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GLEANER



ESTABLISHED
1901



jr<| DELAWARE VALLEY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE
DOYLESTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA 18901



Vol. LXVIII



Fall - Winter 1969



NO. 1



Member Agricultural College Magazines, Associated

STAFF

CARL PFITZENMAYER 70 NORMAN MOGEL 71

Co-Editor Co-Editor



Typing Staff



Art Editor John Magin 71

Business Editor Albert Happ 72

Literary Editor *.... Donald Snively 70

Photography Editor L. Ivins Smith 111 70

Art Staff



Elmer Detrich 72
William McLean 72
Richard Pflaum 70
Carl Pfitzenmayer 70
Quentin Schlieder 70
Richard Tower 72



John Magin 71
Norman Mogel 71
Quentin Schlieder 70
Donald Snively 70



Photography Staff
L. Ivins Smith 111 70



Business Staff

Albert Happ 72
Richard Hmieleski 71
Quentin Schlieder 70
Peter Vicari 73



David E. Benner, Instructor
Stephen M. Cooper 70
Howard Henderson 70
Richard W. Hoffman, Jr. 70
David Kamison 70
Abbott Lee 73
Richard Loveless 70



Contributors

John Magin 71
John D. Martin 70
Norman Mogel 71
Frank McDonough 70
William Pellett 70
Dick Pflaum 70
Richard Polgar 72
Brian Rice 71



Quentin Schlieder 70
Steven Schwartz 71
L. Ivins Smith 70
Donald Snively 70
D. Lee Strassburger 70
Dillon Williams 73
Jeffrey A. Wohlfeld 70



Faculty Advisors

Dr. John Mertz Mr. Joseph E. Fulcoly Mrs. Joseph S. Marelli Mrs. James A. O'Reilly
Cover by John Magin under the supervision of Mr. James A. O'Reilly.



The GLEANER is published twice during the school year by the students of Delaware
Valley College of Science and Agriculture, Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The GLEANER is
a student publication, and the opinions expressed with are not necessarily those of the
GLEANER staff or the Adminstration. Neither the College nor the staff will assume
responsibility for plagiarism unknowingly occurring within.



- 1







Mrs. Jean H. Work



From northern New Jersey, Mrs. Work came to Delaware Valley
College in the early 1950's. After positions in the Accounting Department
as a secretary to the President, Mrs. Work became Administrative Assistant
in 1959.

As resident of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Mrs. Work is active in
civic affairs as well as in the Doylestown Country Club where, as a member,
she is an avid golf enthusiast.

Mrs. Work has a great deal of respect for the student body of
Delaware Valley College. Her office door is always open to "her Boys" and
she will eagerly discuss student activities with an open mind.

We are especially honored to dedicate the Fall-Winter 1969 issue
of the GLEANER to Mrs. Jean H. Work for her sincere interest and devotion
to the students of Delaware Valley College of Science and Agriculture.




Exotic Foods From
LcL &. Forest



by David Benner, Instructor
Ulustroted by John Magin'TI
^-Quentm SchLieder 70



Have you ever eaten Mayapple Marmalade? I believe I can safely say that
you have not unless you made it yourself. This ambrosia is not to be found
even in the finest gourmet shop. Not only does it possess a delicate, pleasant
flavor, but a beautiful golden-amber color and a wonderful fragrance. As
most everyone knows, the root, stem, leaves, and green fruit of the Mayapple
are poisonous. It is the bright yellow fruit which ripens from September into
October that is edible either raw or cooked. Now, how to make this Marma-
lade. Gather two quarts of the ripe fruit which should be soft and smell like
grapes. Remove stem and blossom ends, cut in pieces and simmer in 1 quart
of water for about 20 minutes, stirring to keep from sticking. Then put
through a colander or sieve to remove seeds and skin. To 4 cups of pulp add
1 box of Sure-Jell and bring to a boil. Then add 5 cups of sugar. Stir con-
stantly and boil several minutes. Skim off foam and pour into scalded jars or
jelly glasses. When cool, seal with paraffin.

One other note about the Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). You may
gather roots in October or November and cut them up in small pieces. Add
one teaspoon of root to a pint of boiling water. Take one teaspoon at a time
of this liquid as required for constipation. (Not recommended for use with
the Hong Kong Flu)!

Long before the white man settled in America, the Indians were using
acorns as an important food crop. Naturally, the sweet acorns were preferred
but most species were gathered and eaten. I have found White Oak (Quercus
alba) and Mossycup Oak ( Quercus macrocarpa) to be the sweetest and easiest
to use. Since squirrels crave these too, it is often difficult to gather many. It
is rather time consuming to prepare acorns for cooking purposes, but well
worth the effort. Let us assume you have gathered about 2 quarts of acorns.
Cut each acorn lengthwise with small pruners (watch your fingers)! Pick out
the acorn halves (they often fall out of the shell) and grind them as fine as
you can in a food chopper or grinder. Put this coarse meal in a muslin bag,
tie the bag, and place it in a kettle. Pour boiling water over the bag to remove
tannin and squeeze out the excess water. Open the bag and spread the acorn
meal in thin layers on shallow trays to dry out in a warm place overnight or
in the sun. When it is dry, you may grind the meal again if you wish. It does
not have to be dry or reground for the following recipe — Home-made Acorn
Bread. Use any recipe for home-made white bread substituting one cup or
more of acorn meal for the same amount of white flour in each loaf of bread.
The result is a nutritious, dark-colored bread with its own distinct and deli-
cious nutty flavor.

The Common Cattail (Typha latifolia) has many uses as a food. The
main root contains starchy granules which can be used like flour but it is a



-5-




messy job to gather the roots and re-
move the starch. It is much easier to
gather the ripe pollen in June or July.
Take a pail or flat pan and bend over
the flower spikes, tapping them into
the pail. The abundant pollen will fall
out and in a very short time you can
gather a quart of pollen. Pick a warm
sunny day to collect this material and
prepare to get wet feet unless you have
high hipboots. As far as I know, cat-
tail pollen has not been analyzed, but
it is no doubt high in protein as are
other pollens. Its brilliant yellow color
may be due to carotene, which would
be a natural source of Vitamin A.

Cattail Pollen Cake, Muffins, or
Shortcake — Any of these can be made
by substituting 1 or 2 cups of cattail
pollen in place of white flour called
for in the recipe. You will be rewarded
with a golden cake, muffin, or short-

TYPHA LATIFOLIA CATTAIL f' ™* an unusual and pleasant

flavor. The pollen can also be used m
/. Magin '71 making pancakes or biscuits.
Our native Persimmon
(Diospyros virginiana) is a small
sweet fruit when ripe; it is hor-
rible tasting when not ripe.
The fruit should be soft and it
is best after several frosts. It
contains alum which puckers
your mouth and tongue if it
is not fully ripe. Raccoons,
other small animals, and deer
are fond of persimmons. The
best way to gather them is to
shake the small trees. Persim-
mons are common in the
southern states but are also
found throughout Pennsyl-
vania. Take a big sheet of
plastic or an old sheet or blan-
ket, place it under the tree, tjiospyROS VIRGINIANA PERSIMMON
and start shaking. One quart of LHU^f YKU5 viKUiiMAiNA rtKbiMMUJM

persimmons when put through '^- ^^^^" 77

a colander makes about 2 cups of pulp — enough for an old-fashioned Per-
simmon Pudding the color of gingerbread. Mix together in a large bowl:
1% cups sugar P/i cups flour

1 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon soda

Vi teaspoon salt




6-



Add and mix to the above:

3 beaten egg yolks Vi cup melted butter

2 cups persimmon pulp 2y2 cups milk

Now fold 3 stiffly-beaten egg whites into the above mixture. Bake in 2 greased
glasses or pottery baking dishes at 325° for about 50 minutes. It is best served
warm with cream or plain and serves 10 to 12 people.

You can also make molas-
ses and beer from persimmons.
Mix 10 pounds of wheat bran
with a gallon of ripe persimmon
pulp. Bake the pulp in an oven
until brown and firm. Break
the pulp into pieces and put it
through a food chopper. Put
this in a 5-gallon crock and fill
the crock almost full with boil-
ing water. Let it stand for 12
hours. Pour off this liquid and
boil it down to desired con-
sistency.

There are so many other
excellent nutritious and deli-
cious foods that can be
gathered and eaten with little
effort. Let me mention a few
you should try. In the early
Spring, gather the common
Wild or Black Mustard (Bras-
sica nigra). Cook it like spinach
and serve it hot with salt,
pepper and butter. It is far
superior to cultivated spinach
and full of vitamins and trace
elements. Pokeweed (Phyto-
lacca americana) is far tastier
than Asparagus without any unpleasant 'after-effects.' Cook new stems like
Asparagus, pouring off the first boiled water and boiling again in fresh water.
It can be picked in early Spring when 6 to 1 inches high. Note, however, that
the roots, leaves, old stems and berries of pokeweed are poisonous.

The flower buds of the ovsinge DsLylily (Hemerocallis fiilva) can be picked
and cooked like string beans. They are wonderful in stews. One of the finest
teas known comes from the small trailing Snowberry (C/iiogenes hispidiila).
The small white berries have a delicate wintergreen flavor. It is common in
New England — especially in the Maine woods.

Then there are candied Wild Ginger, Sassafrass Tea, sliced Puffballs
sauteed in butter. Wild Strawberry Shortcake and Jam, Wild Rice, Water
Cress Soup, Pickled Walnuts, Ground-Cherry Pie, Hickory-nut Cake, and
Wild Cherry Punch, to mention but a few.

One word of caution when gathering foods in the wild today — care
should be taken to avoid areas recently sprayed with herbicides and pesticides.

For many more recipes and facts about eating wild foods, "Stalking the
Wild Asparagus" by Euell Gibbons is the best book on this subject,

-7-




HEMEROCALLIS FULVA

TAWNY DAYLILY

John Mag in '71



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• 5^!?^'''"' "•'"■■'*'"' "^.,



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t I



-f-'wA



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RETIRED



Jeffrey A. Wohlfeld



^=^^^^3 C^^^



Stephen Maddock Cooper '70



The flower long lost to fruit,
the bud, gone to flower;
seed blown away:
love lost to lovers . . . alone.
'69



Dick Pflaiim '70
CURRENT OF LIFE

The old man wandered through the dense trees until he came upon a
clearing which led to a river. There he stood and watched as the tremendous
current thundered along. He had been here countless times before - watch-
ing, thinking, seeking. This was his place, his secret place.

Since he was just a small boy he had come here to marvel at "his" river.
In those days life was lazy and he had spent many good times playing here.
Later, as a young man, this was his place to work out problems and think
about his future. Now he was here only to watch, wait, and remember.

Sitting there, leaning against a huge slate-gray stone, he remembered
how it used to be. These racing rapids had once been a clear calm stream.
Many things had changed since then. The waters now seemed bigger, faster,
and more dangerous.

As he sat there watching the gray but foamy water rush by, something
caught his eye. Far upstream, near a bend in the river, he could see it. It was
something red. He rose and strained to see it, covering his brow like a salute,
(trying, but in vain) to block out the reflection on the water.

The swift current brought it closer and the old man could now visualize
its form. It was a boat— a red rowboat.

The struggling boat was being carried helplessly by the turbulent and
merciless current. The old man's heart reached out to the torn and battered
object that had once been a useful and beautiful boat. But now this boat was
being carried along by the whirling current.

Many rocks and mounds of marble lined the banks, and huge boulders
jetted out in its middle, presenting almost unconquerable obstacles in the
boat's path. Swaying from side to side the boat scraped and scuffed against
the razor-sharp rocks, each time injured and impaired by the scars it received.

Looking ahead further downstream, the old man could see a giant, jagged
rock standing boldly in the path of the on-rushing boat. "If this boat could
only make it past that one rock ..." sighed the old man unaware that he
was talking aloud. Yes! If it could make it past that one last obstacle, the boat
had a chance of being caught in a small whirlpool and then eventually being
washed ashore.

As the boat swiftly approached the huge boulder, the old man's temples
throbbed violently in anticipation of what was to come.

Helplessly caught in the mighty current, the boat was doomed. Faster
and faster it rushed onward. It struck, flurted over, and was gone.

They found him there the next day — dead, his hands stretched out
toward the water.

Further downstream young boys were playing in the clear calm water.



Juliii D. Martin '70
THANKS FOR EVERYTHING

For once you're not nagging me. You're not telling me what a poor hus-
band I am. You're not poking fun at the way I dress or telling me what grubby
friends I hang-out with. You're not talking, or nagging, or complaining now,
and you will never open your mouth again. You're dead!

-9-



Frank McDonough '70
Illustrated by Don Snively '70

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN CHEMISTRY - PART II

Since the first article concerned itself with research in the field of in-
organic chemistry, this one will discuss research in organic chemistry. In re-
cent interviews with Dr. Orr, Dr. Lazarus and Mr. Lugar, their scientific
endeavors were discussed.

Dr. Orr, Chairman of the Chemistry Department, explained that his
interest involved further research on the work which he began as a graduate
student at the University of Delaware. He stated that this work entailed
studying the reactions of metals with acetyl chloride and aromatic ketones
with the primary interest being to see if a correlation can be found between
the position of the metal in the periodic table and the products of the re-
action. ..««*»'«*''™"^*to^

In his previous work, using zinc as the rfetal and BBhzophenone as the
ketone, he found benzo pixacolone as the major product and if tin or iron
were reacted with benzophenone, the major product would be tetra phenyl
ethylene.

As a graduate student he used this method (the tin and acetyl chloride)
as a reducing agent to prepare a number of tetra aryl ethylenes which were
used in the study of the mechanisms of chromatic acid and cerium oxida-
tions of tetra aryl ethylenes. At Delaware Valley he would like to extend this
program and test other metals in this reaction sequence and observe the prod-
ucts with the positions of the metals in the periodic table as hopefully being
a determining factor.

Mr. Lugar stated that the work he is involved with is in conjunction
with his doctoral program. His project is in the field of Conformation Analy-
sis, that is, determining the actual three dimensional arrangement of the atoms
in a molecule. In particular, his interest is centered about the substituted
cyclo pentanes. And since this ring system is in all steroids, his work is re-
lated to these compounds.

His actual problem of analysis is to determine the structure of methyl,
ethyl, iso-propyl, and tertiary butyl cyclopentanes. Mr. Lugar explained that
this work is purely theoretical in nature with no actual reactions or handling
of materials to be done. It involves taking into account the energy required
to bend the bonds in a molecule and the energy involved in torsion of the
carbon-carbon bonds. Also, the electrostatic interactions of the non-bonded
atoms must be included in the calculations.

Aided by a computer in processing the data, his work involves summing
all these factors for a variety of hypothetical conformations, and choosing
that conformation for which the energy is minimum.

Dr. Lazarus is presently involved in a continuation of research begun at
Lehigh University while working on his doctoral program. An abstract of his
doctoral thesis on tetravalent sulfur appears in the Journal of Organic Chem-
istry (October, 1968). Part of his work dealt with nuclear magnetic resonance
analysis of l-methyl-2,5-diphenyldithiinium tetrafluoroborate. The tetra-
fluoroborate salt was prepared by alkylation of 2,5-diphenyl-l,4-dithiin with
methyl iodide and a silver tetrafluoroborate complex in an aprotic solvent
system. The geometry of the salt is uncertain at present.

The objective of this work was to determine whether the sulfonium
center (generated by alkylation) would accept electrons from the pi-system

- 10-



of the ring into energetically favored open 3d levels to give a molecule con-
taining tetravalent sulfur. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of this com-
pound showed that the 3d orbitals do accept electrons from the pi-system.
There was also indication that the other sulfur atom participated at least to a
limited degree, to further stabilize the novel resonance system.

The important point at present is the synthesis of 1-methylbenzodithi-
inium tetrafluoroborate and 1-methylbenzoxathiinium tetratluoroborate.
These model compounds will be used to determine the degree of participa-
tion of the second hetero-atom. Since the two compounds are essentially
planar, the degree of participation of the second heteratom will depend only
on electronic considerations rather than both geometric and electronic con-
siderations in the l-methyl-2,5-diphenyldithiinium system.




WiUiam Pellet '70
PREPLANNED CELLOPHANE



To know her is to know the warmth

of happiness.
Perhaps few have felt its touch.
This is not something you can learn,

you must experience.

With softness and understanding, a hand

is there to guide.
Your lives are not separated but remain one.
The vision before you, with outstrecthed

hand, can not be fully explained.

The hope evolved brings a feeling that

all will remain.
With her, all is not what the preplanned

cellophane shows.
For the hand is as it originally was

meant to be.

Together, and with mutual sharing, life

will exist.
Not as digital nothingness, but as unimagined peace.
To be able to converse



- 11



Richard Polgar '72
Illustrated by Quentin Schlieder '70



I HAD A DREAM

Once I had a dream . . .

Cardinals chirped their tune

In the warm breeze of June

As children sung with joy,

While running after a toy.

I saw lovers on a picnic eating cake,

While feeding popcorn to ducks on the lake.





But then I woke ...

Children screamed and ran for cover

As bullets flew and helicopters hovered.

Two days without food and two days till . . .

Till the "enemy" would come and we must kill.

Listen closely to the soldiers and you can hear

Pleads for the end of this nightmare.



- 12-



D. Lee Strassburger '70
Illustrated by Quentin Schlieder '70




FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORCHID

There are seven floral
parts to the typical orchid
flower; three sepals, three pet-
als, (one which is called the lip
or labellum which is a highly
modified petal and in most
cases is the showiest part of
the flower), and a gynandrium
or column.

The sepals are the other
whorl of segments, usually
three in number, but in certain
genera like the Cypripedium,
two are united to form the
standard.

Two of the three petals
are usually similar in shape and
color to the sepals. The third
is variously modified into a
tube or sac. This tube or sac is
called the labellum or lip, and
is usually the most intensely
colored part.

The column is the reproductive part of the flower and the primary fea-
ture distinguishing the orchids from other Angiosperms. The column contains
female (pistillate) and male (staminate) sex organs. The female organ consists
of a sticky surface, a rather convex area in the column below the rostellum.
However, in a few genera they are elevated on stalks. The stigmatic surface is
separated from the pollen bearing areas by a fleshy outgrowth called the
rostellum. This is for preventing self pollination, although, even as a general
rule, the carpels are not receptive to the pollen from the same flower, thus
the flowers are self sterile. Inside this column is a canal. This canal is continu-
ous with the capillary to which stamens and stigmas are borne at the upper
end. Usually the column is well developed, but in some species it is short and
inconspicuous. The lip is usually attached directly to the column although in
some species the column is free from the lip. The canal travels below the
column into the ovary.

The ovary, structurally is three celled, but the partitions of the cells are
not always evident, thus giving the appearance of being unicellular. This is
found at the base of the outer whorl of sepals which could be considered in
appearance to the flower stalk. That is the reason the orchid flower is some-
times considered botanically inferior.

After pollination the ovary ripens slowly into the fruit. In most genera
it is a dry capsule taking often nine to twelve months to ripen to a condiHon
in which is naturally dehisces. The seeds are numerous and minute. Cattleya



CATTLEYA FLOWER

L. Ivins Smith III



- 13





DETAIL OF A CYMBIDIUM FLOWER

L. Ivins Smith III

gigas has been reported to contain 500,000 to 700,000 seeds. The minute-
ness of these seeds makes it impossible for the storage of sufficient food re-
serve to nourish the embryo during the germination period. In some genera
complete germination and growth is impossible unless some outside food
source is available to the plant. This the breeder does by adding nutrients to
the medium, such as agar, on which he sows his seeds. When this is done,
everything must be sterile.

The most important thing that the breeder must keep in mind is that the
seed capsule must be allowed to ripen fully on the parent plant to insure
proper maturity of the seed. Therefore, the pod should be covered with a bag
to prevent the loss of seed if it should naturally dehisce, and to prevent harm-
ful fungi from developing in the seed pod in case it should get wet.

The embryo is oval shaped and undifferentiated except that the basal
cells are larger than the apical cells or the meristematic region. At the base is
a delicate suspensor. The whole embryo is enclosed in 'a transparent integu-
ment with an opening at the lower end which the suspensor protrudes through.
The maximum length of the Cattleya and Laelia embryo is 1/75 of a micron.
In germination the embryo enlarges transversely until a small spherical stage
is reached. The formation of chlorophyll accompanies thus but is more pro-
nounced in the meristematic region. When the embryo enlarges enough to
rupture the embryo sac, it is 270 microns long and 175 microns wide. Ab-
sorbing hairs then develop near the basal region, and a larger spherule or top-
shaped structure is attained. This is characterized by a marked depression at
the upper surface. In the center of the depression the first leaf point appears,
which subsequently develops into the first leaf. There is a continual increase



14



CROSS SECTION OF A CATTLEYA ORCHID




FRONTAL VIEW OF A CATTLEYA ORCHID



15



in the diameter of the embryo, so that a disc-Uke structure is formed called
the protocorm. At the meristematic region, a second or third leaf may form
which finally shows elongation and a distinct stem. Then the first root may
arise from the protocorm or from the stem below the second or third leaf.
This period of development is generally from four to six months in nature,
but under greenhouse conditions, this is shorter.

The Orchid family is one of the most numerous, intricate and unusual
plant famihes in the world. Their geographic distribution makes them indig-
enous to every clime. It is evident to even the casual observer that indeed
orchids surpass other flowers in their evolutionary specialization.

Perhaps, now, the reader respects the orchid for more than its quahty as
an expensive corsage.




Cymbidium Spike



L. Ivins Smith III



Steven Schwartz '71



ALL OVER



Where the sun rises and sets;

with the stars and moon visible by night,
You'll find me.
Let no face or place ever be out of my

reach.
Let my eyes see what the whole world

lets pass by.
Perhaps, I can keep the entire faith;

I know I can not.

- 16-



WE THE DEAD, NEW ROT

Stephen Maddock Cooper '70



Death is screaming horror called so loud,

to saw my heart in two.
Priest hand me no peace,

least I hate a little less.
The Cause that has lain me here;


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