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would be like without the pep-ups
from the weekly basketball game? No
doubt you've never given it a thought,
and just gone to the games if you
didn't have something else to do or if
it wasn't too cold. Our hustling basket-
ball team deserves more than just a
"taken for granted" attitude. These
boys practice every night, every week,
for five months, giving up holidays and
staying over week-ends. This year they
traveled to the western part of the
State for a three-day trip in ice and
snow, to play the first three games of
the season. These games were played
against teams rated high above ours,
whom we have never opposed before.
It is not too surprising that we lost
those games (Geneva— 79-92, Waynes-
burg-58-66, and Gannon-60-70 ) . But
as you can see, the scores are not high

and are relatively close. The Aggies
played hard against their opponents
after the tiring trip, and woke the
western teams up to a fast-moving,
fighting, strong defense-type ball game
that is characteristic of our team.

After the excitement of the trip west,
the Aggies settled down to fighting
their old adversaries in nip and tuck
battles, never losing their old spirit or

Starters on the varsity are as follows:
Jack Briggs, junior; Dave Bjornson,
junior: Bill Haller, senior; Dick Prins,
senior; Tony Cabrales, senior; Barry
Tomshe, senior; Bruce Hoick, senior;
and John Merrill, junior. Alternating
between first string Jay-Vee and Var-
sity are Carl Pfeufer, freshman; Dave
Linde, sophomore; and Emory Mar-
kovic, sophomore.

The Junior Varsity opened its season
with Ursinus, and continued on its 13-

game schedule. Up and coming mem-
bers of the Junior Varsity team are:
Phil Staudt, Gary Miller, Dave Irons,
Bob Grim, Joe Kapusnak, Joe Shinn,
Walt Hoogmooed, Roger Blatt, John
Anderson, Terry Whitman, Jim Hoover
and John Van Vorst.

Coach Ted Gehlmann, never tiring
in his efforts to keep the boys playing
hard, employs tricky defensive and of-
fensive maneuvers to keep the other
teams guessing. With tall men "under
the boards " for rebounds and smooth
ball handlers "out back," Coach Gehl-
mann makes use of the fast break as
often as possible, saving the offensive
plays for times when the opposing de-
fense gets caught up.

With this combination of a good ball
club and a wise coach, how can we
have a bad season? Let's all support
the team at every game, and on cam-
pus, too!


(continued from preceding page)

worse than their damage to crops.
These mounds, thickly set about in hay
or grain fields, damage mowing and
harvesting machines. They get into the
fodder and sting the cattle that try to
eat it, or the humans that handle it. In
places where they are thick, farmers
have trouble getting laborers to work
in the fields.

The fire ant has a peculiar talent.
It chews a slit in the skin of its victim,
lifts the skin with its mandibles, curves
its abdomen under its body and injects
a dose of fluid which causes fiery pain,
raises welts, and may form a pocket
of pus. Victims highly sensitive to ant
poisoning may be hospitalized. One
baby has been killed by the ants.

The U.S.D.A. does not think that the
fire ant can be eradicated. They are
too well established, and they live in
forests and wastelands as well as in
settled areas. No natural enemies have
been found that can be imported to

prey upon them. In spite of quaran-
tines that may be declared against
them, the ants will spread as far as
climate will permit, perhaps as far
north as Pennsylvania. They can be
checked in towns, fields, and pastures
by expensive poisoning methods.



I For Good Food I




I Routes 61 1 and 313

] I


I 1


Answer to

Crossword Puzzle

Found on

Page 19


Captain Don Grim leads the team in practice.


THE 1957 FO



Coach Pete Pihos plans a strategy.

Haliback Bill Scott practices a punt.

Sportsmanship first.





End Joe Faline goes out {or a pass.

Halfback Bill Sturm makes a tackle.

Bill Sturm makes an end run.

Left to right; Don Grim, best all-around player and
sportsmanshi p awards. Bernie Bunn, outstanding line-
man award. Bob Rush, outstanding back award.





by Andrew J. Salamone '60

A milking parlor is a name used to
designate a special room in which
cows are milked.

Interest in milking parlors is very
much on the increase, and it will con-
tinue to be so with the extension of the
loose-housing idea. This year of 1958
will see the conversion of thousands of
old milking barns to the parlor ar-

There are two general types of milk-
ing parlors: one in which loose stalls
are on the floor level, and the other in
which the milking stalls are elevated
thirty inches above the floor from
which the operator works.

The walls of the typical parlor are
of concrete block, 8x8x16 inches. Thir-
teen courses of block give a ceiling
height of 8 ft. 8 in., which is generally
regarded as a satisfactory minimum.
To eliminate sharp corners on en-
trances and exits — bull nose blocks
should be used.

For the successful operation of the
milking parlor a holding alley three
fee wide, which will accommodate
three or more cows, is required to pre-
vent contests among the cows just be-
fore entry into the parlor. This alley
should extend to the loose-housing

A loose-housing area is essential
with a milking parlor unit. The cows
are allowed to be loose in this type of
construction. The size of the building
depends on the size of the herd which
is to be milked.

There are two types of floor-level
stalls for a milking parlor. One is the
regular stall and stanchion into which
the cows are brought and, when
milked, are backed out of. Generally
the manger is used for the feeding of
grain during the milking. The second
kind of floor-level stall is what is
known as the walk-through stall. The

cows enter from one side, and when
milking is done, the gate is opened,
and they walk through to go back to
the yard or the barn. From three to six
or more stalls are used in the floor-level
stall type, the number that can be
accommodate at one time being de-
pendent upon the number of cows in
the herd and the number of people
doing the milking.

There are two types of elevated
stalls for a milking parlor. These two
types are based on the same principle
as the floor-level stalls, but the main
difference is that these stalls are ele-
vated thirty inches. The elevated stall
type of milking parlor is the most pop-

Easier to Work

ular in this country because of the ease
with which the milking can be done.

For efficient operation, even though
there is but one milker, four stalls
should be used. This allows two cows
to milk simultaneously while the other
two are being prepared for milking.
By this arrangement sufficient time
will also be allowed for the cows to
eat their grain, except in cases where
cows are slow eaters and large amounts
of grain are offered. The various ar-

rangements that can be used are
known as the U-type, Montana type,
tandem type, semicircular type, and
the double tandem type.

It has been found that to be satis-
factory a stall should be eight feet in
length, three feet in width at the wid-
est portion, and not less than two feet
wide at either end. In those types
where the cows pass by the milking
stalls an alleyway 3 feet wide is re-
quired. Stalls for milking parlors are
made by a number of manufacturers
of milking and barn equipment and
vary somewhat in detail. The gates are
opened and closed by the operator by
means of levers. Likewise the door to
let in the cow from the pens or barns
is operated from the milker pit.

The milking stalls should be pro-
vided with drainage facilities, and a
curb 2)i inches high should be con-
structed from the stall floor on the
edge next to the milking pit, to protect
soilage of the pit in the event that
urination or defecation should occur.
In most areas the Board of Health
rules require that drains from the par-
lor must be carried outside the build-
ing before they can be tied into the
rest of the drainage system. The milk-
ing parlor lends itself admirably to the
use of the releaser type of milking
equipment; however, any other stand-
ard milking machine may be used.

In some cases where milking parlors
are used special stalls are arranged in
which cows can be fed grain before
they enter the milking parlor, on the
theory that the feeding of grain adds
to the danger of contaminating the
milk. In most installations, however,
grain is fed in the milking stalls in a
small manger located in the front side
of the stalls. Grain feeding in the milk-
ing parlor may be simplified by proper
construction and storage of the grain
up above. In average milking herds
(continued next page)



cows will be in the milking stalls at
least 8 minutes for each milking. This
allows them time enough to eat the
normal grain allowance. However,
some cows eat grain more slowly than
others and if such slow eaters should
also be heavy producers, requiring
extra amounts of grain, the normal
time that they are in the milking par-
lor may not be long enough for them
to consume the amount of grain de-

When grain feeding is done in the
milking parlor along with the washing,
the preparation of the cow for milking,
and the actual milking, the whole op-
eration can be performed by one indi-
vidual. If grain is fed before the cows
enter the milking parlor (unless it is
done some time before milking), it
will be more difficult for one man to
handle the entire operation. Grain
feeding offers a special inducement for
the cows to come into the parlor.

Among the important advantages of
parlor milking are that the cows come
in of their own free will, and are at
ease during milking time. In order that
the cows enjoy these advantages it is
important that proper precautions be
taken when they are first introduced to
the set-up. If cows are roughly han-
dled and forced into the milking parlor
the first time, they are apt to form a
bad association with the set-up and
will be hesitant to come in of their
own will, and when in the stalls, are
apt to be so excited that the milking
cannot be accomplished properly.

It has been found that if the milking
stalls are left open, grain put in, and
the cows permitted to go through sev-
eral times before the actual milking
starts, there will be less difficulty in
forming a desirable association with
the set-up. Usually if the "boss cow"
takes it upon herself to go through, the
rest of them will follow without a
great deal of difficulty. Once the cows
have developed a liking for the milk-
ing parlor, they will line up in essen-
tially the same order for each milking
and will enter the parlor of their own
accord as soon as the door is opened.

Once the cows have been properly
trained for milking in the parlor, they
feel as much at ease there, as in the
normal stalls and stanchions. While
provision should be made for drainage
from each stall, it has been found that
cattle very seldom urinate or defecate
in the milking stalls. These physio-
logical activities usually take place
while the cows are waiting to come
into the milking set-up.

The several advantages of a milking
parlor are as follows:

1. Stooping is not required of the
milker because the cows' udders,
operating handles for stall gates,
pullrope to open doors for cattle to
enter, and — most important — the
crank to turn feed into the feed
pan, are all at normal working

2. Everything you do with each cow
is in a 2-step area. The cows bring
the milk to you.

3. One man can milk 25 to 30 cows
in an hour, as attested by hundreds
of records. The Alabama Experi-
mental Station states that, in one
test, individual-stall milking took
9M minutes and 199 steps per cow;
parlor milking required only 7.5
minutes, and 17.5 to 25 steps, per

4. It is easy to keep a small room im-
maculately clean. You simply can't
do that with a large stable. To the
problem of producing Grade A
milk the milking parlor is the real

5. Teats are easy to see and reach.
You have full view of the udder
while you work. Mastitis is easier
to detect and control.

6. The stall-front panel fully protects
the person milking.

7. The parlor cuts out some of the
drudgery, and encourages your
boys to stay with you. No American
home is more appealing than the
farm home if you "modernize" to
satisfy the children's natural desire
for new and better methods.

8. The cost of pipeline milking is
much lower with a parlor. For four
milking stalls for 50 cows, the pipe-
line required is about 18 feet, plus
the end alley. For three milking
stalls, the pipeline required is about
25 to 27 feet. In a conventional
barn, 200 feet of pipeline is not
uncommon. The milking parlor
simplifies the changeover to pipe-
line milking.

9. Each pocket in the grain-metering
hopper lets down about one pound
of feed. It is easy to measure the
feed accurately for each individual
cows. Cows soon learn to eat their
ration during milking time.

10. The milking parlor lends itself to
use of a loose-stock barn and a
self-feeding hay barn, which is a
great labor-saving system.

11. Carrying milk in the stall barn

takes 2 to 4 times the number of
steps required in the milking par-
lor. Calculate these steps by the
year and you will be astounded at
the total.

12. Why not milk more cows if you
have them? With loose-stock hous-
ing and a milking parlor, one man
can milk 20 cows, or 50 cows, in the
same number of stalls because the
parlor system is a flexible system.

13. Today the milking parlor is the
quickest and easiest way to meet
Grade "A" requirements at reason-
able cost.

Some of the disadvantages of milk-
ing parlors are as follows:

For the average farmer the cost of a
complete milking parlor is the biggest
disadvantage. Because building costs
vary from place to place, and because
one farmer may put the entire job in
the hands of a contractor, while an-
other may do part or almost all of the
work himself, it is difficult to put a
price on a completed milking parlor.
Contractors* bids on a three-stall par-
lor and milk house run from $2400 to
$3600 in the Midwest. This is without
equipment. The stalls cost around $170
apiece, and the vacuum line, vacuum
pumping outfit, and two other milker
units run $425.

For efficient operation a milking
parlor requires loose-stock housing.

The loose-housing system requires
1/2 to 3 times the amount of bedding
needed for a stanchion herd.

Investigators and farmers agreed
that "boss" cows are more of a problem
in loose-housing than in conventional
barns. "Boss' cow problems can be
reduced through dehorning, self-feed-
ing hay in extra long racks, and tying.
In extreme cases it may be necessary
to sell a problem cow.

It is more difficult to detect and treat
cows that are off -feed, sick, or injured,
in loose housing. The loose-housing
operator must place more emphasis on
detecting such cows as he goes through
his chore routines. These difficulties
did not prevent loose-housing opera-
tors from equalling the production at-
tained in conventional barns.

Appearances are less orderly in
loose-housing than in conventional
barns, because cows are not lined up
at any one time. Grooming is more
difficult in loose-housing. Herd attrac-
tiveness may be unimportant to the
average dairyman, but it is of consid-
erable importance to breeders of pure-
bred dairy cattle.




"Do you know," said the young,
newly graduated student to an old
farmer, "that your method of cultiva-
tion is a hundred years behind time?"
Looking around he remarked: "Why
I'd be surprised if you made a dollar
out of the oats in that field."

"So would I" said the farmer, "it's

The wind was blowing briskly. Poet-
ically the young agronomist spoke as
he helped his girl into the car: "Winter
draws on."

She: "It's none of your business."

Student Nurse: "Every time I bend
over to listen to his heart, his pulse
rate increases alarmingly. What should
I do?"

Doctor: "Button up your collar."

Judge: "Officer, what makes you
think this Aggie is intoxicated?"

Officer: "Well Judge, I didn't bother
him when he staggered across the
street and fell flat on his face, but
when he put a nickel in the mailbox,
looked up at the Town Hall clock and
said, 'Holy Cow, I've lost 14 pounds',
I had to bring him in."

There once was a stallion who ran
for the mare of the town.

A gentleman was returning from a
gay party at 3 o'clock in the morning.
After a few minutes his wife heard a

"George, what are you doing?" she

"I'm teaching that darned goldfish
not to bark at me!'

A hen was hit by a speeding foreign
car as she crossed a road. She got up,
smoothed down her feathers and mut-
tered: "Lively little cuss, but he didn't
get far!"

A Dairy man caught his girl in his
roommate's arms. To their surprise he
cooly replied: "Oh, I don't mind if you
neck with my girl, pal, but there is
going to be one heck of a fight if you
don't take your hand off my class pin."

Junior: "I failed my accounting test."

Senior: "But I thought you had the
answers written on the cuff."

Junior: "Yeah, but I put on my
Chemistrv shirt bv mistake."

"Smitty took his girl out in the fog
and mist."

Jones was sitting with his wife on a
hotel veranda one evening when an
Aggie and his girl came up and sat on
a bench near them.

Hidden by a bush, Mrs. Jones whis-
pered to her husband, "Oh, John, he
doesn't know we're here and he's prob-
ably going to propose. Whistle to
warn him."

"What for?" said Jones. "Nobody
whistled to warn me."

An inebriated farmer rushed up to
the room clerk in a hotel and de-
manded to have his room changed.

After a long argument the clerk fi-
nally asked: "Sir, why are you dis-
satisfied with the room you have?"

"The damned thing's on fire!"

"What's the difference between a
girl and a horse?"

Hort man: "Gee. I don't know."

"You must have had some damn fine

"Why did you give that checkroom
girl such a large tip just then?"

"Well gee, look at the swell hat she
gave me."

Chem. Prof: If this chemical were
to explode I'd be blown through the
wall. Now gather around so that you
can follow me.

F.I. boy: "Is this ice cream pure?"

Clerk: "As pure as the girl in your

F.I. boy: "Give me a cigar."

An. Hus. man: "I think dancing
makes a girl's feet big, don't you?"

Girl: "Yes."

An. Hus. man: "I think swimming
gives a girl awfully large shoulders,
don't you?"

Girl: "Yes."

Brief thoughtful pause:

An. hus. man: "You must do a lot of




Definition: Blind date— When you
expect to meet a vision and she turns
out to be a sight.

Crunch Dep't.

"What's your roomie doing?"
"He's counting his mustache.'
"Is he ahead of his girl vet?"

"Where did you meet your wife?"

"At a travel agency. I was looking
for a good vacation and she was the
last resort."

Those new-fangled imported cars
are so small you have to open the door
to change your mind.

Don't bother to complain, nobody's
goin' to listen anyhow. They're too
busy tellin' their own troubles.

More Crunch

"You've got the nicest set of teeth
I've ever seen."

"Yeah, but I like your double-chin—
your lower lip keeps covering it up."


One o' my cows got out last night
and got hit by a little foreign car. I
think she'll be a little off milk to-night,
but they cleaned up the car with a

vacuum cleaner.

My neighbor, Brown, gave one of
his cows her first shot the other day.
Next mornin' he walked into the barn
with an electric drill and she broke
loose and tore down three fences be-
fore they caught her.





8' 25


8:50 ,

Coffee break/ &



by Richard Haas '58

This summer, one of the driest in the
history of our area, has brought many
farmers to the realization that in the
tough, competitive field of agriculture
they must have some type of crop in-
surance to protect their investment.
Facing high production costs, which
must include labor, equipment, fuel,
fertilizer, and seeds or plants, our
farmers have invested a sum which
they can't afford to lose.

Insects and other pests which limit
crops are being kept at a minimum by
insecticides, fungicides, herbicides,
and the normal methods of cultivation.
The big limiting factor today is mois-
ture. The average amount of rainfall in
this area is sufficient to produce good
crops, but a problem arises when it is
not available during the peak growing
periods. In order to eliminate this risk
from droughts farmers are turning
with increased interest toward irriga-

Before a new development such as
irrigation in our area can be offered to
the public it must be tested to deter-
mine if the system will actually in-
crease the quantity or value of the
crop. Industry sometimes aids in the
development of new methods of using
such products as sprays, fertilizers,
and equipment of all types. The bulk
of the tests and experiments, however,
are conducted by our Agricultural Col-
leges and Experiment Stations. Many
of these experiments are conducted by
graduate students working for their
Master's or Doctor's degree.

Thus, Mr. Feldstein of our Horti-
culture Department has, in conjunc-
tion with his doctoral studies at Rut-
gers University, been experimenting
with the irrigation of peaches. His
studies, conducted in the N.A.C. or-
chards during the past three summers
are among the first to be made in this
field in the East. Mr. Feldstein's find-
ings, reported jointly with Dr. Norman
Childers of Rutgers University, have
been published in the 1957 proceed-
ings of the American Society for Horti-
cultural Science.

The object of the tests has been to
determine the differences between ir-

rigated and non-irrigated fruit in such
matters as yields, fruit size and color,
date of harvest, shoot growth, size of
fruit buds, pit splitting at harvest time,
hardiness of fruit buds, percentage
analysis of the various essential ele-
ments, and rate of fruit enlargement.

The data so far obtained in these tests
have definitely established that fruit
size and yield per tree have been in-
creased, the harvest date has been ad-
vanced, and the shoot growth size has
been increased, by the use of irrigation
at the College Orchard. This year, in

Growth on an un-irrigated peach tree.

Growth on an irrigated peach tree.
Notice that twig is thicker and longer and has a shoot.



addition to the external characteristics
of the leaves and fruit, their mineral
content will be studied. Tests will be
run to determine the amounts of the
various elements contained in the
leaves and fruit.

As a result of the tests conducted
here, and others like it conducted else-
where, farmers will have available to
them increased scientific knowledge of
how to grow better and finer food
products for us all to enjoy.


(continued from page 7)

for 60 yards to the Kutztown 20. Fresh-
man Pat Millfried, starting his second
game for the Aggies, caught Rush's
pass for a score on the third down.
Captain Don Grim kicked the extra

Receiving a Kutztown punt the
Aggies advanced to midfield. Teacher
Bob Steidle passed to Emil Illchuk for
a first on the Aggie 18. Castelucci then
ran for Kutztown's first score. The con-
version by Bilella was not good.

The Aggies advanced 35 yards and
then punted into the end zone. The
Teachers were pushed back and a punt
by Illchuk put the ball on the 35 yard

The Aggies moved to the 8 on a run
by Markovic and an illegal procedure
penalty against the Teachers. Bob
Rush tossed a short pass to Markovic
for the second Aggie touchdown. Grim
added the extra point.

Near the end of the half, Kutztown
moved for a total of 80 yards on a
strong running attack. Castelucci
plowed through the Aggie line from
the 4 to make the score 14-12. The pass
by Steidle for the extra point was


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