Theodore Baughman.

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On the 28th, 29th, 30th and 31st of
August and 1st of September the brigade
remained in camp, strengthening the works
and repairing the roads beyond the river
running from the railroad bridge to Sand
Town. On the 28th of August Major Hig-
gins, of the 79th Ohio, made a reconnais-
sance in front with 300 men and found
the enemy intrenched at a distance of
three miles. After a short skirmish he
returned. A portion of my brigade was
with him. On the 2d day of September,
at 6 a. m., under orders from Brig.-Gen.
Ward, I marched on a reconnaissance from
Turner's Ferry to find the position of the
enemy. Cavalry was found to be in the
city, and we advanced cautiously. I was
met in the suburbs by Mr. Calhoun, the
mayor, with a committee of citizens bearing
a flag of truce. He surrendered the city
to me, saying he only asked protection for
citizens and property. I asked him if the
rebel cavalry were in the town. He replied
that Ferguson's brigade was there but was
on the point of leaving. I replied that my
force was then moving into the city and that



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68 THE OKLAHOMA 8COUT.

unless that force retired there would be a
fight in which neither person nor property
Avould be safe, and that if necessary I would
burn the houses of citizens to dislodge the
enemy, that I did not otherwise intend to
injure the person or property of citizens
unless used against us. I ordered my skir-
mishers to advance, and they moved through
the city, the cavalry rapidly evacuating the
place. I at once sent dispatches to Brig-.-
Gen. Ward, at Turner's Ferry, and to
Maj.-Gen. Slocum, at the railroad bridge,
of the occupation of the city by my com-
mand. Gen. Slocum came at once to the
city. Immediately preceding him came a
portion of the 20th army corps. Gen. Ward
directed a portion of my brigade to move up
from Turner's Ferry under command" of
Lieut.-Col. Bloodgood, of the 22d Wis-
consin, which reached Atlanta about sun-
set, and the remainder under Major Miller
the next morning. Soon after Gen. Slo-
cum arrived he directed me to move my
command and occupy the works of the
enemy on the south side of the city to the
right of the Augusta railroad. This was
done and Gen. Knife's brigade was posted
on the left of* the road in single line, de-
ployed at intervals of three paces. Here



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SURRENDER OF ATLANTA. 69

the brigade remained in camp until this date.
Some 200 small arms were found in the city
hall and about 16 pieces of artillery aban-
doned in the works and burnt with a train of
cars. The ammunition abandoned had been
fired in the night and continued to explode
with loud reports after we had entered the
city in the forts and among the ruins of the
burning shops and buildings where it had
been deposited. The works of the enemy
were left almost perfect and there seemed to
have been no attempt at the destruction of
anything but the materials of war. As we
passed through the streets many of the
citizens ran gladly out to meet us, welcoming
us as deliverers from the despotism of the
Confederacy. Others regarded us with ap-
prehension and begged to be spared from
robbery. I assured them they would be safe
from that. Many of the buildings were
found to have been much injured by our
artillery, but such as are needed for public
use can be taken at once with slight repairs.
My command on the reconnaissance behaved
with remarkable promptness and energy, and
deserved to be the first, as they were, of our
army to enter the city.
I am, very respectfully,

John Coburn.

Col, 33d Ind.y Commanding Brigade.



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70 THE OKLAHOMA 8CX)UT.

As a member of the grand old 2d brigade
I in common Avith the other boys of the 19th
Michigan felt proud that we were the first
to enter the Gate City of the South, and the
point for which we had so long been strug-
gling.

Not long after the occupation of the city
Gen. Sherman issued an order directing
all citizens to leave Atlanta (north or south)
within twelve days. In order to allow the
inhabitants a chance to leave the city Gen.
Sherman proposed an armistice of ten
days, which was accepted by Gen. Hood,
then encamped near Lovejoy's, in the follow-
ing letter :

Headquarters Army of Tennessee,
Office Chief of Staff, September 6, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. Sherman, conmianding TJ. S.

forces in Georgia:

General^ — Your letter of yesterday's date,
borne by James W. Ball and James K. Chen,
citizens of Atlanta, is received. You say
therein, " I deein it to be to the best inter-
est of the United States that the citizens
residing in Atlanta should remove," etc. I
do not consider that I have any alternative
in the matter. I therefore accept your prop-
osition to declare a truce of ten days, or
such time as may be necessary to accomplish



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SUBRENDER OF ATLANTA. 71

the purpose mentioned, and shall render all
the assistance in my power to expedite the
transportation of citizens in this direction.
I suggest that a staff officer be appointed to
superintend the removal from the city to
Eough and Keady, while I appoint a similar
officer to control their removal farther south ;
that a guard of a hundred men be sent by
either party as you propose to maintain
order at that place, and that the removal be-
gin next Monday. And now, sir, permit me
to say that the 'unprecedented measure you
propose transceads in studied and ingenious
cruelty all acts ever before brought to my
attention in the dark history of war. In the
name of God and humanity I protest, believ-
ing that you will find you are expelling from
their homes and firesides the wives and chil-
dren of a brave people.

I am, General, very respectfully, your obe-
dient servant, . J. B. Hood.

But old Uncle Billy is as good at writing
as figliting, and gave Gen. Hood the follow-
ing return shot :

Hdqrs. Mil. Div. of the Mississippi,
In the Field, Atlanta, Ga., September 10, 1864.

Gen. J. B. Hood, commanding Army of the

Tennessee, Confederate army :

General^ — I have the honor to acknowledge



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72 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

the receipt of your letter at the hands of
Messrs. Ball and Chen, consenting to the
arrangements I had proposed to facilitate
the removal south of the people of Atlanta
who prefer to go in that direction. I inclose
you a copy of my orders, which I am satis-
fied accomphsh my purpose perfectly. You
style the message proposed unprecedented,
and appeal to the dark history of war for a
parallel as an act of studied and ingenious
cruelty. It is not unprecedented, for Gen.
Johnston himself very wisely and properly
removed the families all the way from Dal-
ton, and I see no reason why Atlanta should
be excepted. Nor is it necessary to appeal
to the dark history of war, when recent and
modern examples are so handy. You your-
self burned dwelling houses along your para-
pet, and I have seen to-day fifty houses that
you have rendered uninhabitable because
they stood in the way of j^our forts and men.
You defended Atlanta on a line so close to
the town that every cannon shot and many
musket shots from our line of intrenchments
that overshot their mark went into the habi-
tations of women and children. Gen. Hardee
did the same thing at Jonesboro, and Gen.
Johnston did the same last summer at Jack-
gon, Mississippi. I have not accused you of



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SURRENDER OF ATLANTA. 73

heartless cruelty, but merely instanced those
cases of very recent occurrence, and could go
on and enumerate hundreds of others and
challenge any fair man to judge which of us
has the heart of pity for the families of
" brave people." I say it is a kindness to
these families of Atlanta to remove them
now at once from scenes that women and
children should not be exposed to, and the
brave people should scorn to commit their
wives and children to the rude barbarians
who thus, as you say, violate the laws of
war, as illustrated in the dark pages of its
history.

In the name of common sense I ask you
not to appeal to a just God in such a sacri-
legious manner. You who in the midst of
peace and prosperity have plunged a nation
into civil war — " dark and cruel war " — who
dared and badgered us to battle, insulted
our flag, seized our arsenals and forts that
were left in the honorable custody of a
peaceful ordnance sergeant, seized and made
prisoners of war the very garrison sent to
jirotect your people a^'^aiiist negroes and In-
dians long before any overt act was com-
mitted by the "to you" hateful Lincoln
government, tried to force Kentucky and
Missouri into the rebellion in spite of them-



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74 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

selves, falsified the vote of Louisiana, turned
loose your privateers to plunder unarmed
ships, expelled Union families by the thou-
sand, burned their houses and declared by act
of Congress the confiscation of all debts due
northern men for goods had and received.
Talk thus to the marines, but not to me who
have seen those things, and will this day
make as much sacrifice for the peace and
honor of the South as the best born south-
erners among you. tf we must be enemies
let us be men, and fight it out as we propose
to-day and not deal in such h}'T)ocritical ap-
peals to God and humanity. God will judge
me in good time, and he will pronounce
whether it will be more humane to fight with
a town full of women and families of a
" brave people " at our backs or to remove
them in time to places of safety among their
own friends and people.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient
servant, W. T: Sherman,

Major- General,

On September 21st, Col. John Coburn's
term of service having expired, he was mus-
tered out and took leave of the brigade by
issuing the following address ;



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SURRENDER OF ATLANTA. 75

Hdqrs. 2d Brig., 3d Div., 20th A. C,

Atlanta, Ga., September 20, 1864.

Soldiers of the 2d Brigade^ — My term of
service has expired and I am about to be
separated from you. We have been associ-
ated as a brigade almost two years. We
have borne in that time all the burdens and
endured all the trials and hardships of war
together. This especially has made us
friends, such friends as only suffering and
trials together can make. In that time you
have shared an eventful part in the great
struggle of the age. In Kentucky, Tennes-
see and Georgia you have nobly illustrated
the history of your own states, Indiana,
Michigan and Wisconsin. That history can-
not be written without a record of your calm
patience, disciplined endurance and heroic
daring. The bloody and desperate battle of
Thompson's Station, and the successful fights
at Franklin, Tenn., gave early proof of
your valor, while in the past campaign, at
Resaca, Cassville, Kew Hope Church, Gol-
gotha, Gulp's Farm, Peach Tree Creek and
Atlanta, you have in the front of the fight
borne straight onward your victorious ban-
ner. At New Hope Church the fury of your
onset redeemed the day's disaster. At Peach
Tree Creek your charge rivaled the most



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76 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

famous feats of arms in the annals of war,
and at Atlanta your ranks were the first to
climb the works of the enemy and tal.c
possession of that renowned city. The 33d
Indiana at Wild Cat fought the first battle
and gained the first victory Avon by the army
of the Cumberland, and the united brigades
fired tJie last shot at the flying foe as he fled
from his stronghold in Atlanta. But not
alone in the stormy and fiery fight have you
been tried. You have, by long marches, by
Herculean labors upon field works, by cheer-
ful obedience, by watching that knew no
surprise, and by toil that knew no rest or
weariness, eclipsed the fame of your daring
in battle, and placed high above the glitter
of victorious armies the steady light of your
solid virtues. We have lived together as
brethren in a great common cause. We
part, our hearts glowing with the same
patriotic ardor, and hereafter, when the war
is over, we will have no prouder memories
than those associated with this brigade.
Your comrades in arms are sleeping beneath
the clods of the valley from the Ohio to
Atlanta, and from Atlanta to Richmond.
Faithful, patient and brave, they have given
to their country and to God whatever mar-
tyrs and heroes can give. And, as one by



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SURREia)ER OF ATLANTA. Y7

one they fell out from your glorious ranks,
they have added new testimony to the
sacredness of your cause. My friends and
soldiers, farewell. John Coburn,

Gol.SSdlnd. Vol., Commanding Brigade.

The boys hated to give Col. Coburn.up.
He had been our brigade commander from
the time I enlisted. He was a thorough
soldier, and a gentleman under all circum-
stances. He was always in front when there
was any fighting to do. I remember well
his riding along the line of battle amid a
storm of bullets, and the boys cheered him
to the echo. He was always careful not to
rush his men into unnecessary danger, so that
when he told us to charge we knew there
was something important to accomplish, and
did our level best. I believe Col. Cobum is
remembered affectionately by every member
of his command The last I heard of him
he still survived, and was living in Indiana.



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CHAPTEE IX.

MABCH TO THE SEA.

This account of my war experience is
merely introductory to the main design of
my book, and I consequently abbreviate it as
nauch as possible. Sherman's march to the
sea has been written of by hundreds, and it
is hardly necessary for me to go into details
of what I saw, heard and did during that
memorable march. It was, however, a
remarkable experience for every man who
took part in it. I was still but a boy, being
only eighteen years old, and I entered into
all the excitements of that grand adventure
with all the zest of boyhood, although I had
all the sterner duties of the soldier to attend
to in the meanwhile. I could write a volume
concerning the experiences of that campaign,
but this, as I said, is not my design now, and
I will content myself with a brief outline of
what came under my observation.

We broke camp on the 14th of November,
1864, and leaving the fire-swept city of
Atlanta in our rear we turned our faces
toward the Atlantic. I was detailed early

78



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MABCH TO THE SEA. 79

on the march to act Avith the foraging party
for our company. I got hold of a mule, and
in a very short time I was recognized as an
expert "bummer," and our mess fared as
well as any in the army. The route of our
division lay through Stone Mountain, Social
Circle, Eutledge and Madison, and from
thence on to Milledgeville, which place we
reached on the 21st. We laid here tw^o daj^s.
The marching was tedious, but a general
good humor prevailed among the soldiers,
and none of us doubted that we would get
through all right. Nothing of stirring inter-
est occurred until we reached Savannah.
We camped in the pine forests near Savan-
nah for some time, living on rice and the
bluest of beef. The boys were ragged and
weather beaten, but in good spirits. We felt
that the war was about coming to a close.
After capturing Savannah, on New Year's
.night, 1865, we crossed the Savannah river
and camped on Gen. Hardee's plantation.
After this events followed each other in
rapid succession. The old Confederacy was
evidently becoming as ragged as the uni-
forms of some of our boys. I witnessed the
burning of Columbia.

I did not go to Charleston, being engaged
when that hotbed of secession was captured



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80 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

in destroying the Augusta railroad. Out
method of rendering railroad iron useless
was to place the bars on a pile of ties and set
fire to it. When red hot we twisted them
around trees like bracelets. The burning of
Columbia was an awful spectacle. The hor-
rors of war as seen upon the battle-field
strewn thick with the bodies of the dead and
dying we had in a certain sense become
hardened to, but the sight of a whole city
full of helpless women and children burned
out of their homes on a winter night, and
filling the streets with their cries of lamen-
tation, touched every heart that was not
dead to all appeals of human sympathy. I
was in the city, but had no disposition to ex-
ercise my "burning" talents that night. I
did all I could to protect the women and
children. I must now relate my last experi-
ence in actual battle. The engagement is
known in history as the battle of Averys-
boro. I was absent from the column when
the fight began at a mill getting meal ground
for the company. The rebels cut the dam
and drowned us out. We ran to our horses,
and when we got to them the water was
three feet deep where they were tied in the
timber. We mounted and started back to
where the column was. Some rebels lying



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MARCH TO THE SEA. 81

in ambuscade on a little creek we had to
cross fired on us. My horse was shot through
the shoulders and fell on me. I received se-
vere injuries, from which I have not yet re-
covered. I managed to regain my feet, fired
a couple of shots in the direction from which
the firing had come, and then made my way
to the creek, and was lucky enough to find a
riderless mule, which I made haste to mount,
and with the mule and two sacks of meal I
found my way to the column, which was
lying behind a hastUy-built line of breast-
works.

The next place we struck was Goldsboro,
the rebels having fallen back. We remained
here in camp a long time. The army then
moved to Ealeigh, North Carolina, where it
remained until the surrender of Johnston.
At Ealeigh we met our old company com-
mander, George Shoffer, then promoted to
be colonel of the 28th Michigan infantry.
He was glad to see his old company.

After the surrender there seemed to be a
chance for us to go home, and there was gen-
eral rejoicing throughout the army. Then
followed the long and tedious march to Rich-
mond.

As western soldiei-s we felt a curiosity to
view the scenes of the exploits of our eastern
6



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82 THE OKLAHOMA SOOUl'.

brothers, of which we had seen such flaming
accounts in the papers. The fortifications
about Richmond showed clearly what a dif-
ficult work the army of the Potomac had to
perform in their capture. We camped near
the scene of Sheridan's great fight at Five
Forks. The evidences of the terrible strug-
gle which had been carried on for four years
in Virginia were visible on every side. In
many forests through which ^ve passed the
trees were sticking full of musket balls, of
cannon shot and of shell. We rode over one
battle-field where it was said Hancock's corps
had met the rebels, and the dead in large
numbers, both Unipn and Confederate, yet
lay unburied on the ground. The stench was
horrible. I rode over, the field in company
with our regimental surgeon, Dr. Trobridge.
We marched on to Washington City, where
the grand military parade which has been
too often described to need more than men-
tion took place.

The review exceeded every one that the
army had previously participated in. The
moving sea of humanity, the magnificent
condition of the troops, and the glittering
paraphernalia of war, prancing steeds gaily
caparisoned, loud swelling music bursting in
harmonious strains from superb bands, the



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MARCH TO THE SEA. 83

flaunting of battle-scarred colors, all formed
a kaleidoscopic picture which words cannot
paint. The chief point of interest, aside
from the mass of soldiery, was the review-
ing pfficers, among whom stood President
Johnson, the invincible Grant, the bold Sher-
man, the daring Logan and other officers
both state and military, of no little distinc-
tion. This was the crowning review of Gen.
Sherman's army.

After the review we camped back of Fort
Lincoln and drew new clothing. Camp life
here was very pleasant. The time of our
regiment, the 19th Michigan, having expired,
the original members were ordered home to
be mustered out ; but I, in company with 63
others, who were recruited later, were trans-
ferred for service in the 10th regiment of
veteran volunteer infantry. We understood
from the papers that we were to go to Mex-
ico to fight Maximilian. This turn of af-
fairs had a tendency to make us homesick.
The transfer was made. The 10th regiment
was ordered to Louisville, and took the cars
for Parkersburg and there embarked on
boats and changed at Buffer's Island (the
point at which Morgan crossed in begin-
ning his raid) to larger boats, which landed
us in Louisville. We were pleasantly



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84 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

situated in Louisville, and spent our
4th of July there. I was discharged from
military service the 1st day of August, 1865.
When we got to Jackson, Mich., I saw there
would be some days' delay over our disband-
ment, and remembering the ten days* fur-
lough my recruiting officer had promised,
and which I did not get, I went to our old
colonel and told him I thought it was a
good time to work it in, as my parents only
Uved a short distance away.

I went home that very day, and found
everything pretty much as I had left it. Of
course father and mother and all were glad
to see me, and to be once more at the old
homestead was a pleasure as great as any I
have ever felt. I also found brother John
at home, he having previously been mustered
out. I returned to Jackson and got my dis-
charge. The state gave us a public recep-
tion which was very grand and imposing.
Every one seemed desirous to do honor to
the soldiers who had endured so much to
maintain the Union. Thus closed my career
as a soldier for Uncle Sam. I have served
the old gentleman for many years since, but
in a different capacity, as you will learn from
the further pages of this book.



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CHAPTER X.

ANECDOTES OF THE WAR.

Just after the battle of Dallas Woods, as
Walter C, of company K, was upon the
skirmish line, he asked a rebel picket who
was at some distance from him, " What gun
is that you are shooting with ? "

" Enfield rifle," was the reply.

" Where did you get it ? "

" At Chickamauga," he replied, and then
asked, " What gun is that you are shooting
with?"

" The Mississippi rifle," replied Walter.

"' Where did you get it ? " continued
Johnnie.

" At Resaca," was the reply.

Thus closed the controversy, and they
again resumed hostiUties by firing at each
other. The anecdote will be better appre-
ciated when it is known that the rebels were
defeated at Dallas Woods, and Federals at
Chickamauga.

When the Chattahoochee river divided the
Federal army from the Confederates hostili-
ties apparently had closed, and the "boys" of
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86 THE OKLAHOMA SCOUT.

both armies who were on the skirmish line
became quite friendly. Frequently some of
the Federals would swim the river, and
agreeably to the custom exchange coflfee,
sugar, etc., for tobacco. A Johnnie asked a
Yank, "Who commands the army on the
north side of the river ? "

" Gen. Sherman," the Yank replied.

" He conmiands our army too," continued
the Johnnie. "Every time he commands
his army forward we fall back."

During the terrible conflict at Peach Tree
creek both armies became so desperxte and
determined that the men were sometimes
engaged in a hand-to-hand conflict-^ This
was the case in that part of the line filled by
the '2d brigade, 3d division, 20th army corps.

Sherman's army will not soon forget what
occurred on the 20th, 22d and 28th days of
July, 1864, near Atlanta — the fierceness and
determination with which Hood fought to
hold the city. But there is one incident con-
nected wit^ these engagements which has
perhaps been forgotten, but is worth preser-
vation that future generations may know the
nature of Gen. Hood, his fondness for fighting,
etc. He was also sanguine, and it is said he was
unusually so at Peach Tree creek. His defeat'
made him desperate, and upon his return to



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ANECDOTES OF THE WAR. 87

the city of Atlanta he summoned a number
of his officers together for counsel. A fair
supply of whisky was at hand, and after they
had partaken of it freely the General became
quite hilarious, forgetting to some extent,
doubtless, the disaster of. his army on the
20th. He remarked, " Well, comrades, we
did excellent fighting in the center of Sher-


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