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dwelt : as also that the City of the Sun, 1 which we said be-
fore in the Description of Egypt, standeth not far from Mem-
phis, was founded by the Arabians. There are some also
who assign the further side of the Nile to Africa and not to
Ethiopia. But leaving every Man to his own Pleasure, we
will set down the Towns on both sides in that order in which
they are declared. And to begin with that side toward
Arabia, after you are past Syene, is the Nation of the Cata-
dupi ; and then the Syenitae. The Towns Tacompson, which
some have called Thatice, Aranium, Sesanium, Sandura,
Nasaudum, Anadoma, Cumara, Beda and Bochiana, Leuphi-

1 " City of the Sun," or Heliopolis. This is the Egyptian city, of
which the father of the patriarch Joseph's wife was priest. It may have
proceeded from the Arabian descent of the people of this place, that the
worship of the sun was more agreeable to the disposition of the minds of
the inhabitants, than that of any of the animal deities, which obtained so
much favour in other cities of Egypt. Wern. Club.

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 157

thorga, Tantarene, Maechindira, Noa, Gophoa, Gystatae, Me-
geda, Lea, Rhemnia, Nupsia, Direa, Pataga, Bagada, Du-
mana, Rhadata, in which a Golden Cat is worshipped as a
God. Boron in the Midland part, and Mallos, the next
Town to Meroe. Thus hath Bion set them down. But
King Juba hath arranged them otherwise. Megatichos, a
Town on a Mountain between Egypt and Ethiopia, which
the Arabians call Myrson ; next to it Tacompson, Aranium,
Sesanium, Pide, Mamuda, and Corambis ; near it a Fountain
of Bitumen : Hammodara, Prosda, Parenta, Mama, Thes-
sara, Gallae, Zoton, Graucome, Emeum, Pidibotae, Hebdo-
mecontacomertee, and the Nomades, who live in Tents.
Cyste, Pemma, Gadagale, Palois, Primmis, Nupsis, Daselis,
Pads, Gambrenes, Magases, Segasmala, Cranda, Denna,
Cadeuma, Thena, Batha, Alana, Macum, Scammos, and
Gora within a Island. Beyond these Abala, Androcalis,
Seres, Mallos, and Agoce. On the Side of Africa they are
reckoned in this way : another Tacompsos, with the same
Name or perhaps a part of the former : then, Magora, Sea,
Edosa, Pelenaria, Pyndis, Magusa, Bauma, Linitima, Spyn-
tuma, Sydopta, Gensoa, Pindicitora, Eugoa, Orsima, Suasa,
Mauma, Rhuma, Urbubuma, Mulona, which Town the
Greeks call Hypaton ; Pagoargas, Zamnes ; and there begin
the Elephants to come in ; Mamblia, Berresa, Cetuma.
There was formerly a Town named Epis, overagainst Meroe,
but destroyed before Bion wrote. These were recorded until
you come to Meroe ; of which at this Day scarcely anything
is to be found on either side. The remainder is a Wilder-
ness, by report made to the Prince Nero by the Praetorian
Soldiers sent thither from him under the Command of a
Tribune, to make Discoveries : at the time when amongst
his other Wars, he thought of an Expedition against the
Ethiopians. But in the Days of Dwus Augustus, the Roman
Arms penetrated thither under the conduct ofPublius Petro-
nius, a Knight of Rome, and Prefect of Egypt. He con-
quered all those Towns in Ethiopia, which he found in this
order following; Pselcis, Primis, Aboccis, Phthuris, Can-
busis, Attena, Stadissis, where the River Nile casteth itself

158 History of Nature. [BOOK VI.

down with such a Noise that the Inhabitants living close by
lose their Hearing. He won also Napata. He marched
forward a great way into the Country, even 870 Miles be-
yond Syene ; but this Roman Army laid not all Waste in
those parts. It was the Egyptian Wars that wasted Ethiopia ;
sometimes by Ruling, and at others by Servitude ; it was Illus-
trious and Powerful until the Reign of King Memnon, who
ruled in the Time of the Trojan War, so that Syria was sub-
ject to it; as also our own Coast in the Time of King Cepheus,
as appeareth by the Fables of Andromeda. In the same
manner they disagree about the Measure of Ethiopia. And
first, Dalion passing far beyond Meroe ; after him, Arista-
creon, Bion, and Basilis ; also Simonides (the Lesser) who
dwelt in Meroe Five Years, when he wrote of Ethiopia.
Timosthenes, the Admiral of the Fleet of Philadelphus, hath
left in record, that from Syene to Meroe is Sixty Days'
Journey, without particularizing the Measure. But Erato-
sthenes precisely noteth, that it is 625 Miles : Artemidorus,
600. Sebostus affirmeth, that from the Frontiers of Egypt it
is 1675 Miles ; from whence the last rehearsed Writers count
1270. But all this difference is lately determined by the
Report of those Travellers whom Nero sent to Discover those
Countries, who have related that it is 862 Miles from Syene
in this manner : from Syene to Hiera-Sycaminon, Fifty-four
Miles ; from thence to Tama, Seventy-five Miles ; from Tama
to the Euonymites Country, the first of the Ethiopians, 120 ;
toAcina, Fifty-four; to Pitara, Twenty-five; to Tergedum,
106 Miles. That in the midst of this Tract lieth the Island
Gagandus, where they first saw the Birds called Parrots;
and beyond another Island called Attigula they saw Monkeys ;
beyond Tergedum they met with the Creatures Cynocephali.
From thence to Napata Eighty Miles, which is the only
little Town among all the beforenamed ; from which to the
Island Meroe is 360 Miles. They reported, moreover, that
about Meroe, and not before, the Herbs appeared greener ;
and the Woods shewed somewhat in comparison of all the
way besides ; and they espied the Tracts of Elephants and
Rhinoceroses. The Town itself of Meroe was from the

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 159

Entry of the Island Seventy Miles, and just by, there was
another Island called Tatu, which formed a Port for them
that approached by the Channel on the Right. The Buildings
within the Town were few ; the Isle was subject to a Queen
named Candaocc* a name that for many years already hath
passed in succession from one Queen to another. Within
this Town is the Shrine of Hamrnon for Devotion ; and in all
that Tract many Chapels. Finally, so long as the Ethiopians
were powerful this Island was very famous. For by report,
they were accustomed to furnish of Armed Men 250,000, and
to maintain of Artisans 400,000. Also it is at this day reported
that there have beon Forty-five Kings of the Ethiopians.

The Manifold and Wonderful Forms of Men?

BUT the Nation in general was in old time called
jEtheria ; 3 afterwards Atlantia ; and finally from Vulcan s
Son jfiEthiops, it took the name of Ethiopia. It is no won-
der, that about the remote Borders of it there are produced
both Men and Beasts of monstrous Shapes, considering the
Agility of the Fiery Heat to frame Bodies and carve them
into strange Shapes. It is reported by some, that far within
the Country eastward there are Nations without Noses, but
having their Visage all Plain and Flat: that others are
without any Upper Lip, and some without Tongues ; also,
there is a kind of them that have the Mouth grown to-
gether, and are without Nostrils ; so that at the same Orifice
only they take in Breath, receive Drink by drawing it in
through an Oaten Straw, and Feed themselves with the
Grains of Oats which grow of their own accord for their
Food. Others there are, who instead of Speech make Signs
by nodding their Heads, and moving their Limbs. There
are also some that before the Time of Ptolemceus Lathyrus

1 See Acts of Apostles, viii. 27.
* See further, Book vii. c. 2.

3 As all Pliny's authors were Greek or Roman, he was ignorant that
a much more ancient name was Gush. Wern. Club.

160 History of Nature. [BooK VI.

King of Egypt, knew no use of Fire. Some Writers have
reported, that in the Country near the Marshes from whence
the Nile hath its Source there inhabit a Nation of Pygmei.
But where we left off there is a continual range of Moun-
tains, all Red, as if they were Burning. Beyond Meroe
there is a Country lying above the Trogloditue and the Red
Sea ; where Three Days' Journey from Napata toward the
Red Sea, in most places they save Rain Water for their ordi-
nary Use ; all the Country between is very abundant in
Gold. All beyond this Region is Inhabited by the Atabuli,
a People of Ethiopia. The Megabari, whom some have
named Adiabarae, lie overagainst Meroe, and have a Town
bearing the Name of Apollo. Part of them are Nomades,
who live on Elephant's Flesh. Just against them in a part
of Africa are the Macrobii. Again, beyond the Megabari
are the Memnones and Daveli ; and Twenty Days' Journey
from them the Critensi. Beyond them are the Dochi and
the Gymnites, who are always naked. Soon after you find the
Anderae, Mathitae, Mesagebes, Hipporeae, of a Black Colour,
but who paint their Bodies with a kind of Red Chalk called
Rubrica. But upon a part of Africa are the Medimni ; be-
yond then are Nomades, who feed on the Milk of Cynoce-
phali : and the Olabi and Syrbotae, who are reported to be
Eight Cubits high. Aristocreon saith, that on the side of
Libya, Five Days' Journey from Meroe, there is a Town
called Tole ; and Twelve Days' Journey from thence is Esar,
a Town of the Egyptians, who fled from Psammeticus. It is
reported, that they have lived in it for 300 Years ; another
Town of theirs called Daronis, on the opposite side, on the
Coast of Arabia. But that which Aristocreon nameth Esar,
Bion calleth Sapa; and he saith, the very word signifieth
Strangers come from other parts. Their Capital City is
within the Island Sembobitis; and Sai in Arabia is the Third.
Between the Mountains and the Nile are the Symbari and
the Phalanges ; but upon the Mountains themselves live
the Asachae, with many Nations ; and they are by report
Seven Days' Journey from the Sea. They live by Hunting
Elephants. The Island in the Nile, of the Semberritae, is

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 161

subject to a Queen. Eight Days' Journey from thence lieth
the Country of the Ethiopians, named Nubaei. Their Town
Tenupsis is seated upon the Nile. The Sambri, where all
the Four-footed Beasts, and even the very Elephants, are
without Ears. Upon the Border of Africa inhabit the
Ptceambati and Ptoemphanse, who have a Dog for their
King, and they judge of his imperial Commands by his Motion.
Their City is Auruspi, far distant from the Nile. Beyond
them are the Achisarmi, Phaliges, Marigeri, and Casamarri.
Bion says, that beyond Psembobitis, there are other Towns in
the Islands toward Meroc, for Twenty Days' Journey. The
Town of the next Island is Semberritarum, under a Queen ;
another called Asar ; and there is a second Island having in
it the Town Daron ; they call the third Medoe, wherein
stand eth the Town Asel ; and a fourth named Garode, as
the Town is also. Then along the Banks, the Towns, Navos,
Modunda, Andatis, Setundum, Colligat, Secande, Navectabe,
Cuini, Agrospi, ^gipa, Candrogari, Araba, and Summara.
The Region above Sirbitum, where the Mountains end, is
reported by some to have upon the Sea-coast Ethiopians
called Nisicastes and Nisitae, which means Men with Three
and Four Eyes ; not because they are so furnished, but be-
cause they are excellent Archers. Bion affirmeth, moreover,
that from that part of the Nile which stretcheth above the
Greater Syrtes, toward the Southern Ocean, they are called
Dalion, who use Rain-water only; and the Cisori and Lon-
gopori. Beyond Oecalices for Five Days' Journey, the
Usibalci, Isucles, Pharusi, Valii, and Cispii. The rest is
desert. But then he telleth fabulous Tales : as that westward
there are People called Nigro2, whose King hath but one
Eye, and that in the midst of his Forehead : also, there are
the Agriophagi, who live chiefly on the Flesh of Panthers
and Lions; the Pornphagi, who Eat all things; the Anthro-
pophagi, that Feed on Man's Flesh ; the Cynamolgi, who
have Heads like Dogs; the Artabatitae, who wander about
like Four-footed Savage Beasts. Beyond whom are the
Hesperii and Peroesi, who, as we said before, are planted in


1C2 History vf Nature. [BOOK VI.

the Confines of Mauritania. In certain parts of Ethiopia
the People live on Locusts only, 1 which they preserve with
Salt, and hang up in Smoke to harden, for their yearly Pro-
vision ; and these live not above Forty Years at the most.
Agrippa saith that all the Land of Ethiopia, with the Red
Sea, containeth in Length 2170 Miles: and in Breadth,
together with the higher Egypt, 1291. Some have taken
the Breadth in this manner; from Meroe to Sirbitum,
Twelve Days' Navigation ; from thence to the Davelli, Twelve ;
and from them to the Ethiopian Ocean, a Journey of Six
Days. But on the whole all Writers in a manner agree
that between the Ocean and Meroe it is 725 Miles ; and
from thence to Syene, as much as we have set down before.
The Situation of Ethiopia lieth South-east and South-west.
In the exact South, Woods of Ebony chiefly flourish ; toward
the midst of this Region, there is a lofty Mountain looking
over the Sea, that burneth continually, which the Greeks
call Theon-ochema ; from which it is counted Four Days' Sail
to the Promontory called Hesperion-Ceras, 2 on the border of
Africa, near to the Hesperian Ethiopians. Some Writers
hold, that this Tract is beautified with little Hills, pleasantly
clad with shady Groves, wherein are the jEgipanes and

1 That locusts should form a portion of the food of the people who
live where they abound, cannot be regarded as surprising. John
the Baptist fed on them, Matt, iii, 4, and Mark, i. 6. They are still
occasionally used for food in the East. When Khosru Purwis (Chosroes),
the Sassanian king of Persia, was summoned by Mohammed to adopt his
doctrine, he contemptuously dismissed the messengers of a chief of "naked
locust-eaters." The Arabs eat the different species of the migratory
locusts, and are very fond of them, especially of the red locust, which
when fat is called Jerdd rnikken. They eat them either fried or broiled,
or dried in an oven, or boiled with a sprinkle of salt ; the locusts taste
like dried sprats. The female locust when fat and full of eggs, is a great
dainty, and greatly esteemed by the male population on account of its
aphrodisiac qualities. (Niebuhr, Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 170, &c.)
~-Wern. Club.

8 Cap de Bonne Esperance.

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 163

The Islands of the Ethiopian Sea.

EPHORUS, Eudoxus, and Timosthenes agree, that there
are very many Islands in all that Sea. Clitarchus wit-
nesseth, that report was made to Alexander the King, of one
which was so rich, that for Horses the Inhabitants would
give Talents of Gold ; also of another, wherein was a sacred
Mountain adorned with a shady Wood, where the Trees
distilled Odours of wonderful Sweetness. Overagainst the
Persian Gulf lieth the Island named Cerne, opposite to
Ethiopia; but how large it is, or how far off from the Con-
tinent, is not certainly known : but this is reported, that
the Ethiopians only inhabit it. Euphorus writeth, that they
who would Sail thither from the Red Sea, are not able, from
the extreme Heat, to pass beyond certain Columns ; for so
they call the little Islands there. But Polybms affirmeth,
that this Island Cerne, where it lieth in the utmost Coast of
Mauritania, overagainst the Mountain Atlas, is but Eight
Stadia from the Land. On the other hand, Nepos Cornelius
affirmeth, that it is not above a Mile from the Land,
overagainst Carthage ; and that it is not above Two Miles
in Circuit. There is mention made also of another Island
before the Mountain Atlas, and which is named Atlantis.
And Five Days' Sailing from it are the Deserts of the
Ethiopian Hesperians, and a Promontory, which we have
named Hesperion-Ceras ; where the Coasts of the Land begin
first to turn about their front to the westward, and the
Atlantic Sea. Overagainst this Promontory, as Xenophon
Lampsacenus reporteth, lie the Islands called Gorgates,
where formerly the Gorgani kept their Habitation, two
Days' Sailing from the Continent. Hanno, Commander of
the Carthaginians (Pceni), penetrated to them, and reported
that the Women were all over their Bodies hairy ; and that
the Men were so Swift of Foot that they escaped from him ;
but he placed the Skins of two of these Gorgon Women in
the Temple of Juno, for a Testimonial, and as a Wonder, and

164 History of Nature. [BOOK VI.

they were seen there until Carthage was taken. Beyond
these Isles also there are said to be two Islands of Hesperides.
But so uncertain are all things concerning these parts, that
Statins Sebosus affirmeth, it is Forty Days' Sailing from the
Islands of the Gorgones along the Coast of Atlas, to the
Isles of the Hesperides ; and from thence to Hesperion-
Ceras, one. As little certainty there is concerning the
Islands of Mauritania. In this only they all agree, that Juba
discovered some few of them over against the Autololes, in
which he purposed to dye Gsetulian Purple. 1

Of the Fortunate Islands.

SOME Authors think, that the Fortunate Islands, and
some others besides them, are beyond the Autololes ; among
whom the same Sebosus spoke of their Distances : and parti-
cularly that the Island Junonia is from Gades 750 Miles ;
and that from it westward the Isles Pluvialia and Capraria
are as much : also that in the Island Pluvialia there is no
Water but what they have by Showers. From them to the
Fortunate Islands is 250 Miles ; they lie eight Miles from the
Coast of Mauritania to the Left Hand, called the Coast of
the Sun, in a Valley, because it is like a Valley or Hollow ;
and it is also called Planaria, as resembling an even Plain.
This Valley containeth in Circuit 300 Miles: wherein are
Trees so luxuriant that they grow to the Height of 144
Feet. Concerning the Islands named Fortunate, Juba
learned by diligent inquiry, that they lie from the South
near to the West 625 Miles from the Islands Purpurariee :
so that to Sail thither a Man must pass 250 Miles above the
West, and then for 75 Miles bend his course Eastward. He
saith, moreover, that the first of these Islands is called Om-
brion, wherein are no Tokens of Houses. Also that among
the Mountains it hath a Marsh ; and Trees resembling the
Plant Ferula, out of which they press W T ater : that which

1 On which account in the next chapter these islands are called
Purpurese, Wern, Club,

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 165

issueth out of the Black Trees being bitter, and that from
the Whiter sort sweet and potable. He saith that a second
Island is named Junonia, in which there is one little House,
or Chapel, made of Stone : beyond it, but near by there is a
third of the same Name, but less in size : and then you come
to one called Capraria, full of great Lizards. Within sight
of these is the Island Nivaria, which took this Name from
the Snow that lieth there continually ; it is also full of Mists.
The next to it is Canaria, so called from the great number of
very large Dogs, of which Juba brought away two : and in
this Island there are some marks remaining of Buildings.
And as all these Islands abound plentifully with fruitful
Trees and Birds of all sorts, so this is replenished with
Palm-trees that bear Abundance of Dates, and likewise with
Trees that yield Pine Nuts. There is also great plenty of
Honey : and the Rivers produce the Papyrus Reed, and are
well stored with the Fish Silurus : and in conclusion he
saith, that these Islands are much infested with great Ani-
mals, that are very often cast out in a Putrid Condition.
Thus having at large gone through the Description of the
Globe of the Earth, as well without as within, it remaineth
now to collect into a small space the measure of the Seas.


A Summary of the Earth, digested according to its

POLYBIUS layeth it down, that from the Straits of Gib-
raltar by a straight Course to the Mouth of Moeotis is 3437J
Miles. From the same starting-place by a right Course east-
ward to Sicily, it is 1260J Miles ; to Crete, 375 Miles ; to
Rhodes, 146 Miles ; to the Chelidonian Islands as much ;
to Cyprus, 325 Miles ; from whence to Seleucia Pieria in
Syria, 115 Miles. Which computation makes the sum of
2340 Miles. Agrippa also counteth 3440 Miles for all this
distance from the Straits of Gibraltar directly forward to the
Gulf of Issa. In which reckoning I scarcely know whether
there be an error in the number, because the same Writer

166 History of Nature. [BOOK VI.

hath set down the passage from the Sicilian Strait to Alex-
andria at 1250 Miles. But the whole . Circuit through the
above-said Gulfs, from the point where we began to the Lake
Moeotis, summed together, is 15,600 Miles. Artemidorus
added thereto 756 Miles. And the same Geographer
writeth, that with Moeotis it cometh to 17,390 Miles. This
is the measure of unarmed Men, and the peaceful boldness
of such as have not feared to provoke Fortune. Now
are we to compare the greatness of each part, in spite of
the Difficulty produced by the Disagreement of Authors.
But most easily will this appear if we join Longitude and
Latitude together. According to this prescribed rule the
Magnitude of Europe is 8148 Miles. Africa (taking the
middle Computation between them all that have set it down)
containeth in Length 3748 Miles. The Breadth of so much
as is inhabited in no Place exceedeth 250 Miles. Agrippa
would have it to contain 910 Miles in Breadth, beginning at
the Bounds of Cyrene, and comprehending in this Measure
the Deserts thereof as far as to the Garamantse, so far as
they are known ; and then the whole Measure collected into
one sum amounted to 4608 Miles. Asia 1 is allowed to be in
Length 63,750 Miles ; and its Breadth is truly reckoned
from the Ethiopian Sea to Alexandria, situated near the
Nile, so that the Measurement runs through Meroe and
Syrene, 1875 Miles; whereby it appeareth that Europe is
little wanting of being half as large again as Asia : and the
same Europe is twice as much again as all Africa, and a
sixth part over. Reduce now all these sums together, and it
will be found clear that Europe is a third part of the whole
Earth, and something more than an eighth Portion over;
Asia a fourth part, with a fourteenth; and Africa a fifth,
with an over-plus of a sixtieth portion. To this Calculation
we will add one sentence of Greek invention, which sheweth

1 Pliny's ignorance of the extent of Africa is pardonable, for he knew
no more of it than the small portion which had come under the Roman
dominion ; but in his account of Asia he contradicts what he has already
assigned to India, which is only a part of it, but which he truly repre-
sented to be larger than Europe. Wern. Club.

BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 167

their exquisite subtilty, in order that we may otnit nothing
in this view of the Situation of the Earth ; that when the
Position of every Region is known, a Man may likewise come
to the knowledge of what Society there is between one and
the other, either of the agreement of the Length of Days and
Nights, by the Shadows at Noonday, or by the equal Con-
vexity of the World. To bring this about effectually, I must
arrange the whole Earth into certain Portions of the Heaven ;
for there are very many of those Divisions of the World which
our Astronomers call Circles, and the Greeks, Parallels.


The Arrangement of the Earth Into Parallels and equal

THE beginning is at that part of India which turns to the
South. It extends as far as Arabia and the Inhabitants of
the Red Sea. Under it are comprised the Gedrosi, Persae,
Carmani, and Elimaei ; Parthyen&, Aria, Susiane, Mesopo-
tamia, Seleucia, surnamed Babylonia ; Arabia, so far as
Petrge, Coele-Syria, and Pelusium in Egypt; the Lower
Coasts, which are called of Alexandria ; the Maritime Parts
of Africa; all the Towns of Cyrenaica, Thapsus, Adrume-
tum, Clupea, Carthago, Utica, both Hippoes, Numidia, both
Realms of Mauritania, the Atlantic Sea, and Hercules' Pil-
lars. In all the Circumference of this Heaven, at Noon-tide
of an Equinoctial Day, the Umbilicus, which they call Gno-
mon, seven Feet Long, castetli a Shadow not above the
Length of four Feet. The Longest Night or Day is fourteen
Hours; and the shortest, ten. The following Circle begin-
neth from India, tending westward, and passeth through
the midst of Parthia, Persepolis, the nearest parts of Persis,
the nearer Arabia, Judaea, and the Borders of the Mountain
Libanus. It embraceth Babylon, Idumsea, Samaria, Hieru-
solyma, Ascalon, Joppe, Caesarea, Phoenice, Ptolemais,
Sydon, Tyrus, Berytrus, Botrys, Tripolis, Byblus, Antiochia,
Laodicea, Seleucia, the Sea-coasts of Cilicia, Cyprus, the
South Part of Creta, Lilybeum in Sinalia, the North Parts

1 68 History of Nature. [BooK VI .

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