account. The first place in Troas is
Amaxitus : then, Cebrenia, and Troas itself, named Anti-
gonia, now Alexandria, a Roman Colony. The Town Nee :
the navigable River Scamander; and on the Promontory,
formerly, the Town Sigaeum. Then the Port of the Greeks,
(Portus Achaeorum,) into which Xanthus and Simoeis run
together; as also Palae-Scamander, but first it maketh a

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 89

Lake. The remainder celebrated by Homer as Rhaesus,
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius, have no Vestiges remain-
ing. The Granicus floweth by a different Tract into the
Propontis. Yet there is at this Day a little City called
Scamandria ; and one Mile and a half from the Port, the
Free City Ilium, from which proceedeth all that great Name,
Outside of this Gulf lieth the Coast Rhoetea, inhabited with
the Towns upon it, of Rhoateum, Dardanium, and Arisb.
There was also Acheleum, a Town near the Tomb of Achilles,
founded by the Mitylenei, and afterwards re-edified by the
Athenians, on the Bay Sigseum, where his Fleet rode. There
also was Acantium, built by the Rhodians, in another Horn,
where Ajax was interred, thirty Stadia distant from Sigaeum,
and the very Station of his Fleet. Above Molis and a part
of Troas, within the Continent, is the (Town) called Teu-
thrania, which the Mysi in old Time held. There springeth
Caicus, the River abovesaid. A large Country this is of it-
self, and especially when it was united to Mysia, and also so
called : containing in it Pionise, Andera, Cale, Stabulum,
Conisium, Tegium, Balcea, Tiare, Teuthrania, Sarnaca, Hali-
serne, Lycide, Parthenium, Thymbre, Oxyopum, Lygda-
num, Apollonia : and Pergamus, the most illustrious City of
Asia by many Degrees ; through it passeth the River Selinus,
and Csetius runneth by it, issuing out of the Mountain Pin-
dasus. Not far from thence is Elea, which, as we have
said, standeth on the Shore. The Jurisdiction of this Tract
is named Pergamena. To it resort the Thyatyreni, Myg-
dones, Mossini, Bregmenteni, Hieracomitae, Perpereni,
Tyareni, Hierapolenses, Harniatapolitae, Attalenses, Pan-
taenses, Apollonidenses, and other Cities of little Honour.
Dardanium, a small Town, is threescore and ten Stadia dis-
tant from Rhosteum. Eighteen Miles from thence is the
Promontory Trapeza, where first the Hellespont rusheth
along roughly. Eratosthenes saith, That the Nations of the
Solymi,' Leleges, Bebrices, Colycantii, and Trepsedores, are
utterly perished from Asia. Isidorus reporteth the same of
the Arymei and Capretae, where Apamia was built by King
Seleucus, between Cilicia, Cappadocia, Cataonia,and Armenia.

90 History of Nature. [Boon V.

And because he had vanquished most Fierce Nations, at the
first he named it Damea.


The Islands before Asia, the Pamphylian Sea ; Rhodus,
Samus, and Chios.

THE first of the Islands before Asia is in the Canopic
Mouth of the Nilus, so called, as they say, from Canopus,
the Pilot of King Menelaus. 1 The second is Pharus, which
is joined to Alexandria by a Bridge. In old Time it was a
Day's Sailing from Egypt : and now by Fires from a Watch-
Tower, Sailors are directed in the Night. It is a Colony of
Casar the Dictator. Alexandria is encompassed with de-
ceitful Shallows, and there are but three Channels from the
Sea; Tegamum, Posideurn, and Taurus. Next to that Isle,
in the Phoenician Sea before Joppa, lieth Paria, an Island
not larger than the Town, in which they report that Andro-
meda was exposed to the Beast. 2 Also Arados beforenamed,
between which and the Continent, as Mutianus says, there is
a Fountain in the Sea, where it is fifty Cubits deep, out of
which Fresh Water is drawn from the very Bottom of the
Sea, through Pipes made of Leather. The Pamphylian Sea
hath some Islands of little Importance. In the Cilician Sea
is Cyprus, one of the Five greatest, and it lieth east and
west, opposite Cilicia and Syria ; in Times past the Seat of
Nine Kingdoms. Timosthenes saith, that it contained in
Circuit four hundred and nineteen Miles and a half;
but Isidorus is of opinion, that it is but three hundred
and seventy-five Miles in Compass. Its Length between
the two Promontories, Dinaretas and Acamas, which
is westward, Artemidorus reporteth to be 160| Miles: and

1 Jacob Bryant, in his "Analysis of Ancient Mythology," (vol. ii. p. 4,)
says, " that the priests of Egypt laughed at this account of the pilot of
Menelaus, as an idle story ; affirming that the place was much more an-
cient than the people of Greece ; and the name not of Grecian original."
Also Stephanus of Byzantium calls the pilot Pharos, and not Canopus.
Wem. CM.

3 Seep. 67 of this vol.

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 91

Timosthenes 200, who saith besides, that formerly it was
called Acamantis : according to Philonides, Cerastis : after
Xenagoras, Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macatia : Astynomus
calleth it Cryptos and Colinia. Towns in it, 15 : Paphos,
Palaepaphos, Curias, Citium, Corineum, Salamis, Amathus,
Lapethos, Soloe, Tamaseus, Epidarurn, Chytri, Arsinoe,
Carpasium, and Golgi. There were in it besides, Cinirya,
Marium, and Idalium. And from Anemurium in Cilicia, is
50 Miles. The Sea which is stretched between they call
Aulon Cilicium. In this Tract is the Island Elaeusa: and
four others before the Promontory named Glides, over-against
Syria. Likewise one more, named Stiria, at the other Cape.
Over-against Neampaphos, Hierocepia. Over-against Sala-
mis, Salaminae. But in the Lycian Sea, Illyris, Telendos,
Attelebussa, and three Cypriae, all barren : also Dionysia,
formerly called Caretha. Then over-against the Promon-
tory of Taurus, the Chelidonige, dangerous to Sailors : and
as many more, together with the Town Leucola Pactiae,
Lasia, Nymphais, Maoris, Megista, the City of which is
gone. Then many of no Importance. But over-against Chi-
mera, Dolichist, Chirogylium, Crambussa, Rhode", Enagora,
eight Miles. Daedaleon, two: Cryeon, three: and Stron-
gyle, over-against Sidynia of Antiochus : and toward the
River Glaucus Lagusa, Macris, Didymge, Helbo, Scope",
Aspis, and Telandria ; in which the Town is gone : and, near
to Caunus, Rhodussa. But the fairest of all is the Free (Isle)
Rhodos ; in Compass 130 Miles ; or if we rather give Credit
to Isidorus, 103. Cities in it well peopled, Lindus, Camirus,
and lalysus, now called Rhodus. By the Account oflsido?-us 9
it is from Alexandria in Egypt, 578 Miles : but according to
Eratosthenes, 569 : according to Mutianus, 50Q ; and from
Cyprus, 416. In Times past it was called Ophyusa, Asteria,
jEthraea, Trinacria, Corymbia, Posessa, Atabyria from the
King(Atabyris) : and finally, Macaria, and Oloessa. Islands of
the Rhodians, Carpathus, which gave name to the Sea (Car-
pathium) ; Casos, formerly Achrn : and Nisyros, distant
from Gnidos twelve Miles and a half; which heretofore had
been called Porphyris. And in the same Range, Sym,

92 History of Nature. [BooK V.

between Rhodus and Gnidus ; it is in Circuit six-and-thirty
Miles and a half. It is blessed with eight Harbours. Be-
sides these, there lie about Rhodus, Cyclopis, Teganon, Cor-
dylusa, four under the Name of Diabete : Hymos, Chalcis,
with a Town : Seutlusa, Narthecusa, Dimastos, and Progne.
Beyond Gnidos, Cicerussa, Therionarce, Calydne with three
Towns, Notium, Nisyrus, Mendeterus : and in Arconesus,
the Town Ceramus. Upon the Coast of Caria, the Islands,
twenty in number, called Argiae : and Hyetussa, Lepsia, and
Leros. But the most noble in that Bay is Cos, which is dis-
tant from Halicarnassus 15 Miles ; and in Compass 100, as
many judge; called Merope, as Staphylus saith : but accord-
ing to Dionysius, Cos Meropis : and afterwards Nymphaea.
There is the Mountain Prion : and as they think, Nysiris
broken off; formerly named Porphyris. Beyond this,
Carianda, with a Town : and not far from Halicarnassus,
Pidosus. Moreover, in the Gulf Ceramicus, Priaponnesus,
Hipponesus, Psyra, Mya, Lampsemandus, Passala, Crusa,
Pyrrhe, Sepiussa, Melano ; and within a short Distance of
the Continent, another called Cinedopolis, from the shameful
Persons that King Alexander left there. The Coast of Ionia
hath (the Islands) ./Egeae and Corsese, besides Icaros, spoken
of before. Also Lade, formerly called Latse : and among
some others of no worth, the two Camelides near to Miletus.
Mycalenum, Trogylise, Trepsilion, Argennon, Sardalion :
and the free Samos, which in Circuit is fourscore and seven
Miles; or as Isidorus thinketh, 100. Aristotle writeth,
that at first it was called Parrhania, afterwards Dryusa, and
then Anthemusa. Aristocritus giveth it other Names, as
Melamphyllus, and afterward Cyparissia : others term it
Partheno-arusa, and Stephane. Rivers in it, Imbrasus,
Chesius, arid Ibettes : Fountains, Gigarto and Leucothea :
the Mountain Cercetius. There lie adjoining to it the
Islands Rhypara, Nymphaea, arid Achillea. Fourscore and
thirteen Miles from it, is Chios, free, with a Town ; which
Island is as renowned as Samos. jEphorus by the ancient
Name calleth it ^Ethalia : Metrodorus and Cleobulus, Chia,
from the Nymph Chio. Others suppose it was so called

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 93

from Chion, i.e. Snow : and some would have it to be Ma-
cris and Pityusa. It has a Mountain called Pellenaeus, the
Marble called Chium. Ancient Geographers have written,
that it is 125 Miles in Circuit ; and Isidorus addeth nine
more. It is situated between Samos and Lesbos, for the most
part opposite to Erythrse. Near it lieth Thallusa, which some
write Dapnusa, (Enussa, Elaphites, Euryanassa, Arginussa
with a Town. Now all these are about Ephesus, as also
those called of Pisistratus : and the Anthinae, Myonnesus, and
Diareusa. In both these the Towns are lost. Poroselense
with a Town, Cerciae, Halon, Commone, Illetia, Lepria,
and Rhespheria, Procusae, Bolbulae, Phanae, Priapos, Syce,
Melane, ^Enare, Sidusa, Pela, Drymusa, Anydros, Scopelos,
Sycussa, Marathussa, Psile, Perirheusa, and many others of
no Importance. But among the illustrious is Teos, in the
deep Sea, with a Town : distant from Chios fourscore and
one Miles, and as much from Erythrae. Near Smyrna are
the Peristerides, Carteria, Alopece, Elseussa, Bachina, Pys-
tira, Crommyonnesus, and Megale. Before Troas, the Asca-
niae, and three Plateae. Then the Lainiae, and two Plitaniae ;
Plate, Scopelos, Getone, Artheidon, Celae, Lagussae, and
Didymae. But the most illustrious is Lesbos, which is from
Chios threescore and five Miles. It was called Hemerte, and
Lasia, Pelasgia, J^gira, Mihyope, and Macaria : famous for
eight Towns ; of which Pyrrha is swallowed up by the Sea :
and Arisb& is overthrown by an Earthquake. Methymna
was peopled from Antissa, which was united to it, and in it
were eight Cities, and it is about seven-and-thirty Miles from
Asia. 1 Also Agamede and Hiera have perished. There
remain Eresos, Pyrrha, and the free Mitylenae, which hath
continued powerful for 500 Years. Isidorus saith, that this
Island is in Circuit 173 Miles : but the old Geographers, 195.
In it are these Mountains, Lepethymus, Ordymnus, Macistus,
Creon, and Olympus. It is distant eight Miles and a half from
the Continent, where it lieth nearest. Islands near it, Sauda-
lion, and the five Leucae. Of these, Cydonea hath a Foun-

1 Natolia.

94 History of Nature. [Boon V.

tain of hot Water. The Argenussae are distant from ./Egse
four Miles. Then Phellusa and Pedua. Outside the Helles-
pont, over-against the Sigean Coast, lieth the Isle Tenedus,
called sometimes Leucophrys, Phoenice, and Lyrnessos.
From Lesbos it is six-and-fifty Miles, and from Sigaeum
twelve Miles and a half.


Hellespontus, Mysia, Phrygia, Galatia, Bithynia,

THE Hellespont then assumeth its Violence and over-
cometh the Sea, digging a Way with its Eddies, until it hath
torn away Asia from Europe. That Promontory we have
named Trapeza, ten Miles beyond which stancleth the Town
Abydum, where the Straits are seven Stadia over. Be-
yond it is the Town Percote, and Lampsacum, called for-
merly Pityusa : the Colony Parium, which Homer called
Adrastia. The Town Priapos, the River JEsepus, Zelia,
Propontus ; as the Place is called where the Sea enlargeth
itself. The River Granicum, the Harbour Artace, where
once stood a Town. Beyond it is an Island, which Alexander
joined to the Continent, in which standeth the Town Cyzi-
cum, founded by the Milesians, called heretofore Arconne-
sos; Dolionis, and Dindymis, near the Top of which is the
Mountain Dindymus. Presently the Towns Placia, Aviacos,
Scylac : and behind them, the Mountain Olympus, called
Msesius. The City Olympena. The Rivers Horisius and
Rhyndacus, formerly named Lycus. This River taketh its
Beginning in the Lake Artynia, near to Miletopolis. It
receiveth the Marestos and many others ; and separateth
Asia from Bithynia. This Region was called Cronia : after-
ward Thessalis, then Malianda and Strymonis. These (Na-
tions) Homer named Halizones, because they are environed
with the Sea. There was a very great City named Attusa.
At this Day there are fifteen Cities, among which is Gordiu-
come, now called Juliopolis ; and on the Coasts Dascylos.
Then the River Gebes : and within-land, the Town Helgas,

BooKV.] History of Nature. 95

the same as Germanicopolis, known also Ity another Name
Booscoete, as also Apamea, now called Myrtea of the Colo-
phonians. The River Etheleum, the ancient limit of Troas,
and where Mysia beginneth. Afterwards the Gulf into
which runneth the River Ascanium, the Town Bryllion.
The Rivers Hylas and Cios, with a Town of that Name :
which was a Place of Trade, not far off from the Inhabitants
of Phrygia, and built by the Milesians in a Place called As-
cania of Phrygia. And therefore we cannot do better than
here to speak of that Country. Phrygia spreadeth out above
Troas and the Nations before named, from the Promontory
Lectus unto the River Etheleus. It bordereth on the
North upon part of Galatia, southward it boundeth on Ly-
caonia, Pisidia, and Mygdonia ; and on the east it reacheth
to Cappadocia. The most celebrated Towns besides those
before spoken of, are Ancyra, Andria, Celsense, Colossae, Ca-
rina, Cotiaion, Ceranse, Iconium, and Midaion. Certain
Authors write, that out of Europe have passed over the
Mysi, Bryges, and Thyni, from whom are named the Mysi,
Phryges, and Bithyni.

At the same time I think it good to write also of Galatia,
which lying higher than Phrygia, possesseth a greater part of
its plain Country, and the former Capital of it, called Gordium.
They who inhabited that Quarter were sprung from the Gauls,
and were called Tolistobogi, Voturi, and Ambitui : but they
that occupied the Country of Mseonia and Paphlagonia were
named Trocmi. Cappadocia is spread along from the North
and East ; and the most plenteous Tract thereof the Tecto-
sages and Teutobodiaci kept in their Possession. And thus
much for these Nations. The People and Tetrarchies are in
all a hundred and ninety and five. The Towns: of the
Tectosages, Ancyra : of the Trocmi, Tavium : of the Tolisto-
bogians, Pesinus. Besides these, there are celebrated the
Attalenses, Arasenses, Cotnenses, Dios-Hieronitse, Lystreni,
Neapolitani, Oeandenses, Seleucenses, Sebasteni, Timmonia-
censes, and Tebaseni. Galatia extendeth to Gabalia and
Milyae in Pamphylia; which are situated about Baris : also
Cyllanticum and Oroandicum, a Tract of Pisidia : likewise

96 History of Nature. [BoOK V.

Obigene", a part of Lycaonia. Rivers there are in it, beside
those beforenamed, Sangarium and Gall as, from which the
Priests of the Mother of the Gods were named. Now to
speak of what remains on the Sea-coast : inward from Cios
is Prusa within Bithynia ; founded by Annibal beneath
Olympus. From Prusa to Nicsea, five-and-twenty Miles ;
the Lake Ascanius lying between. Then Nicsea, in the out-
most part of the Gulf Ascanium, which before was called
Olbia: also to another Prusa, undr the Mountain Hippius.
There were Pythopolis, Parthenopolis, and Choryphanta.
Now there are upon the Sea-side the Rivers, .ZEsius, Bryazon,
Plataneus, Areus, Siros, Gendos, named also Chrysorrhoas.
The Promontory on which stood the Town Megaricum. Then
the Gulf which was called Craspedites ; because that Town
stood as it were in a Fold of it, There was also the Town
Astacum, from which the Bay took the Name of Astacenus.
There was also the Town Libyssa, where now remaineth
nothing but the Tomb of Annibal. In the inmost part of
the Gulf is the very handsome Town of Bithynia, called
Nicomedia. The Promontory Leucatas which encloseth the
Bay of Astarenus, is from Nicomedia forty-two Miles and
a half. Being past this Bay, the opposite Shores approach-
ing together, the Straits reach as far as to the Thracian Bos-
phorus. Upon these Straits standeth the Free (City) Chalce-
don, seventy-two Miles and a half from Nicomedia. Formerly
it was called Procerastis : then, Compusa : afterwards, the
City of the Blind ; because they who founded it were so
ignorant as not to give a preference to a Place seven Stadia
from Byzantium, so much more favourable in every respect.
But within-land, in Bithynia, is the Colony Apamena : also,
the Agrippenses, Juliopolitae, and they of Bithynium. The
Rivers, Syrium, Lapsias, Pharmicas, Alces, Crynis, Lylaeus,
Scopius, Hieras, which parteth Bithynia from Galatia. Be-
yond Chalcedon, stood Chrysopolis: then, Nicopolis, of
which the Gulf still retaineth the Name : wherein is the
Port of Amycus : the Promontory Naulochum : Estia,
wherein is the Temple of Neptune; and the Bosphorus,
half-a-mile over, which now again parteth Asia from Europe.

BOOK V.] History of Nature. 97

From Chalcedon, it is twelve Miles and a half. There begin
thej narrow Straits, where it is eight Miles and a quarter
over: where stood the Town Philopolis. All the Coasts
are inhabited by the Thyni, but the Inland Parts by
the Bithyni. This is the end of Asia, and of 282 Nations,
which are reckoned from the Gulf of Lycia to this place.
The Space of the Hellespont and Propontis to the Thracian
Bosphorus containeth in Length 188 Miles, as we have
before said. From Chalcedon to Sigeum, by the computa-
tion of Isidorus, it is 372 Miles and a half. Islands lying in
Propontis before Cyzicum are these; Elaphonnesus, from
whence cometh the Cyzicen Marble ; and the same Isle was
called Neuris, and Proconnesus. Then follow Ophiiisa,
Acanthus, Phoebe, Scopelos, Porphyrione, and Halone, with
a Town. Delphacia, Polydora : Artaceeon, with the Town.
And over-against Nicomedia, is Demonnesos : likewise, be-
yond Heraclea, over-against Bithynia, is Thynnias, which
the Barbarians call Bithynia. There is also Antiochia : and
opposite to the narrow Straits of llhyndacus, Besbicos,
eighteen Miles in Circuit. Also there is Elsea, two Rho-
dussae, Erebinthus, Magale, Chalcitis, and Pityodes,






1. Pontus Euxinus, formerly Ax-


2. The Nations of the Paphla-

gones and Cappadocians.

3. Cappadocia.

4. The Nations of the Country


5. The Region Colchica. The

Achsei, and the rest in that

6. Bosphorus Cimmerms, and


7. The People about Moeotis.

8. The Armenise, both.

9. Armenia the Greater.

10. Albania, Iberia.

1 1 . The Gates Caucasian

12. Islands in Pontus.

13. Nations about the Scythian


14. Media and the Straits Caspise.

15. Nations about the Hircanian


16. Also other Nations bordering

upon that Country.

17. People of Scythia.

18. The River Ganges.


19. The Nations of India.

20. The River Indus.

21. The Arii, and the Nations bor-

dering upon them.

22. The Island Taprobane.

23. Capissene, Carmania.

24. The Persian and Arabian Gulfs.

25. The Island Cassandrus, and the

Kingdoms of the Parthians.

26. Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon,


27. The River Tigris.

28. Arabia, Nomades, Nabathsei,

Omani, Tylos, and Ogyris,
two Islands.

29. The Gulfs of the Red Sea, the

Troglodite and Ethiopian

30. Nations of strange and won-

derful Shapes.

31. Islands of the Ethiopian Sea.

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