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of Africa and Numidia. The Gnomon upon the Equi-
noctial Day, thirty-five Feet in Length, maketh a Shadow
twenty-four Feet Long. The Longest Day or Night is four-
teen Hours Equinoctial, and the fifth part of an Hour. The
third Circle beginneth at the Indians next to the Imaus, and
goeth by the Caspian Gates very near to Media, Cataonia,
Cappadocia, Taurus, Amanus, Issus, the Cilician Gates,
Soli, Tarsus, Cyprus, Pisidia, Syde in Paiuphilia, Lycaonia,
Patara in Lycia, Xanthus, Caunus, Rhodus, Coiis, Halicar-
nassus, Gnidus, Doris, Chius, Delus, the Middle Cyclades,
Gytthium, Malea, Argos, Laconia, Elis, Olympia, Messene,
Peloponnesus, Syracusa, Catina, the Midst of Sicily, the
South Part of Sardinia, Carteia, and Gades. The Gnomon
of one hundred Inches yieldeth a Shadow of seventy-seven
Inches. The Longest Day hath Equinoctial Hours fourteen
and a half, with the thirtieth part of an Hour. Under the
fourth Circle lie those who are on the other Side of Imaus,
the South Parts of Cappadocia, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis,
Smyrna, Sipylus, the Mountain Tmolus in Lydia, Caria,
Ionia, Trallis, Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Samos, Chios,
the Icarian Sea, the Northern Cyclades, Athens, Megara,
Corinthus, Sicyon, Achsea, Patrse, Isthmos, Epirus, the
North Parts of Sicily, Narbonensis Gallia toward the East, 1
'the Maritime Parts of Spain beyond New Carthage, and so
to the West. To a Gnomon of twenty-one feet the Shadows
answer of seventeen Feet. The Longest Day is fourteen
Equinoctial Hours, and two-third parts of an Hour. The
fifth Division containeth from the Entrance of the Caspian
Sea, Bactra, Iberia, Armenia, Mysia, Phrygia, Hellespontus,
Troas, Tenedus, Abydus, Scepsis, Ilium, the Mountain Ida,
Cyzicum, Lampsacum, Sinope, Amisum, Heraclea in Pontus,
Paphlagonia, Lemnus, Imbrus, Thasus, Cassandria, Thes-
salia, Macedonia, Larissa, Amphipolis, Thessalonice, Pella,
Edessa, Bersea, Pharsalia, Carystum, Eubcea, Boaotia,
Chaicis, Delphi, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Apollonia, Bnmdisium,
Tarentum, Thurii, Locri, Rhegium, Lucani, Neapolis, Pu-

1 Languedoc.



BOOK VI.] History of Nature. 169

teoli, the Tuscan Sea, Corsica, the Baleares, the Middle of
Spain. A Gnomon of seven Feet giveth six of Shadow.
The Longest Day is fifteen Equinoctial Hours. The sixth
Parallel compriseth the City of Rome, and containeth the
Caspian Nations, Caucasus, the North Parts of Armenia,
Apollonia upon Rhindacus, Nicomedia, Nicaea, Chalcedon,
Byzantium, Lysimachia, Cherrhonesus, the Gulf Melane,
Abdera, Samothracia, Maronea, .ZEnus, Bessica, the Mid-
land Parts of Thracia, Poeonia, the Illyrii, Dyrrhachium,
Canusium, the utmost Coasts of Apulia, Campania, Hetruria,
Pisa, Luna, Luca, Genua, Liguria, Antipolis, Massilia, Nar-
bon, Tarracon, the Middle of Spain called Tarraconensis,
and thence through Lusitania. To a Gnomon of nine Feet
the Shadow is eight Feet. The Longest Day hath fifteen
Equinoctial Hours and the ninth part of an Hour, or the
fifth, as Nigidius is of opinion. The seventh Division be-
ginneth at the other Coast of the Caspian Sea, and falleth
upon Callatis, Bosphorus, Borysthenes, Tomos, the Back
Parts of Thracia, the Tribali, the rest of Illyricum, the
Adriatic Sea, Aquileia, Altinum, Venetia, Vicetia, Patavium,
Verona, Cremona, Ravenna, Ancona, Picenum, Marsi,
Peligni, Sabini, Umbria, Ariminum, Bononia, Placentia,
Mediolanum, and all beyond Apenninum : also over the
Alps, Aquitaine in Gaul, Vienna, Pyrenaeum, and Celtiberia.
The Gnomon of thirty-five Feet casteth a Shadow thirty-six
Feet in Length ; yet so, that in some part of Venetia the
Shadow is equal to the Gnomon. The Longest Day is fif-
teen Equinoctial Hours, and three-fifth parts of an hour.
Hitherto we have reported the exact Labours of the Ancients.
But the most diligent Modern Writers have assigned the rest
of the Earth not as yet specified, to three Sections. (The
first) from Tanais through the Lake Moaotis and the Sar-
matae, all the way to Borysthenes, and so by the Daci and a
part of Germany, the Galliae, and the Coasts of the sur-
rounding Ocean, where the Day is sixteen Hours long. A
second, through the Hyperborei and Britannia, where the
Day is seventeen Hours long. Last of all, is the Scythian
Parallel, from the Rhiphean Hills unto Thule : in which (as



170 History of Nature, [BooK VI.

we have said) it is Day and Night continually by turns.
The same Writers have set down two Circles, before those
Points where the others began, and which we set down.
The first through the Island Meroe, and Ptolemais upon the
Red Sea, built for the Hunting of Elephants ; where the
Longest Day is but twelve Hoars and an half: the second
passing through Syene in Egypt, where the Day hath thir-
teen Hours. And the same Authors have put to every
one of the other Circles, even to the very last, half an Hour
more.

THUS MUCH OF THE EARTH.



IN THE SEVENTH BOOK

ABE CONTAINED
THE WONDERFUL SHAPES OF MEN IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES,



CHAP.

1. Strange Forms of many Na-

tions.

2. Of the Scythians, and other

People of different Coun-
tries.

3. Of Monstrosities.

4. The Transmutation of the

Sexes and of Twins.

5. De Hominis Generando.

6. De Conceptibus, et Signa

Sexus in gravidis praeve-
nientia Partum.

7. De Conceptu Hominum et Ge-

neratione.

8. De Agrippis.

9 . Monstruosi Partus excisi Utero.

10. Qui sunt Vopisci.

11. Exempla numerosa} Sobolis.

12. Examples of those that were

like one to another.

13. Quse sit Generandi Ratio.

14. De eodem multiplicius.

15. De Menstruis Mulierum.

16. Item de Katione Partuum.

17. The Proportion of the Parts

of Man's Body, and Things
therein observed.

18. Examples of extraordinary

Shapes.

19. Remarkable Natures of Men.

20. Of bodily Strength and Swift-

ness.

21. Of excellent Sight.

22. Who excelled in Hearing.



CHAP.

23. Examples of Patience.

24. Examples of Memory.

25. The Praise of C. Julius Casar.

26. The Praise of Pompey the

Great.

27. The Praise of Cato the Elder.

28. Of Valour and Fortitude.

29. Of notable Abilities, or the

Praises of some for their
singular Talents.

30. Of Plato, Ennius, Virgil, M.

Varro, and M. Cicero.

31. Of Majesty in Behaviour.

32. Of Authority.

33. Of certain Divine Persons.

34. Of (Scipio) Nasica.

35. Of Chastity.

36. Of Piety (Natural Kind-

ness).

37. Of Excellency in many Sci-

ences ; in Astrology, Gram-
mar, Geometry, &c.

38. Also, Rare Pieces of Work

made by Artificers.

39. Of Servants and Slaves.

40. The Excellency of Nations.

41. Of perfect Contentment.

42. Examples of the Variety of

Fortune.

43. Of those that were twice out-

lawed and banished : of L.
Sylla and Q. Metellus.

44. Of another Metellus.

45. Of the Emperor Augustus.



172



Contents of the Seventh Booh.



CHAP.

46. Of Men deemed most happy

by the Gods.

47. Who was ordered to be wor-

shipped as a God while he
lived.

48. Of those that lived longer

than others.

49. Of different Nativities of

Men.

50. Many Examples of strange

Accidents in Sickness.

51. Of the Signs of Death.

52. Of those that revived when



CHAP.

they were carried forth (to
be buried).

53. Of sudden Death.

54. Of Sepulchres and Burials.

55. Of the Soul : or the Manes.

56. The first Inventors of many

Things.

57. Wherein all Nations first

agreed.

58. Of ancient Letters.

59. The Beginning of Barbers at

Rome.

60. When first Dials.



In sum, there are in this Book, of Histories and Observations, 747.



LATIN AUTHORS ABSTRACTED :

Verrius Flaccus, Cn. Gellius, Licinius Mutianus, Mutius, Massurius,
Agrippina wife of Claudim, M. Cicero, Asinius Pollio, Messala, Rufus,
Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Livy, Cordus, Melissus, Sebosus, Cornelius Celsus,
MaximusValerius, Trogus, Nigidius Figulus, Pomponius Atticus, Pedianus
Asconius, Salinus, Cato Censorius, Fabius Vestalis.

FOREIGN WRITERS:

Herodotus, Aristeas, Beto, Isigonus, Crates, Agatharddes, Callipnanes,
Aristotle, Nymphodorus, Apollonides, Philarchus, Damon, Megasthenes,
Ctesias, Tauron, Eudoxus, Onesicritus, Clitarchus, Duris, Artemidorus,
Hippocrates the Physician, Asclepiander the Physician, Hesiodus, Anacreon,
Theopompus, Hellanicus, Damasthes, Ephorus, Epigenes, Berosus, Pessiris,
Necepsus, Alexander Polyhistor, Xenophon, Callimachus, Democritus, Duil-
lius, Polyhistor the Historian, Strata who wrote against the Propositions and
Theorems of Ephorus, Heraclides Ponticus, Asclepiades who wrote Trago-
damena, Philostephanus, Hegesias, Archimachus, Thucydides, Mnesigiton,
Xenagoras, Afetrodorus Scepsius, Anticlides, and Critodemus.




THE SEVENTH BOOK



OP THE



HISTORY OF NATURE,



WRITTEN BY



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS.




THE PREFACE.

BW-5SES8HUS we have in the former Books treated of
the World, and of the Lands, Nations, Seas,
Islands, and remarkable Cities therein con-
tained. It remainetli now to discourse of the
Nature of the Living Creatures comprised within
the same : a point which would require as deep
a Contemplation as any other Part whatsoever, if the Mind
of Man were able to comprehend all the Things. By right
the chief place is assigned to Man, for whose sake it appears
that Nature produced all other Creatures ; though this great
favour of hers is severe as set against all her other Gifts : so
that it is hard to judge whether she is a kinder Parent to
Man, or a cruel Step-mother. For, in preference to all other
Living Creatures, the one she hath clothed with the Riches of
others : to the rest she hath assigned a variety of Coverings :
as Shells, Barks, Hard Hides, Spines, Shag, Bristles, Hair,
Feathers, Quills, Scales, and Fleeces. The Trunks and



174 History of Nature. [BOOK VII.

Stems of Trees she hath defended with Bark, which is some-
times double, against the injuries both of Heat and Cold !
Man alone she hath cast all Naked upon the bare Earth,
even on' his Birth-day, immediately to cry and lament : so
that among so many Living Creatures there is none subject
to shed Tears and Weep like him from the very onset of his
Existence. And verily, however forward and active we may
be, to no one is it given to laugh before he is Forty Days old.
From this glimmering of Light he is bound fast, and hath
no Member at liberty ; a thing which is not practised upon
the Young of any Wild Beast among us. The Child thus
unhappily born, and who is to rule all other, lieth bound 1
Hand and Foot, weeping and crying ; and .receiveth the
auspices of Life with Punishments, to make satisfaction. for
this only Fault, that he is born Alive. What madness in
such as think this the proper Beginning of those who are
born to be proud ! The first Hope of our Strength, the first
gift that Time affordeth us, maketh us no better than four-
footed Beasts. How long ere we can go alone ! How long-
before we can speak, feed ourselves ! How long continueth
the Crown of our Heads to palpitate, the mark of our ex-
ceeding great weakness above all other Creatures ! Then
the Sicknesses, and so many Medicines devised against these
Maladies : besides the new Diseases that spring up to
overcome us. Other Living Creatures understand their
own Nature ; some assume the use of their swift Feet,
others of their Wings ; some are Strong ; others able to
Swim ; but Man knoweth nothing unless he be taught :
not even to speak, or go, or eat : arid, in short, -he is
naturally good at nothing but to weep. And hence some
have insisted on it, that it is best for a man never to have
been born, or else speedily to die. To one only, of living

1 The artificial bandages inflicted on new-born children are the swad-
dling-clothes referred to in St. Luke's Gospel, c. ii. v. 7 ; but they can
scarcely be numbered among the necessary evils of humanity, for they
have long since been abolished in England. In the seventh chapter of
this Book the Author dwells again on the littleness and misery of the
human race. Wern. Club.



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 175

Creatures is it given to mourn, one only is guilty of excess,
and that in a vast variety of ways, and through every Mem-
ber that he has. Who but we are ambitious ? Who but
we are avaricious ? None but we possess the extravagant
desire of living, are superstitious, anxious for our burial,
and what shall be our fate when we are gone. To none is
Life more frail ; yet to no Creature is there a greater craving
after every thing ; none suffereth under a more terrifying
Fear ; and none more furious in his Rage. To conclude, other
Animals live orderly according to their kind : we see them
flock together, and stand against others of a contrary kind;
the Lions, though savage, fight not one with another ;
Serpents sting not Serpents : and even the very Beasts and
Fishes of the Sea war not upon their own kind : but, by Her-
cules ! the greatest part of the evils that happen to Men are
from the hand of Man himself.

CHAPTER I.
The wonderful Forms of Nations.

IN our reports of Nations we have spoken in general of
the Human Race spread over the Face of the Earth. Neither
is it our purpose at present to describe particularly all their
numberless Customs and Manners of Life, which are as
many as there are Assemblies of Men. However, I think it
good not to omit all, but to make relation of some things
concerning those People especially who live furthest from
the Sea; among whom, I doubt not but I shall find such
matter as to most Men will seem both prodigious and
incredible. For whoever believed that there were Ethio-
pians before he saw them? what is it that seemeth not a
Wonder at the First Sight? how many things are judged
impossible before they are done? arid the Power and Ma-
jesty of Nature in every particular action seemeth incre-
dible, if we consider the same severally, and do not em-
brace the whole at once in the Mind. For, to say nothing
of the Peacocks' Feathers, of the Spots of Tigers and Pan-
thers, of the Colours that ornament so many Creatures



176 History of Nature. [BooK VII.

besides : let us come to one only point, which to speak of
seemeth small, but being deeply weighed, is a matter of
exceeding great regard ; and that is, the Speech of so
many Nations ; so many Tongues ; so much Variety of
Utterance, that a Foreigner seems to be something different
from a Man. Then to view the variety that appeareth in
our Face and Countenance ; although there be not more
than Ten Members or a few more, among so many thousand
of these, not Two Persons are to be found who are not
distinct in Likeness : a thing which no Art can perform, in
a small number out of so many. And yet thus much must
I advertise my Readers, that I will not pawn my credit
for many things that I shall deliver; but I will rather
direct them to the Authors, who will answer them in
all doubtful points : only let them not think much to follow
the Greeks, whose Diligence hath been greater, and their
Attention of longer standing.

CHAPTER II.
Of the Scythians, and the Diversity of other Nations. 1

THAT there are Scythians, and even many kinds of
them, who feed ordinarily on Man's Flesh, we have shewn

1 The belief of the ancients in the existence of many anomalous races
of mankind, was a portion of the science of the age ; and not to have
given it credit, and a place in his work, would have subjected the author
to as much reproach for scepticism, as the notice he has taken of them
has done for his alledged credulity. And so far as Greek authority ex-
tended, the degree of credit which Pliny assigned to these strange races,
appears to have heen well founded ; for except in one or two instances,
the errors appear to have sprung from misinterpretation, rather than
from a positive departure from truth. Aristotle is sufficient authority
for the existence of a race of pigmies, who are also mentioned by Hero-
dotus ; and in more modern times that excellent naturalist Belon is satis-
fied concerning them. Nor can we, even now, refuse to admit the possi-
bility of finding their representatives in the Bushmen still existing in
Southern Africa. On the other hand, the existence of men of enormous
stature, of which some stupendous instances are given by Pliny (b. vii.
c. xvi.), is attested by profane as well as by sacred history. Thus Pau-



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 177

already, (Book iv. 1 2 ; vi. 1 .) The thing itself would be thought
incredible, if we did not consider that in the very Middle of
the World, even in Sicily and Italy, there have been Nations of
such Monsters, as the Cyclopae and Lystrigonae : and also very

sanias (in his " Atticks," quoted by Bishop Cumberland in his translation
of Sanchoniatho) says, that he saw in the Upper Lydia bones whose
figure would satisfy any man that they were men's bones, but their big-
ness was above the now known size of men. He also mentions the bones
of Asterius, in the neighbouring country of the Milesians ; giving the
dimensions of his body to be no less than ten cubits long, and that he
was the son of Anax ; a name singularly corresponding with a race men-
tioned by Moses, and the sight of whom terrified and humbled the Is-
raelitish spies. It is not a little strange, as Bishop Cumberland remarks,
quoting from Cicero " de Natura Deorum," that there is reason to believe,
one of the very ancient and gigantic persons known under the name of
Hercules had six fingers on each hand, as is also noticed of the last de-
scendants of this mighty race, in the second book of Samuel, c. xxi. The
tradition that such enormous people existed in the early ages of the
world is often referred to by Homer, and other ancient writers, who
drew from thence the erroneous conclusion, that the whole human race
had, since their day, become gradually weaker and more diminutive ;
whereas, in the only authentic history of these remote ages it is clearly
intimated, that this vast stature was limited to particular families or
nations, who even at that time were thought remarkable by all besides ;
and who were finally exterminated by their neighbours, perhaps as the
only resource against their violence. The Macrocephali, or long heads,
(mentioned b. vi. c. 4) may be supposed to have owed their peculiarity to
the habit of employing pressure to mould their heads in early infancy
into the compressed and elevated form, as is now practised by some tribes
on the continent of America ; and such as are mentioned with exceedingly
short necks may, perhaps, have been marked only with a personal de-
formity ; but the people with intensely black skin, to all of whom, how-
ever otherwise different, the ancients seem to have assigned indiscrimi-
nately the name of Ethiopians, are judged by Pliny to display a more
remarkable phenomenon than all the strange forms he has occasion to
notice ; as we also should probably do, if living instances had not ren-
dered it common. We may include in another section those singular
examples of the human race, which the author supposes to be comprised
in nations, but which are more probably reported as of rare or casual
occurrence, or perhaps nothing beyond an accidental monstrosity. Such
we know to be the case with the Albinoes, with white hair and tender
eyes ; and perhaps also the monoculous king, and the Arimaspians, who
are mentioned also by Herodotus, together with the other Cyclopaean
VOL. n. N



178 History of Nature. [BOOK VII.

lately, on the other side of the Alps, 1 there are those that
kill Men for Sacrifice, after the manner of those (Scythian)
people, which differs but little from eating their Flesh.
Moreover, near to those Scythians that inhabit Northward,
not far from the very rising of the North-east Wind, and

people, whose singularities may have referred to some manner in the
habitual use of the organ, rather than to an actual deformity. A third
section of these supposed anomalous people may obviously be referred to
the quadrumanous tribes : a class of creatures so nearly approaching to
the external form of humanity, that we cannot feel surprised if ignorant
travellers, who viewed only at a distance, and with minds prepared to
welcome every wonder the oran outang and pongo were not able to
discern a generic difference between them and the truly human race.
Such were the hairy men and women mentioned in the 31st chapter of
this book, the satyrs, Choromandse, and people with no noses, or having
tails, a figure of the latter being found on an alraxis, or amulet, engraved
by Montfau9on ; but through the whole of his narrative we observe that
the author is careful to give his authorities, as being aware that what
appeared so strange must be made to rest upon the credit of those who
had originally reported it. Some of these instances, indeed, admit of no
interpretation that we are able to afford them ; but in regard to one of
the strangest of them, Purchas gives the authority of Fitch, an English-
man : " I went from Bengala into the country of Couche, not far from
Cauchin China. The people have ears which be marvellous great, of a
span long, which they draw out in length by devices when they be
young." In addition to the strange forms of men mentioned by Pliny,
Diodorus Siculus mentions some in an island discovered by Jambulus,
whose bones were as flexible as nerves (tendons) : the holes of their ears
far wider than ours ; and with tongues deeply cloven, so that they imi-
tate the song of birds, and can ordinarily speak to two men at once.
Wern. Club.

1 The people here referred to are the Gauls. Caesar (de Bell. Gall,
lib. vi.) says, " The whole nation of the Gauls is much addicted to reli-
gious observances, and on that account, those who are attacked by any of
the more serious diseases, and those who are involved in the danger of
warfare, either offer human sacrifices or make a vow that they will offer
them, and they employ the Druids to officiate at their sacrifices ; for they
consider that the favour of the immortal gods cannot be conciliated,
unless the life of one man be offered up for that of another : they have also
sacrifices of the same kind appointed on behalf of the state. Some have
images of enormous size, the limbs of which they make of wicker-work,
and fill with living men, and setting them on fire, the men are destroyed
by the flames." Wern. Club.



BOOK VII.] History of Nature. 179

about that Cave out of which that Wind is said to issue,
which place they call Gesclithron, the Arimaspi are reported
to dwell, who, as we have said, 1 are distinguished by having
One Eye in the midst of their Forehead, and who are in
constant War about the Mines with the Griffins, 2 a flying
kind of Wild Beasts, which used to fetch Gold out of the
Veins of those Mines ; which savage Beasts (as many Authors
have recorded, and particularly Herodotus and Aristeas the
Proconnesian, two Writers of greatest Name) strive as
eagerly to keep the Gold as the Arimaspi to snatch it from
them. Above those other Scythians called Anthropophagi,
there is a Country named Abarimon, within a certain
extensive Valley of the Mountain Imaus, in which are
Wild Men, wandering about among brute Beasts, and
having their Feet directed backward behind the Calves
of their Legs, but able to run very swiftly. This kind
of Men cannot live in any other Climate than their own,
which is the reason that they cannot be conveyed to the
Kings that border upon them ; nor could they be brought
to Alexander the Great, as Beton hath reported, who was
the Surveyor of the Journeys of that Prince. The former
Anthropophagi whom we have placed in the North, Ten
Days' Journey above the River Borysthenes, are accustomed
to drink out of the Skulls of Men, and to wear the Skins
with the Hair for Mantles before their Breasts, according
to Isigonus the Nicean. The same Writer affirmeth, that
in Albania there are produced certain Individuals who have
the Sight of their Eyes of a bluish-grey Colour, who from
their Childhood are grey-headed, and can see better by
Night than by Day. He reporteth also that Ten Days'
Journey above the Borysthenes, there are the Sauromatae,
who never eat but once in Three Days. Crates of Per-
gamus saith, that in Hellespont about Pariuni there was
a kind of Men, whom he nameth Ophiogenes, who, if one
were stung by a Serpent, with touching only will ease it;
and if they lay their Hand upon the Wound, are able to

1 Lib. iv. 12, and lib. vi. 17.

2 The griffins are again mentioned, book x. chap. 49. Wern. Club.



180 History of Nature. [BooK VII.

draw forth all the Poison from the Body. Varro also testi-
n'eth, that even at this Day there are a few who cure the
Stinging of Serpents with their Spittle. Agathar tides
writeth, that in Africa the Psylli, 1 who are so called from



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