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brine of the Great Salt Lake ai
number of insects make their he
in the dangerous confines of
vorous pitcher plants. One curious
little larva spends its early days swim-
ming about in pools of pretoleinii,
breathing through a tiny tube which
it thrusts above the surface, .\nother
insect is about to live in the mud of
hot springs where the water reaches a
temperatine of 120°F. The ice bug, or
alpine rock crawler, which dwells in
cold mountain recesses at an elevation
of about 5,400 to 8,600 feet above sea
level prefer temperatiues of about '58°
F and if the merciuy rises to 80°F, it
may suffer from heat prostration.

The diets of insects are as varied as
their life habits, and some insects have
a taste for often surprising things. The
drugstore beetle is known to consimie
45 different sidjstances, including
some poisons. Other beetles feed on
cigarettes, mustard plasters, and even
red pepjjer. Termites are able to
digest cellulcjse in wood because of
minute organisms within their in-

In order to perpetuate the species,
the insect portrays extreme skill and
ciuining. For example, an instinctive
strategy used by a queen ant louiul
in Tunis is, after the nuptial flight in
which she is fertilized by a male, to
descend near the nest of a larger
species of ant. Workers seize lier and
drag her into the luidergroimd cham-




bers. There she takes refuge on the
back of the queen and remains un-
molested. Waiting for the right op-
portunity, she eventually overpowers
the rightful queen and is accepted as
the new queen by the workers. Her
eggs develop workers of her oivn
species and in the end, the colony
is made up of the smaller ants.

Even more remarkable is the means
of transportation of the botfly eggs.
The female fly makes no effort to
lay her eggs on the ultimate victim.
Instead, she visits swampy lowlands
where mosquitoes are emerging.
There, she quickly overtakes a baf-
fled mosquito, grasps it, and swiftly
deposits minute eggs on the underside
of its abdomen. Then she releases it
and flies away, her mission accom-
lished. The mosquito eventually
lands on a human being. The eggs
aie heated when in contact with the
ikin of its victim, and hatch while
Wie moscjuito is sucking blood. The
larvae then burro^v into the skin
msect oddities are re-
insects are ^rffending
temselves^^nst attack. Tmt blister
f^pe i^quipped
caustic\luid that motccts it
A numbffl^ of com-
h as the Iftly beetle,
at the joiiKS ot their
which ^^ptur-fi to K i nut drops
fUirH' when thr\ arc
The msriarch buiurfU' re-
duces^s chances of beiiii; .iti.ukjf
birds. *ln possessing a \ei\ disli^re^
able fasiing blood. "X

^-^ Ipu i it is h^iag ])ursued hv -.wii
en^iy, the bluish-hiack honib.ndier
beetle, ejects an at rid-, fluid wiucb is
discharged with a tlistiucr popping
sound and a small eland of \apor tli.ii
looks like the smoke«fon*a minifftiue
cannon. This gas a^ck t»tgs thcsjaur-
suer by sinpris^wul stopslit moment-
arily, thu^^gSmig the befttte ainpl^
time to esoflpe. V', \ ^

Despite this immense di\«rsi*¥/ all
insects have certain things inVjiSmnmnr
The lovely monarch butterfllkbeaHng
its beautifully patterned wing|\ii)i tn^
summer sun, seems utterly unliEj^^the'
hard shelled, tiny cuciunber I beWlt;,
criuiching merrily away at a Viri/C(
cantaloupe or squash plant. Biit^as
ically they are all a similar kinc^af

An insect has no bones. It wears
its skeleton externally and from nian"s
point of view, it is built inside out
and upside down. Its heart is on top
near its back. Its legs are tube-like sec-
tions of its skin-skeleton plate armor
with muscles, nerves, and soft tissues

carried protectively inside. The engi-
neering of an insect's leg makes it, for
its size, the strongest supporting de-
vice possible. This strong pliable ex-
ternal skeleton provides even the most
fragile-looking insects with outstand-
ing durability. Monarch butterflies
seemingly as strong as a blown thistle
seed, make migratory flights from
Canada to Florida and back again.
Painted lady butterflies have been
found to make a gigantic joiu'ney from
North Africa to Iceland, although
storm-tossed, lashed by rains and gales,
they often reach their destinations
with wings in tatters.

With an outside skeleton, there is
no room for expansion. Growing in-
sects must periodically molt. The
horny casing splits and the insect
creeps out in a soft skin that is bone-
less. To make its new skeleton form
in a bigger size, the insect swallows
air or water and waits for its roomier
skeleton to harden around it. The
insect's blood is not confined by any
system of veins, as in human beings,
but forms a single artery, which runs
from the heart to the chest. The blood
surges and seeps through the whole
body. The blood is forced to the ex-
tremeties by little auxiliary hearts.

For an insect, breathing is another
remarkable process, because it has no
lungs, mouth, or nostrils. Along its
sides are s^jjpaetrical rows of tiny
pert'oraLMftf^each an air duct. Inside
anch from two main lines to
mdreds of air lines riuining to every
the body making the whole
nisec^^^ontinuously operating air-
itidm^^iiiit. The insect needs
while at rest,
; liard. It must He~aWE-~tQ, sucl^enly call
\!poq3s^ inucl«as^50 times "rii^ftormal
altiount (■>[ f)ivgen. Iti beatii
bnni; this about. As Ithe wirig^iT^les
(gnira<i ihe\ force out almost all ihe
^•iu the system; ns ihcy expand,
frfsli air laslics into the ducts, lluie
dmost (oi\)pletc change of
anl at c\crv w ingbea^^at^

powfi ol an ins^ipl^win!^
xfrHordinary: tor example,
dralunll} carrying its body on wings
\ thiiii^^^than the finesW paper can
\^P«.|se ;uo^ at forty milo^an hoi
kosqtutl^loated with bl
ries/a load tmce its own body w^^i

do so, it Weats its wins
300 times a second. This may seen^
unbelievable, but by no means unique
if one considers the midge, whose
v\'ings are beating more than a thous-
and times a second. The little flea
that spends its leisure hours hopping

aboard our favorite mutt is able to
do so because it can make a leap of
100 times its own height. If man had
a jinnping power, proportionate to a
flea's, he coidd jump over the Wash-
ington Monument.

Insects have only rudimentary
brains and they are guided through
life by strange sensory hairs, sensitive
to soiurd waves, and tympanic mem-
branes like oiu- own eardrums. They
are distributed on many areas of the
body. Crickets have ears on their
knees. Cicadas have ears in their ab-
domens. A water beetle hears with his
chest. Katydids have supersonic hear-
ing. Acute human hearing seldom
ranges over 20,000 vibrations per sec-
ond. Katydids can hear over 45,000.
Many insects hear sounds outside our
human range and may communicate
with mating calls and messages when
we think they are silent.

In its capacities to taste and smell,
the insect has an outstanding sensi-
tivity. It has taste organs in its mouth,
but it also has the power to taste in
niunerous other ways, for instance,
butterflies and bees can taste with
their feet. The extreme limit at which
Inunan taste can detect sweetness is
in a solution of one part sugar to
about 200 parts water. Some moths
and butterflies can detect the presence
of sugar when it is one part in 300,000.
The same with scent. Some male
moths are able to catch the scent of
a female nine miles do\\nwind on a
windy day.

The insect is one of man's fiercest
enemies and much has been done for
its control, but one must realize that
many comforts and luxuries, much
food, certain dyes and medicines and
choicest clothing come from in-
Insects are useful in scientific
nvj^tigations, in surgery, in improv-
lil, in pollinizing fruits, flowers,
f^ v-e^^toljles, in checking weed
growth, as ^sa^engers, and as food for
birds, fish andi g^ i for man. Also the
future of ourWa^ may be greatly
fcenefited by »^5S^edge gained from
Jie 'study o^Wieril^ce in insects.

nsect" is not to be taken
lightl)''3or"^H^life on earth may pos-
libly depend u^n the marvel of his

MAY 1956


Green Feed

The S'eed for Forage Crops

FORAGE C;R0PS which are fed as
a partial iiilfiHiiicnt ot the diet of
hvestock must be considered on the
basis of their energy and protein-
siipplving content. The encrgy-sup]ilv-
ing nutrients are needed in laiger
ainuimts than are the protein-supply-
ing nutrients because the former are
required for maintenance, growth,
ami production. These constituents
must be present at an adequate level
in the forage plants as the livestock
cannot consume enough roughage,
even of gooii qualit). to insure a suf-
ficient intake of energy-supplying
nutrients. This inailequate consump-
tion of energy nutrients is overcome
by supplementing the diet A\ith grain.
However, it the roughage is of poor
cjuality, i.e. low in energy content,
there must be an increase in the
amoiuit ol grain teil to compensate
lor the difference.

Protein is also a necessary nutrient
and should be supplied in definite
ratios with that of energy-supplying
nutrients. These ratios will \ary de-
pending upon age, production and
tvpe of animal.

In order to obtain the highest yields
of energy-supplying nutrients, the
(rops should be inmiature and \er\
digestible. It has been foiuid that
bromegrass contains one anil a h;i
times the c]uantity of total digestibf
nutrients (TDX) at the six to twelj
inch stage as it does in the late flo|
ering stage. The TDN increases mii
the plant starts to head. After
time the rate of increase tend^
tlecline until the plant flowers. /ltei|
ihe flo\\cring stage there is no ino
in the TDX. It is a]jparent thcnl tha|
to ol)tain the greatest amoui]
TDN, the jjlants should be har\
at the flowering stage. HoweveiV
energy \ahie of the immature or Wrly
cut crop is of greater value tha/ the
energv obtained from the matuiycrop
It is true that the total yield jrtr at
Avill be less in an innnature Aojy^jut
since its feeding value isy^rei»<er,
will more than compenj^u
difference. The aniouj&^il^upple-
mental feed is an iiui^naiit consider

by gilbert s. trelawny '57

ation as it has been shown that the
energy from grain is 2.5 times mor
expensive than that derived fro

The Feed Reserve

The feeding \alue ot forage ere
can be preser\ed tor tuture use
making silage. Silage should be nt
and stored in such a manner if
reiluce aerobic activity and pr^
.in\ objectionable anerobic pro/
.\erobic acti\it\ may be minimj
ciuting the fodder into fine]
which will facilitate the packint |iVt|fe
material so as to exclude mosl
oxvgen. .\t the exposed siulacf^kt /Ii^
silage there will be mold groutl^luj
to the abundant siqjply ot »x\
This growth may penetrate to
ol about a toot, but will not go^ilBli
turther as the supply of air/to/the
deeper areas of the silage is^
It is \er\ important to
amoimt ot air in the silagY^'a ii^^
niinii, as excessive oxyupr will^n-
crease aerobic acti\ity ymil res^t in
losses of the nutrient yTue ol tlyf feed.

.\nerobic fermeiyrations ;vl/ch le-
sult in putrefaction and pro^ction of
undesirable acids can be punented by
lowering the jbH of the sflage. Lactic
acid fernieiirition, or acLfleii inorganic
acids wilMi(hie\e this /nd.

Mokbr sil.ine. asiikyfrom resulting
in tec^\alue losses.yciiay harbor ani-
mal ypathogens. .AlaC, if the silage has
unJ^rgone ]juti^active changes the
tiy^radation o^fiie protein may liber-
ie substant^ that are J^jfic to the
^animals. It^the l:isj,^f(wl\sis, silage
that is m(j«tl\ u>HrtTh JjTiiot j^alatable.
thereb\ /^ktfing di^ionsumjition ot
the le^o and ^^ proiluction ot the

"he losi^in energy due to the
Changes ^n the carbohydrates are the
result ^1 the formation of organic
at iil^jroiluced by anaerobic activity.

<v more important of these acids are
Tactic, acetic, and butyric. Lactic acid,
ho^vever, is beneficial and is present
in the greater amount, generally com-
])risiiig al)out one to two percent of

tli<. tr^tie/ It is this .u id that greatly
j)ii)duction of a pH of
ftWe^n/j/) ri«d 1.2 in good quality
true not only because
fgreater quantities, but
rtlUj^sJ V/)^! greater dissociation
n/iy (Tther acetic or butyric

^tJliy Is broken down to

s</iiF y|ftt/i/i//) amino acids by in-

fn/vmes of the plants.

1)/oj(iyi #s also attacked by soil

fii/ns which are present in

he end products of this

/iy^dj^ratiation are also organic

fiiur in this case the chief acid is

Fi^dong with ammonia, amides,

/fmines. It is these ]3roteolytic

fnisms tbrft must be hild in check

Tierwise^^^bjectionable sidjstances

'ma\ Ij^'pr^luced in the silage.

Proper Methods

I^^Tering of the pH to .iboiu 1.0
help tt) pre\ent inidesirable pro-
feolytic action and butyric acid for-
mation. .\s jjreviously stated, this in-
creased acidit\ may be accomplishetl
either bv encoinaging lactic acid fer-
mentation or by the addition of acids
tlirettlv to the silage. With silage rich
in protein, acid will have to be added
to achieve a pH of 4.0, as there is less
lactic acid fermentation. .\lso high
protein plants: i.e. legmnes, ha\e
bases which form bidfers that tend to
resist pH changes.

Lactic acid production may be stini-
idated by the addition of molasses
^^•hich is high in carbohydrates, or by
other carbohydrate foods such as crude
sugar, ground grains, potato flakes,
whev paste, etc. When the carbo-
hydrates are added, the excess water
nuist be drained, or there will not be
a high lactic acid production. In cases
of water-logging there tends to be
acetic and butyric acid production.
These acids generally give rise to
higher feeding value losses than do
lactic acid fermentations.

Losses in dry matter, crude protein,
and carotene are due to surface spoil-
age, drainage and fermentation. The
siuface losses can be reduced appre-
{continiied on page 22)





heralding another baseball season.
The only member missing from last
year's team, which compiled a 5 and 2
log, is co-captain, outfielder Harry
Conover. This will mark the first time
that any of the major athletic teams
from the college have been entered in
a league. The baseball team will play
in the Delaware Valley Conference
against Rutgers South Jersey, Glass-
boro State Teachers and Kings Col-
lege. Returning to action this year are
pitchers Sid Blair (3-0) and Bill Scott
(2-2) . The mound staff is bolstered by
the addition of lefthander Malcolm
McCarthy. Behind the plate is senior
Benny Barge who was the team's lead-
ing hitter last year.

Vying for infield positions will be
Ron Stammel, Charlie Indek, Skip
Thompson, Walt Kendzierski, Dave
Weinberg, and Bernie Bunn. Candi-
dates for the outfield positions are
Paul Chubb, Tom Watson, John
Lesko and Alan Smith. We are look-
ing forward to a fine showing from
the team this year.

Another first for N.A.C. this year
along the sports line is the ping-pong
teams. A tournament was held in the
game room to find the best players
in college. Those chosen were Pete
Stollery, Barry Tomshe, Irv Novak,
Dave Ezickson, and Bruce Hoick.
After a week of practice under the
watchful eye of Coach Josh Feldstein,
the team journeyed to Philadelphia
to compete in the Delaware Valley
tournaments where they were defeated
in the semi-finals by Philadelphia
Pharmacy, the eventual winner. We
are quite proud of the showing the
team made, and expect an even bet-
ter one next year.

Let's take a final look at the 1955-56
basketball season. The Aggies finished
with a 7 and 12 record. From the looks
of things the "hoopsters" saved their
best until last but it wasn't quite
enough as NAC dropped a heartbreak-
ing 96-90 decision in their last outing
to twice beaten Philadelphia Textile.
Richie Prins hung up 29 points in the

game to bring his 2-year total to 701
points. Barring accident, Richie seems
a sure bet to go well over the 1000
mark next year and break the College
record which now stands at 1007 and
is held by Jim Lipari, '53. Richie
already holds the single game mark of
-11 made last year against Kings

The J.V. team also completed a
most successful season as they closed
out with a 73-38 win over Jersey City
J.V.'s at the North Jersey campus. The
win gave the team an overall 4-2 rec-
ord, which is commendable, for this
is the first year we have had a J.V.

Leading the way ^vas 6'4" Dave
Bjornson from Willow Grove, Pa.,
who had a 20 plus average for the
season. We hope this will pave the way
for a new phase in sports at N.A.C.

Another addition to the sports line-
up this year will be spring football
practice. Workouts were under the
direction of Coach Pete Pihos. This
\vill give fellows a chance to really
learn the system to be used next fall.
More time can then be devoted toward
conditioning that will carry the boys
through the long season.

N.A.C. will have a new head foot-
ball coach in the person of Pete Pihos
former Philadelphia Eagle end. Coach
Pihos has assumed his duties with the
start of Spring practice. Former Coach
Charles Keys leaves his position after
compiling a very commendable record
of 18 wins, 14 losses, and 1 tie. Coach
Keys gave N.A.C. the first winning
seasons in. the history of the College
in all three sports in 1954 and 55.
He has not yet announced his ]jhins
for next year.

Well, fans, it looks like it's time to
close the locker room doors for the
last time and we hope you have en-
joyed reading "Sportslites" as much
as we've enjoyed writing it. Best of
luck to all the teams next year and in
all the years to come. If you don't
play a sport get out and support the
teams: tliey beIo>io^ to you!


(continued from page 5)

years, he was basketball manager, a
position where the ability to get along
with people is a requisite. Kirk showed
his leadership qualities all through
his stay at N.A.C, and held positions
that require wide-awake action. He
was co-chairman and chairmair of the
"A-Day" committee in his Junior and
Senior years respectively. He was
treasurer of the Glee Club in his
Sophomore year, and vice president
in his Junior year. He is also active
in the Student Council, of which or-
ganization he was secretary, and chair-
man of the Student Activities Com-
mittee in his Senior year.

For his Sophomore summer prac-
tium. Kirk worked at Roy Varner's
Dairy Farm with their 100 head of
registered Jersey cattle. In his Junior
year he worked at Watson's Turkey
Farm, Sewell, N. J.

Kirk says his plans for the futiue
consist of a definite stay with "Uncle
Samuel" for two years. Afterward, he
is not entirely sure of what his future
may hold in store.

As to memories. Kirk says he will
cherish most of the accjuaintances he
made here at N.A.C.

So-long, Kirk, anil good huk.


(continued front page 7)

farm. To them I would personally add
the planting of wind breaks in wide
areas of cleared land, as a protection
against evaporation from the soil at
all seasons. See Figure 2.

In forests, an immediate measure of
^\ater conservation is to exclude do-
mestic animals from the farm woods,
but our great task is to increase the
density and improve the composition
of the existing natural stands. Forest
Research has taught us that certain
tree species — the very valuable ash,
for example — produce leaves that are
particularly palatable to earthworms.
The soil beneath hardwood stands
having a goodly proportion of ash are
ritldled -(vith burroivs of the earth-
•svorm, and absorbs rain or melting
snow at a maximum rate. The heavy
leaf litter of well-stocked forest stands
of every species is a guarantee of rapid
infiltration. We should apply our
knowledge of such facts throughout
our farm Tvoods, as well as in the more
extensive commercial forests of the

MAY 1956






(continued from page 8)

bottom of the stream. I found tliat this
rig, when fished properly, will fool
any minnow feeding tioiit in any
stream during April.

Spin fishing with lures is anotiier
productive method of catehing trout,
rhe rod is important, but it's the
reel that actually makes the difference.
The spinning reel uses a "fixed spool"
principle which enables even a be-
ginner to cast a small spinner or
spoon in to parts of the stream that
woiUd otherwise be impossible to
reach. .Small spinners and spoons will
sometimes take trout regardless of how
they are handled and some people will
say it makes trout fishing too easy.
When spinning equipment first be-
came popular there was talk ol out
lawing it due to this fact. Spinning has
its jjroblems — you must know your
lures and how to fish them.

You'll tieed a variety of spinning
lures to be equipped for varying wa-
ter conditions.

I have fished a good many shallow
streams with a spinning rod in the
past few \ears and have worked mv

approach down to a system. The best
way to fish shallow water is straight
down with the current. An up-stream
or cross-stream cast will snag bottom.
Hy casting down stream and closing
the pick-up finger of your reel an
instant before the lure touches the
water, and at the same time lifting
up^vard with the rod, f have complete
control over the lure, and it makes
little or no disturbance on the water.
1 use an eight ounce wobbler called
"Phoebe" that will flutter on the sm-
lace and kill until I start reeling,
and then it's simply a case of steering
the bait behind rocks and under
banks always pausing for a few sec-
f)nds "troudy" looking places. The
lure lies in the cinrent with a darting
action that brings reluctant fish out
of seemingly barron places. There aie
two other lures, the "C. P. Swing" and
the "Mepps Spinner" that are excel-
lant lures for this type of fishing.

In fast, deep water you need a lure
[hat will work deep and hold the cm-
rent. You should be able to toss this
lure into a fast run, and by feeding
the line very slowly have it hold in
tlie ciurent instead of pulling to the
surface. 1 prefer two spoon type line

lor fast ^vater: "Dare De\il Midget"
anil the "\\'ob-l-rite".

Fishing, in my opinion, is the great-
est of the outdoor sports. It is not
only lelaxing but it gives you a chance
to "ct out into the fresh air.


(continued from page 13)

.\t the show, you are also able to see
how other men go about putting to-
gether their exhibit. You can talk to
them, and through conversation, you
may often make contacts for employ-
ment after graduation.

Since exhibiting in the center aisle
is done only upon invitation no judg-
ing is done there. In other years when
not in the center aisle our college has
ah\ays ]3laced first in our class. Two
\ears ago, oin- garden retreat recei\ed
the silver medal, which is the highest
honor gi\en at the show. So you see
National Agricultural College has
quite a reputation for excellent per-
formances in the Philadeljahia Flower




{continued from page 4j
look "official"; so these are half-
truths posing as the whole truth.

The release continues: "In addition
you would pay the costs of sending
your money to Washington and back.
And every dollar loses weight in the
round trip to Washington." The
Chamber admits, here, that every
dollar sent to Washington does come
back. We take this to mean, then,
that we aren't paying as much taxes
as we had been led to believe jtist a
sentence or two before. There is no
argument about the loss in weight in
our tax dollar during its short stay in
Washington. It costs money to run a
government, and we must pay it, if
we are to enjoy such benefits as school
construction programs.

To continue: "But there is another
cost— even more damaging— the Cham-
ber warns. This is the very probable
loss of control over school construction
in your community. For the bill pro-
vides that a Federal administrator
woiUd have control over priority of
construction projects, standards for
planning and building schools and
wage and hour standards of labor.
What's more, says the Chamber, you'll
pay the administrator for telling you
what to do."

The Chamber does not say that this
would finally force integration in our
Southern schools: the people wotdd
want to get their tax dollar back so
they wouldn't have to pay as much
state school tax. In doing this they

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