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Ex Libris
C. K. OGDEN




' ;



PLINY'S
NATURAL HISTORY.



THIRTY-SEVEN BOOKS.



A TRANSLATION

ON THE BASIS OF THAT BY DR. PHILEMON HOLLAND,
ED. 1601.



WITH CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES.



VOL. II.




JrfcttcU l)i ti)c SHmurian Club.



PRINTED FOR THE CLUB

BY

GEORGE BARCLAY, CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE.
1848-49.



Stack
Annex



PURSUANT to a Resolution to the following effect, passed at a meeting of
the Committee held on Wednesday, the 15th March, 1848,

" The best thanks of the Club are hereby presented to

JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S., the Superintending Editor of this
Publication, and Translator of the Work.

Also to the following Gentlemen, viz. :

In the Department of Classics,

W. G. V. BARNEWALL, Esq. M.A.
Rev. GEORGE MUNFORD.

In the Department of Geography,

W. H. F. PLATE, Esq. LL.D.
GEORGE ALEXANDER, Esq. F.S.A.
CHARLES MOXON, Esq.

In the Department of Natural History and Physiology,

C. J. B. ALDIS, Esq. M.D.
C. R. HALL, Esq. M.D.
JONATHAN COUCH, Esq. F.L.S.
JOHN CHIPPENDALE, Esq. F.R.C.S.

For the Editorial Assistance rendered by them in the preparation of the
accompanying Work."



IN THE FOURTH BOOK



ABE COMPRISED

REGIONS, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, MOUNTAINS, PORTS, RIVERS,

WITH THEIR DIMENSIONS, AND PEOPLE, EITHER NOW

OR IN TIMES PAST KNOWN ; VIZ. :



CHAP.

1. Epirus.

2. ^Etolia.

3. Locri.

4. Peloponnesus.

5. Achaia.

6. Arcadia.

7. Greece and Attica.

8. Thessaly.

9. Magnesia.

10. Macedonia.

11. Thracia.

12. The Islands lying between

those Countries : among
which, Creta, Euboea, the
Cyclades, Sporades : also,



CHAP.

the Isles within Hellespont,
near the Sea of Pontus,
within Mceotis, Dacia, Sar-
matia, and Scythia.

13. The Islands of Pontus.

14. The Islands of Germany.

15. Islands in the French Ocean.

16. Britain and Ireland.

17. Gaul.

18. Gallia Lugdunensis.

19. Aquitain.

20. High Spain (named Citerior).

21. Portugal.

22. Islands in the Ocean.

23. The Measure of all Europe.



Herein are contained many principal Towns and Countries, famous
Rivers and Mountains ; Islands, also, besides Cities or Nations that are
perished : in sum, Histories and Observations.



LATIN WRITEBS ABSTRACTED:

M. Varro, Cato Censoring, M. Agrippa, Divus Augustus, Varro Ata-
cinus, Cor. Nepos, Hyginus, L. Vetus, Pomponius Mela, Licinius Mutianus,
Fabricius Thuscus, Atteius Capita, and Atteius Philologus.

FOREIGN AUTHORS:

Polybius, Hecatceus, Hellanicus, Damastes, Eudoxus, Dicaearchus,
Timosthenes, Ephorus, Crater the Grammarian, Serapion of Antioch, Cal-
limachus, Artemidorus, Apollodorus, Agathocles, Eumachus Siculus the
Musician, Alexander Pofyhfetor, Thucydides, Dosiades, Anaximander,
Philistides, Mallotes, Dionysius, Aristides, Callidemus, Menachmus, JEdas-
thenes, Anticlides, Heraclides, Philemon, Menephon, Pythias, Isidorus,
Philonides, Xenagoras, Astyonomus, Staphylus, Aristocritus, Metrodorus,
Ckobulus, and Posidonius.

VOL. II. B




THE FOURTH BOOK

OF THE

HISTORY OF NATURE



WRITTEN BY



C. PLINIUS SECUNDUS.




From whence jirst arose all the fabulous Lies, and the
excellent Learning of the Greeks.

HE third Bay of Europe beginneth at the
Mountains of Acroceraunia, and endeth in
the Hellespont. It containeth, besides 19
smaller Bays, 25,000 Miles. Within it are
Epirus, Acarnania, ^Etolia, Phocis, Locris,
Achaia, Messania, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica,
Bceotia. And again, from another Sea, the same Phocis
and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Ma-
cedonia, Thracia. All the fabulous Vein, as well as the
illustrious learning of Greece, proceeded first out of this
quarter; on which account we will therein stay somewhat
the longer. The Country Epirus, generally so called, be-
ginneth at the Mountains of Acroceraunia. In it are, first,
the Chaones, of whom Chaonia taketh the Name : then the
Thesproti, and Antigonenses : the Place Aornus, and Exha-
lation so deadly to Birds. The Cestrini, and Perrhcebi, with
their Mountain Pindus : the Cassiopaei, the Dryopes, Selli,
Hellopes, and Molossi, among whom is the Temple of Jupiter



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 3

Dodonceus, so famous for the Oracle : the Mountain To-
marus, celebrated by Theopompus for the hundred Fountains
about its foot.



CHAPTER I.
Epirus.

EPIRUS itself reaching to Magnesia and Macedonia, hath
behind it the Dassaretae above named, a free Nation; but
presently the savage People of the Dardani. On the left
side of the Dardani, the Treballi and Nations of Mcesia lie
ranged : from the Front are joined to them, the Medi
and Denthelatse ; upon whom the Thraces border, who
reach as far as to Pontus. Thus it is environed with
Rhodop, and is fenced presently also with the Heights of
Haemus. In the Coast of Epirus, among the Acroceraunia,
is the Castle Cbimsera, under which is the Spring of the
King's Water. The Towns are Mseandria and Cestria : the
River of Thesprotia, Thyamis : the Colony Buthrotium :
and the Gulf of Ambracia, above all others most famous,
receiving at its Mouth the wide Sea, 39 Miles in Length
and 15 in Breadth. Into it runneth the River Acheron,
flowing out of Acherusia, a Lake of Thesprotia, 36 Miles
from thence: and the Bridge over it, 1000 Feet long, ad-
mirable to those that admire all Things of their own. In
the Gulf is the Town Ambracia. The Rivers of the Molossi,
Aphas and Arachtus. The City Anactoria, and the Lake
Pandosia. The Towns of Acarnania, called formerly Curetus,
are Heraclea and Echinus : and in the very entrance, Actium,
a Colony of Augustus, with the noble Temple of Apollo, and
the free City Nicopolis. When out of the Ambracian Gulf
and in the Ionian Sea, we meet with the Leucadian Coast
and the Promontory of Leucat. Then the Bay, and Leu-
cadia itself, a Peninsula, once called Neritis, but by the
Labour of the neighbouring Inhabitants cut off quite from
the Continent, but joined to it again by means of the Winds



4 History of Nature. [ BOOK IV.

blowing together heaps of Sand ; which Place is called
Dioryctus, and is in Length half a rnile. A Town in it is
called Leucas, formerly Neritum. Then the Cities of the
Acarnani, Halyzea, Stratos, Argos, surnamed Amphilo-
chicum. The River Achelous running out of Pindus, and
dividing Acarnania from jEtolia ; and by continual addition
of Earth joining the Island Artemita to the main Land.

CHAPTER II.
JEtolia.

THE jEtolian People are the Athamanes, Tymphei,
Ephiri, ^Enienses, Perrhoebi, Dolopes, Maraces and Atraces,
from whom the River Atrax falleth into the Ionian Sea.
The Town Calydon in .ZEtolia is seven Miles and a half from
the Sea, near to the River Evenus. Then followeth Ma-
cynia and Molychria ; behind which Chalcis standeth, and
the Mountain Taphiassus. But in the Borders, the Pro-
montory Antirrhium, where is the Mouth of the Corinthian
Gulf, not a Mile broad where it runneth in and divideth
the ^Etoli from Peloponnesus. The Promontory that shooteth
out against it is named Rhion : but in the Corinthian Gulf
are the Towns of ^Etolia, Naupactum, and Pylene : and in
the Midland parts, Pleuron, Halysarna. The Mountains of
name : in Dodone, Tomarus : in Ambracia, Grania : in
Acarnania, Aracynthus : in jEtolia, Acanthon, Pansetolium,
and Macinium.

CHAPTER III.
Locri.

NEXT to the ^Etoli are the Locri, surnamed Ozolse, free :
the Town Oeanthe : the Port of Apollo Phcestius : the Bay
Crissaeus. Within, the Towns Argyna, Eupalia, Phaestum,
and Calamissus. Beyond are Cirrhaei, the Plains of Phocis,
the Town Cirrha, the Port Chalseon : from which, seven
Miles within the Land, is the free City Delphi, under the



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 5

Mountain Parnassus, the most illustrious Place upon Earth
for the Oracle of Apollo. The Fountain Castalius, the River
Cephissus, running before Delphos, which ariseth in a former
City, Liloea. Moreover, the Town Crissa, and together with
the Bulenses, Anticyra, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa, a
free State, Trichone, Tritea, Ambrysus, the Region Drymaea,
named Daulis. Then, at the bottom of the Bay, the Angle
of Breotia is washed by the Sea, with the Towns Siphae and
Thebae, which are surnamed Corsicae, near to Helicon. The
third Town of Boeotia from this Sea is Pagae, from whence
projecteth the Neck of Peloponnesus.

CHAPTER IV.
Peloponnesus.

PELOPONNESUS, called formerly Apia and Pelasgia, is a
Peninsula, worthy to come behind no other Land for noble-
ness ; lying between two Seas, ^Egeum and Ionium : like
the Leaf of a Plane Tree 1 , in regard of the indented Creeks
thereof: it beareth a circuit of 563 Miles, according to
Isidorus. The same, if you comprise the Creeks, addeth
almost as much more. The Straits whence it passeth is
called Isthmos. In which Place the Seas above-named,
bursting from various ways, from the North and the East,
devour all the Breadth of it there : until, by the contrary
running in of such Seas, the Sides on both hands being
eaten away, and leaving a Space between, five Miles over,
Hellas, with a narrow Neck, meeteth with Peloponnesus.
The one Side thereof is called the Corinthian Gulf, the
other, the Saronian. Lecheum on the one hand, arid Cen-
chreae on the other, are the Bounds of the Straits : where
such Ships as for their bigness cannot be conveyed over upon
Waggons, make a great compass about with some Danger.
For which cause, Demetrius the King, Ccesar the Dictator,

1 Dionysius, the geographer, also compares the form of the Morea, or
ancient Peloponnesus, to the leaf of a plane-tree, making the footstalk to
be the isthmus by which it is joined to Greece. And in Martyn's " Virgil,"
a figure of this leaf is engraved to illustrate the subject. Wern. Club.



6 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Prince Cams, and Domitius Nero, endeavoured to cut
through the narrow portions, and make a navigable Channel :
but the attempt was unhappy, as appeared by the issue of
them all. In the midst of this narrow Strait which we
have called Isthmos, the Colony Corinthus, formerly called
Ephyra, situated on a little Hill, is inhabited, three score
Stadia from each Shore : which from the top of its Citadel,
which is named Acrocorinthus, wherein is the Fountain
Pirene, hath a prospect into both those opposite Seas.
Through the Corinthian Gulf is a Passage from Leucas to
Patrae, of 87 Miles. Patrae, a Colony, built upon the Pro-
montory of Peloponnesus that shooteth furthest into the
Sea, over against ^Etolia and the River Evenus, of less dis-
tance, as hath been said, than a Mile, in the very entrance,
sendeth out the Corinthian Gulf 85 Miles in Length, even
as far as Isthmos.

CHAPTER V.
Achaia.

ACHAIA, the name of a Province, beginneth at the
Isthmus: formerly it was called ^Egialos, because of the
Cities disposed in order upon the Strand. The first there is
Lecheae above named, a Port of Lechese of the Corinthians.
Next to it Oluros, a Castle of the Pellenaei. The Towns,
Helice, Bura, and (into which the Inhabitants retired when
these before-named were swallowed up in the Sea) Sicyon,
jEgira, ^Egion, and Erineos. Within, Cleone and Hysiae.
Also the Port Panhormus, and Rhiurn, described before :
from which Promontory, five Miles off, standeth Patrae,
above mentioned, and the Place called Pherse. Of nine
Mountains in Achaia, Scioessa is most known ; also the
Spring Cymothoe. Beyond Patrae is the Town Olenum, the
Colony Dymae. Places called Buprasium and Hinnene :
and the Promontory Araxum. The Bay of Cyllene, the
Cape Chelonates: from whence to Cyllene is two Miles.
The Castle Phlius. The Tract also by Homer named
Arethyrea, and afterwards Asophis : then the Country of



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 7

the Elii, who before were called Epei. Elis itself is in the
Midland, 12 Miles from Pylos. Within is the Shrine of
Jupiter Olympius, which, for the fame of the Games there,
containeth the Calendars of the Greeks (fasti) : also, the
former Town of the Pisaei, before which the River Alpheus
runneth : but in the Borders, the Promontory Icthys. The
River Alpheus is navigated to the Towns Aulos and Leprion.
The Promontory Platanestus. All these lie Westward. But
towards the South, the Bay Cyparissius, the City Cyparissa,
72 Miles in circuit. The Towns, Pylos, Methone, a Place
called Helos : the Promontory Acritas : the Bay Asinaeus of
the Town Asinum, and Coronaeus of Corone : and these are
bounded by the Promontory Jaenarus. There also is the
Region Messenia with 22 Mountains : the River Paomisus.
But within, Messene itself, Ithome, Occhalia, Arene, Pteleon,
Thryon, Dorion, Zanclum, famous at various times. The
Compass of this Bay is 80 Miles, the Passage over 30 Miles.
Then from Taenarus, the Laconian Land pertaining to a free
People, and a Bay there in circuit about 206 Miles, but 39
Miles over. The Towns Taenarum, Amiclae, Pherae, Leuctra,
and within, Sparta, Theranicurn : and where stood Car-
damyle, Pitane, and Anthane. The Place Thyrea, and
Gerania : the Mountain Taygetus : the River Eurotas, the
Bay jEgylodes, and the Town Psamrnathus. The Bay
Gytheates, of a Town thereby (Gythaeum), from whence to
the Island Creta there is a very direct course. All these
are enclosed within the Promontory Maleum. The Bay
next following to Scyllaeus is called Argolicus, and is 50 Miles
over, and 172 Miles round. The Towns upon it, Boea,
Epidaurus, Limera, named also Zarax : the Port Cyphanta.
Rivers, Inachus, Erasinus : between which standeth Argos,
surnamed Hippium, upon the Lake Lerne, from the sea two
Miles, and, nine Miles further, Mycenae. Also, where they
say Tiryntha stood, and the Place Mantinea. Mountains,
Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and 1 1 others
besides. Fountains, Niobe, Amymone, Psammothe. From
Scyllatmm to the Isthmus, 177 Miles. Towns, Hermione,
Troazen, Coryphasium, and Argos. called of some Inachium,



8 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

of others Dipsium. The Port Csenites, the Bay Saronicus,
encircled in old Time with a Grove of Oaks, from whence it
had the Name, for so old Greece called an Oak. Within it
the Town Epidaurum, celebrated for the Shrine of JEscu-
lapius ; the Promontory Spiraeum, the Harbours Anthedon
and Bucephalus : and likewise Cenchreae, which we spoke of
before, being the other limit of the Isthmus, with the Shrine
of Neptune, famous for its Games every five Years. So
many Bays cut up the Peloponnesian Coast : so many Seas
roar against it. For on the North side the Ionian Sea
breaketh in : on the West it is beaten upon by the Sicilian.
From the South the Crethean Sea driveth against it : the
^Egean from the South-east, and Myrtoan on the North-
east, which beginning at the Megarian Bay, washeth all
Attica.

CHAPTER VI.
Of Arcadia.

THE midland Parts of this, Arcadia most of all taketh
up, being every way remote from the Sea : at the beginning
it was named Drymodis, but soon after Pelasgis. The
Towns in it are Psophis, Mantinea, Stymphalum, Tegea,
Antigonea, Orchomenum, Pheneum, Palatium, from whence
the Mount Palatium at Rome took the Name, Megalepolis,
Catina, Bocalium, Carmon, Parrhasiae, Thelphusa, Melanaea,
Heraea, Pile, Pellana, Agree, Epium, Cynsetha, Lepreon of
Arcadia, Parthenium, Alea, Methydrium, Enespe, Macistum,
Lampe, Clitorium, Cleone ; between which Towns is the
Tract Nemea, usually called Berubinadia. Mountains in
Arcadia, Pholoe, with the Town : also Cyllene, Lyceus,
wherein the Shrine of Jupiter Lyceus, Maenalus, Artemisius,
Parthenius, Lampeus, and Nonacris : and eight besides of
base account. Rivers, Ladon, issuing out of the Fens of
Pheneus, Erymanthus out of a Mountain of the same Name,
running both down into Alpheus. The rest of the Cities to
be named in Achaea, Aliphiraei, Albeatae, Pyrgerises, Pareatae,
Paragenitise, Tortuni, Typanaei, Thryasii, Trittenses. All



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 9

Achaea Domitius Nero endowed with Freedom. Pelo-
ponnesus, from the Promontory of Malea to the Town
Lechseum upon the Corinthian Bay, lieth in Breadth 160
Miles: but across, from Elis to Epidaurum, 125 Miles:
from Olympia to Argos, through Arcadia, 63 Miles : from
the same Place to Phlius is the said measure. And the
whole, as if Nature weighed out a Recompense for the
irruptions of the Seas, riseth up into three score and sixteen
Mountains.

CHAPTER VII.
Greece and Attica.

FROM the Straits of the Isthmus beginneth Hellas, by our
Countrymen called Graecia. The first Tract thereof is Attica,
in old Time named Acte. It reacheth the Isthmus on that
Part of it which is called Megaris, from the Colony Megara,
from the Region of the Pagae. These two Towns, as Pelo-
ponnesus lieth out in Length, are seated on either Hand, as
it were, upon the Shoulders of Hellas. The Pagaei, and
more especially the ^Egosthenienses, lie annexed to the
Magarensians. In the Coast is the Harbour Schoenus.
Towns, Sidus, Cremyon, the Scironian Rocks for three Miles
long, Geranea, Megara, and Elcusin. There were besides,
CEnoa and Probalinthus, which now are 52 Miles from
the Isthmus. Pyraeeus and Phalera, two Ports joined to
Athens by a Wall, within the Land five Miles. This City
is free, and needeth no more any Man's praise : so abund-
antly noble it is. In Attica are these Fountains, Cephissia,
Larine, Callirrhoe, and Enneacreunos. Mountains, Brilessus,
Megialcus, Icarius, Hymettus, and Lyrabetus : the River
Ilissos. From Pyraeeus 42 Miles is the Promontory
Sunium ; likewise the Promontory Doriscum. Also Po-
tamos and Brauron, Towns in time past. The Village
Rhamnus, the Place Marathon, the Plain Thriastius, the
Town Melita and Oropus, in the Border of Bceotia. To
which belong Anthedon, Onchestos, Thesprae, a free Town,
Lebadea : and Thebes, surnamed Boeotia, not inferior in



10 History of Nature. [BooK IV.

Fame to Athens, as being the native Country (as Men will
have it) of two Gods, Liber and Hercules. Also, they attribute
the Birth of the Muses to the Grove Helicon. To this Thebes
is assigned the Forest Cithaeron and the River Ismenus.
Moreover, Fountains in Boeotia, (Edipodium. Psammat,
Dirce, Epigranea, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and
Gargaphise. Mountains, besides the forenamed, Mycalessus,
Adylisus, Acontius. The rest of the Towns between Megara
and Thebes, Eleutherse, Haliartus, Plateae, Pherse, Aspledon,
Hyle, Thisbe, Erythrse, Glissas, and Copse. Near the River
Cephissus, Lamia and Anichia : Medeon, Phligone, Grephis,
Coronsea, Chseronia. But in the Borders, beneath Thebes,
Ocal, Elseon, Scolos, Scoenos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalessus,
Hyreseon, Pteleon, Olyros, Tanagia, a free People ; and in
the very Mouth of Euripus, which the Island Euboea maketh
by its opposite Site, Aulis, renowned for its large Har-
bour. The Boeotians in old Time were named Hyantes.
The Locrians also are named Epicnemidii, in Times past
Letegetes, through whom the River Cephissus runneth into
the Sea. Towns, Opus (whereof cometh the Opuntinean
Bay), and Cynus. Upon the Sea-coast of Phocis, one
Daphnus. Within, among the Locrians, Elatea, and upon
the Bank of Cephissus (as we have said) Lilaea : and toward
Delphos, Cnemis and Hiampolis. Again, the Borders of
the Locrii, wherein stand Larymna and Thronium, near
which the River Boagrius falleth into the Sea. Towns,
Narycion, Alope, Scarphia. After this, the Vale, called
by the People there dwelling, Maliacus Sinus, wherein are
these Towns, Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara. Then Doris,
wherein are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, Cytinum.
On the Back of Doris is the Mountain (Eta. Then fol-
loweth jEmonia that so often hath changed Name : for
the same hath been called Pelasgicum, Argos, and Hellas,
Thessalia also, and Dryopis, and evermore it took the Name
of the Kings. In it was born a King called Gr&cus, from
whom Greece was named : there also was Hellen born,
from whence came the Hellenes. These being but one
People, Homer hath called by three Names: Myrmidons,



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 11

Hellenae, and Achaei. Of these, they are called Phthiotae
who inhabit Doris. Their Towns are Echinus, in the entrance
of the River Sperchius : and the Straits of Thermopylae, so
named by reason of the Waters : and, four Miles from
thence, Heraclea was called Trachin. There is the Mountain
Callidromus : and the famous Towns, Hellas, Halos, Lamia,
Phthia, and Arne.

CHAPTER VIII.
Thessalia.

MOREOVER, in Thessalia, Orchomenus, formerly called
Minyeus ; and the Town Almon, by some Elmon ; Atrax,
Pelinna, and the Fountain Hyperia. Towns, Pherae, behind
which Pierius stretcheth forth to Macedonia: Larissa, Gomphi,
Thebes of Thessalia, the Grove Pteleon, and the Bay Pa-
gasicus. The Town Pagasa, the same named afterwards
Demetrias ; Tricca, the Pharsalian Plains, with a free City :
Cranon, and Iletia. Mountains of Phthiotis, Nymphaeus,
beautiful for the natural Harbours and Garden-works there :
Buzigaeus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphista, Chimerion, Atha-
mas, Stephane. In Thessalia there are 34, of which the
most famous are Cerceti, Olympus, Pierus, Ossa : over
against which is Pindus and Othrys, the Seat of the Lapithae ;
and those lie toward the West : but Eastward, Pelios ; all of
them bending in the manner of a Theatre : and before them,
in form of a Wedge, 72 Cities. Rivers of Thessalia,
Apidanus, Phrenix, Enipeus, Onochomus, Pamisus : the
Fountain Messeis, the Lake Boebeis : and illustrious above
all the rest, Peneus, which, rising near Gomphi, runneth
for 500 Stadia in a woody Dale between Ossa and Olympus,
and half that Way is navigable. In this Course are the
Places called Tempe, five Miles in Length, and almost an
Acre and a half Broad, where on both Hands the Hills arise
by a gentle Ascent above the reach of Man's Sight. Within,
Peneus glideth by, in a fresh green Grove, clear as Crystal,
over the gravelly Stones ; pleasant for the Grass upon the
Banks, and melodious with the Harmony of Birds. It



1 2 History of Na ture. [ Boo K I V .

taketh in the River Eurotas, but receiveth him not, but, as
Homer expresseth it 1 , floweth over him like Oil: and within a
very little while rejecteth the Burden, as refusing to mingle
with his own silver Streams those penal and cursed Waters
so direfully produced.

CHAPTER IX.
Magnesia.

To Thessalia, Magnesia is annexed : the Fountain there
is Libethra. The Towns, lolchos, Hirmenium, Pyrrha,
Methone, Olizon. The Promontory Sepias. Towns, Cas-
tana, Sphalatra, and the Promontory .ZEnantium. Towns,
Meliboea, Rhisus, Erymne. The Mouth of Peneus. Towns,
Homolium, Orthe, Thespiae, Phalanna, Thaumaciae, Gyrton,
Cranon, Acarne, Dotion, Melitaea, Phylace, Potinae. The
Length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessalia, lying strait
out, is by report 480 Miles, the Breadth 287.

CHAPTER X.
Macedonia.

MACEDONIA, so called afterwards (formerly it was named
Emathia) is a Kingdom, consisting of 150 several People,
renowned for two Kings, and once ennobled for the Empire
of the World. This Country passing behind Magnesia and
Thessalia toward the Nations of Epirus Westward, is much
troubled with the Dardani. The North Parts thereof are
defended by Paeonia and Pelagonia, against the Triballi.
The Towns are these, -^ge, wherein it was the Custom to inter

1 As Homer expresseth it. See " Iliad," b. 750 :

" To these were join'd, who till the pleasant fields
Where Titaresius winds : the gentle flood
Pours into Peneus all his limpid stores,
But with the silver-eddied Peneus flows
Unmixt as oil ; for Stygian is his stream,
And Styx is the inviolable oath.

COWPEE'S Homer. Wern. Club.



BOOK IV.] History of Nature. 13

their Kings : Beroea, and ^Eginium, in that Quarter which,
from the Wood, is called Pieria. In the Borders, Heraclea,
and the River Apilas : Towns, Phina and Oloros : the River
Haliacmon. Within are the Haloritse, the Vallei, Phylacei,
Cyrrhestae, Tyrissaei : Pella, the Colony : the Town Stobi, of
Roman Citizens. Presently, Antigonia, Europus, upon the
River Axius, and another of the same Name, through which
Rhaedias runneth : Heordese, Scydra, Mieza,, Gordinise. Soon
after, in the Borders, Ichnae ; and the River Axius. To this
Extremity the Dardani : Treres and Pieres border upon
Macedonia. From this River are the Nations of Paeonia,
Parorei, Heordenses, Almopii, Pelagones, and Mygdones.
The Mountains Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus. Then the
Lap of the Earth spreading along, Arethusii, Antiochienses,
Idomenenses, Doberienses, Trienses, Allantenses, Andari-
stenses, Moryllii, Garesci, Lyncestae, Othrionei, and the free
States of the Amantini and Orestae. Colonies, Bulledensis
and Diensis. Xilopolitae, Scotussaei, free ; Heraclea, Sintica,
Tymphei, and Coronaei. In the Coast of the Macedonian


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