Theodore E[manuel] Schmauk.

The year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world online

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gust Prof. Frederic Ratzel, the eminent German geographer,
died in Leipzig, and in the last week of August Prof. Charles
W. Shields, of Princeton, died. Prof. Shields was a widely
read and erudite philosopher, the author of "The Final Philoso-
phy." His work in these fields was always esteemed very
highly by Dr. C. P. Krauth. The first week in October S. F.
Upham died in New Jersey. In September Rev. Dr. G. C.
Lorimer, pastor of the Madison Avenue Baptist Church, and
author of a number of volumes, died unexpectedly. During
this Fall Archbishop Elder, of Cincinnati, died in his 86th year.
He was a fluent speaker and possessed a facile pen. He passed
herocially through the yellow fever epidemics in Mississippi,
and was transferred to Cincinnati in 1881 to straighten out
the unfortunate financial situation brought into this bishopric
by Archbishop Purcell.

Turning to men of art. we think first of all of the death
of Bohemia's great composer, Antoine Dvorak, by apoplexy,
on the first of last May. Like most great composers, Dvorak
was of humble origin, his father being a butcher and inn-
keeper near Prague. At sixteen he was playing a violin in
Prague at $8 a month. In 1883 the performance of his Stabat
Mater in London attracted a great deal of attention and he
was brought to New York in 1892. Dvorak is regarded as
having done for Bohemian music what Liszt did for the Hun-
garian, Chopin for the Polish, and Grieg for the Norwegian.
He was spontaneous and inexhaustible as a melodist, as also
was Schubert, his model. He was influenced by Brahms,
Liszt and Wagner, but the beauty of his song is its fresh, un-
expected, and inexhaustible orchestration.

England has had two great painters die this year, Blake
and Watts. Blake was an idealist to whom the body was the
symbol of the soul. The image of fire was a constant haunting

presence to him, running linos of water, the gestures and atti-
tude of the body or the trembling of lines, was an enhancement

to his spirit. Watts was a painter who embodied moral and
religious lessons in his work, and who had an extraordinary
genius. All that ho did hail a certain relation to God. The
lust week in August Robert C. Minor, a landscape painter,
died at Waterford.

^mong men of letters who died during the year was the
young man's friend. Dr. Samuel Smiles, in London, April
10th. at the age of 92. I lis hook. "Self-Help," was commer-
cially one of the most remarkable publishing successes of the
Nineteenth Century and has keen translated into a score of
languages. "Duty," "Thrift.'* and "Character" followed from
die same pen. Mr. Smiles was the son of a Scotch country
doctor, and his mother was a widow with eleven children to
educate. He himself was a surgeon, an editor, a railroad
clerk, and finally he gave himself to authorship.

About four weeks later, the death of Henry M. Stanley, the
African explorer, took place in London. Stanley made three
great expeditions to Africa between 1S70-1S00. and lived to
see his routes through the forest threaded by the telegraph and
traversed by steamer and locomotive. It has been said that
Stanley was not a conquest seeker like Cortez. Pizarro. Cabot
and Columbus. Though he carried the Stars and Stripes
through the heart of the dark continent, he never once planted
it there. But he went armed, and not as a missionary like
Livingstone. He opened the way for commercial development
and for the partitioning of Africa.

In September the wife of William Cullen Bryant died
in Connecticut, and in November Mrs. Will Carlton, the wife
of the poet.

On November 20th W. M. Paxton, of Princeton, died in
his Si st year, after a two weeks' illness, caused by a paralytic
stroke induced by overexcitement in attending the Yak-
Princeton football game.

The third week in December L. Clarke Davis, for many
years editor of the Public Ledger, died suddenly of heart dis-
ease. He was the husband of Rebecca Harding Davis and


father of Richard Harding Davis, the novelist and war corre-
spondent. He was a close friend of President Cleveland. As
a youth lie was brought up in a boarding school at Norris-
town. He became the editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer in
1869, and nearly twenty years later under George W. Childs
he became the editor of the Public Ledger, succeeding W. 1 1 .
Keene. Davis was a writer of energy and experience, and had
regard for "the broad round of human interests." He nearly
always stood on the right side morally, but the religion of the
Public Ledger, especially in later years, was of a very humani-
tarian character, and "broad" enough to include the Semites
within its fold.

On the 24th of last March Sir Edwin Arnold, the oriental
writer, author of The Light of Asia, and The Light of the
World, died in London in his seventy-second year. As a
young man, Arnold was a Liberal, and was sent by his party
to India as the Principal of Poona College. He here laid the
foundation of his oriental studies, becoming a master of San-
scrit. He began to publish his writings as early as 1853. In
1862, he brought out a history of the administration of India
during one of its Governors. After his return to England he
became the editor for the London Telegraph, and he said that
the hardest work of his life was done on a daily newspaper, "I
have written more than eight thousand editorials."

He was of a nervous temperament and a stout muscular
physique, and always bright and entertaining. For many
years he wore a black silk skull cap well down over his fore-

His Light of Asia was published in September, 1878, with
little expectation of its making a stir. His Light of the World
was published in 1890. He always expressed his love for
Japan, and after that for the United States, and this may have
caused him a loss of the Poet Laureateship. He was mar-
ried three times, the last time in 1897 to a Japanese woman.
In 1901 he was stricken with blindness and had troubles that
brought gloom into his declining years. We cannot say that
his influence, with the impetus that it gave to the study of com-

1 -re.


parative religion and the exaltation of what is good in Orien-
talism, was wholesome.

Sir Leslie Stephen, the great English critic, who died early
in the year, broke away from the Evangelical religion of his
family in early days, and joined the party of Clifford and Mill
and Spencer. He is noted for his patient study of the Eigh-
teenth Century Life. He was editor of the Dictionary of Na-
tional Biography, and president of the British Ethical Society.
It is said that "conduct meant, for him, three-fourths of life."
He composed an apology for agnosticism and was noted as a
powerful periodical writer on its behalf. Death for him had
no rays of hope.

In the Lutheran Church the past year has been notable
for the death of no less than three Presidents of the General
Council, the Rev. Dr. J. A. Seiss, who died in Philadelphia
on June 20th at the age of 81 ; the Rev. Dr. E. F. Moldenke,
who died in New York on June 25th at the age of 67 ; and the
Rev. Dr. Carl Swensson, who died in California on the 16th
of last February, in the prime of life, at the age of 46 years.
To this list must be added the Rev. Frank Richards, D. D.,
former President of the District Synod of Ohio, whose son is
a missionary to Porto Rico, and G. W. Frederick, former pub-
lisher of The Lutheran and of much sound Lutheran literature
that the English Church now possesses. All these men were
prominent at the meetings of the General Council, and to them
must be added the Rev. W. F. Ulery, a veteran in the service
of the Pittsburg Synod, who died at Greensburg at the age of
74 years, and the Rev. Prof. J. Steinhaeuser, D. D., who died at
Allentown at the age of 54 years, the Rev. Dr. J. M. Anspach,
who died at ^'illiamsport at the age of 63 years, Rev. A. Det-
zer, Sr., of the Missouri Synod, who died at Niles Center at
the age of 86 years, the Rev. O. Leopold, at the age of 75 years,
and the Rev. G. E. Youngdahl, at Colorado Springs, at the age
of 42 years.

Extended mention has already been made of the death
of Dr. Seiss. Dr. Swensson, who was born in Sugar Grove,
Pennsylvania, graduated in 1877 at Angustana, entered the
Royal College in Upsala, and was ordained in 1879 in Chicago.


He took charge of the Bethany Church in Lindsborg, and in
1881 founded Bethany College. In 1893 Upsala University
conferred on him the degree of Ph. D., and in 1901 he was
made a knight of the Royal Order of the North Star by the
King of Sweden. He was the author of several books, and
very active in social and political circles in Kansas. He was
the leader of the distinctivelv American view in Swedish-
American circles

Among the deaths of prominent business men during the
year was that of Mr. Oliver Williams, of Catasauqua, a former
president of the National Iron Association, and a friend of the
Presidents Lincoln and Arthur. He was a member of the Lu-
theran Church, and a very ardent co-worker in the establish-
ment of the new Lutheran. Members of the General Council
will remember him as he arose at the meetings of that body
to which he was a delegate for many years, and with short,
sharp, nervous speeches made good natured hits at the clergy.

On the 7th of December, Prof. Augustus L. Graebner,
one of the most valuable members of the Missouri Synod, and
a Professor in the Seminary at St. Louis, died at the age of
only 55 years. Prof. Graebner was an overworked man, and
though he went abroad in search of health, was too far gone
in disease to be restored by his trip. He was born in Michi-
gan in 1849, studied in the parochial schools in St. Louis, went
to College at Ft. Wayne, and was a graduate of Concordia
.Seminary. One of the ablest men that that institution has
produced, in 1887 he became Professor of Ecclesiastical His-
tory. He was a fine writer with a trenchant and eloquent
style, and a most devoted propagandist of Missourian princi-
ples. He was the founder of its English Theological Quarterly,
and an adaptor of its doctrines to the English situation. Prof.
Graebner was by taste a historian, and would have left one or
two imperishable historical works to the Lutheran Church, if
his judgment had not been so thoroughly biased by a tendons
in favor of Missouri. Indefatigable as an investigator, charming
and spirited as a composer, the vice, of his work was a use of
all historical facts to support the theories of his Church. He
was not merely an advocate, stating the facts and construing


them in a certain direction ; but he was a partisan in the most
detrimental sense of the word. In this spirit he came east and
made a splendid investigation of original documents, especially
those in the archives at Gettysburg, and some connected with
the history of the New York Ministerium. But when his
"Geschichte der Lutherisehen Kirche in Amerika" came out,
one of the sprightliest and most vivacious works that has ever
been written on American soil, well organized and abounding" in
a wealth of historical was found alas! not to be re-
lied on either for its facts or for its conclusions. What mag-
nificent men. of sound and victorious faith, of keen and irre-
sistible intellect. Missouri might produce, if they were not so
trained as to regard fidelity to their organization and its past
as of more importance than fidelity to actual historical truth.

THE year {904 has been fruitful in invention and mechani-
cal progress, and we should like to speak of inventions,
if there were space, especially of the new style, of mo-
tive power, which may work a revolution and economy in all
use of machinery and kinds of locomotion, viz, the Turbine
Engine; also of the proposed substitution of electricity for
steam on the Lackawanna and the New York Central Rail-
roads, of electrical progress during the year, of wireless teleg-
raphy, of the use of concrete in structural work, and especially
of the great curved concrete dam nearly 500 feet long, erected
in Australia, of aeronautic attempts and failure, of the mono-
rail system, of transit by subways, and of new adaptations of
the telephone.

We should like to speak of the bearing of the discovery
of radium, and the extensive investigations that have been con-
ducted with it during the past year, of its successful use in an
instrument to measure electricity, of the researches of Sir W il-
liatn Ramsay, who intimates that the ordinary chemical ele-
ments may be the products of the breaking down of radio-
active elements of high atomic weight: and of the possibili-
ties of the transmutation of substance.

\\ e should also like to speak of the tendency to introduce
an acceptance of evolution into the elementary schools, as in-


dicated for instance in the following extract of a London
speaker: "I think," he says, "the time has arrived when all
educationalists should consider the desirability of teaching the
principles of evolution. I believe that all the schools accept
the evolution theory and that it would not be difficult to pre-
sent the facts in such a way that children could understand
them." We have spoken elsewhere of the effect of the intro-
duction of critical and evolutionary principles into the schools
of the land.

LET us turn for a moment to archaeology. Prof. Harnack
has been appearing in America on return from the St.
Louis Exposition and has lectured before Harvard Uni-
versity, the Boston University, and the Union Theological
Seminary of New York.

Friederich Delitzsch, the noted Babylonian scholar, who
has just returned to Berlin from the field of his oriental inves-
tigations, will visit this country in February and lecture in the
leading American Universities.

At Baalbek the German Orientalists have continued to
excavate the ancient temples, and are also conducting work at.
Palmyra, in the Hauran, and at Gerash, and Aman. They
have been working at Mesheytta, in old Moab, east of the
Jordan. This remarkable ruin in the desert was presented out-
right to the German Emperor by the Sultan. Under the di-
rection of Dr. Shumacher, the remarkable stone facade of the
great enclosure of the Khan or palace has been taken down,
boxed and sent to Berlin to form one of the adornments of the
new Friederich Museum.

The German Oriental Society, of which the Emperor is a
member and to whose work he is one of the largest contribu-
tors, in connection with the Palsestina Verein, has been exca-
vating on what is supposed to be the site of the ancient Me-
giddo on the southern edge of the plain of Esdraelon and at
the neighboring Leggun.

The same Society has been continuing its work in Egypt
and Babylonia. It has been engaged in a systematic excava-
tion of the ruins of Babylon for the last five years, with minor


excavations at Borsippa, the sister city of Babylon, and in
Fara. and Abnhatab, two ancient cities to the south of Baby-
lon, between the Tigris and the Euphrates. Excavations have
also been begun at the ancient Ashur, and the historical im-
portance of this city has been found to be very great. A suc-
cession of palaces has been discovered in Ashur. This city
continued to be occupied as a resident city for the ancient kings
into the Seventh Century B. C.

THE practical effort and energies of the Church in Chris-
tian countries show no signs of diminution. Dr. Car-
roll has given us an estimate in figures of the adher-
ents of various forms of belief in the United States, together
with their increase in membership during the past year (that
is 1903). He tells us that American Catholics number 9,891,-
869 communicants ; increase during the last year 166,110; the
Methodists 6,192,494, increase 112,946; the Baptists 4,725,775,
increase 61,146: the Lutherans 1,715,910, increase 39,567; the
Presbyterians 1,661.522, increase 26,506; the Episcopal 782,-
543, increase 15,209; the Congregationalists 659.704, increase
15,209; the Reformed 390,578, increase 5540. The Quakers
lost 2069 members in the last five years, the Free Will Bap-
tists lost 19, 655 in the last five years, the Salvation Army
lost 15,000, and the Christian Scientists lost 10,000. The
Mormons number 342,072 members, an increase of 1982 dur-
ing the last five years.

In commenting on Dr. Lenkers statement that the Lu-
theran Church in the world numbers over six million more
white members than all other members of the Protestant
Churches taken together, Lehre und Wehre says : "Dr. Lenker,
like many others in the General Synod and in the
General Council, is suffering from the disease of distention.
For instance, he counts among the Lutherans not only every-
thing that has legs in Lutheran lands, but also the twenty mil-
lion members of the Prussian Union. But this is un-Luth-
eran, and is one proof out of many that the true Lutheran
Church is much smaller than the number of those who claim
the name. Lutherans must not desire to be considered im-


portant in the line of large figures but in the line of the great
truths which she represents and which cause her to be the true
visible Church even where she is a small and despised little
Hock." We agree entirely with the wholesome portion of this
declaration. Truth, that is, sound doctrine, is first and fore-
most : numbers are secondary. But our trouble with the state-
ment is that it does not declare the whole truth. If Brother
Lenker's mind is suffering from the disease of external disten-
tion, the Missourian mind is suffering from the disease of in-
ternal distention : it believes, with reference to the Lutheran
Church, that it is the whole thing. Qualitative exaggeration
of one's own importance, is not less unfortunate than quanti-
tative exaggeration. Humility is a necessary quality even in
the true flock.

The Methodist Church at the meeting of its General Con-
ference at Los Angeles opposed changing the position of the
church on meting out solid discipline to those enjoying im-
proper amusements. The vote on this question was 441 to
188. The same church in Brooklyn early last spring almost
unanimously acquitted Dr. Borden P. Bowne, one of Method-
ism's philosophical scholars and college men, of the charge of
heresy. Dr. Bowne is professor of Philosophy in Boston Uni-
versity, and is the author of works in Metaphysics, Psycho-
logical Theory, the Philosophy of Theism, and the Princi-
ples of Ethics. He approaches theology from a philosophical
standpoint, and is attempting to give an adequate background
in theology and philosophy to modern sociological and re-
ligious problems. His recent thinking has been far from or-
thodox, but so has that of many other Methodist leaders.

Rev. Beeby, pastor of the Episcopal Church in Birming-
ham, recently denied the Virgin birth of our Lord in the Hib-
bert Journal. His bishop, Dr. Gore, requested his resigna-
tion in consequence of his having taken this position, and
Beeby handed it in. Canon Henson, of London, then came
forward and accused bishop Gore of tyranny, declaring that
"many of the clergy are not able to assent to all the statements
in the Creeds of the Church, and if a man by accepting the
Creeds as a whole declares himself heart and soul a Christian


that test ought to be sufficient." The world over, the battle
with rationalism within the church is raging.

We should like to follow the work of Dr. Harper and his
University , if there were space, and especially the discussion
awakened by Dr. Harper when he stated that neither the Theo-
logical Seminaries nor the churches can be relied on for the
solution of religious problems. We content ourselves with
quoting a single criticism : "If we are to learn from Germany
how the university does this important work, we are inclined
to think that the university raises more problems than it solves,
that it chills rather than warms the religious life, and that its
work is theoretical rather than practical."

It is the fundamentals of evangelical Christianity, and not
external problems of church work, polity and worship that
need the chief emphasis in the Christian pulpit. While the
Church is adjusting its fringes, reason is chloroforming its
vital organs. Professor Osier, the newly appointed Regius
Professor at Oxford University, delivering the annual lecture
on immortality at Harvard University, recently drew atten-
tion to the growing indifference of educated people toward
everything connected with the future life. Other writers, for
instance, Dr. John Watson, of Liverpool, and Dr. George
Gordon, of the old South Church, Boston, are emphasizing
the same fact. People seem to be less solicitous about the
future even at death than about the welfare of their kindred,
their business and those whom they leave behind. So many
doubt the future life, and have no strong confidence respecting
it, that a paralysis has come over an intelligent and thinking
people with regard to it. The typical American of culture,
with his physician, attempts to hide the shadow of death from
those who are taken with mortal illness, and the faithful pas-
tor, even in the dying hour, sometimes by order of the trained
nurse, is excluded from the presence of his parishioner. The
family, at the funeral, through the undertaker, provides the
choir, selects the hymns, and intimates to the clergy that the
deceased has been of exceedingly virtuous disposition, and
must, on the day of the funeral, be ranged with the saints in
heaven. The whole conception of grief is subjective, and often


divorced from God and the Church. One of the merits of the
Roman Church (though the means, viz, the mass, is not com-
mendable) is its insistence on an objective and churchly rela-
tion of the soul to God in death.

Our readers in the East probably do not realize the great
gains that are being made by the Disciples of Christ as they
are found throughout the middle West. No less than 16,500
delegates are said to have met in St. Louis this Fall at the In-
ternational Missionary Convention of this denomination. This
church is less than a hundred years old, and has a membership
of 1,200,000, and a net gain of 40,000 during the last year.

The Fourth International World's Sunday-School Con-
gress was held during this present year in the city of
Jerusalem. English and American delegates sailed thither
on two German steamers. The session was held from the 16th
to the 18th of April in a tent near the Damascus Gate, and
was attended by from 1500 to 1800 people. Seventeen denom-
inations were represented and at the close the Apostles Creed
and the Lord's Prayer were used in common. The Lord's
Supper was celebrated in a common way, twenty or twenty-
five ministers distributing the elements. Good Lutherans
could not have joined in this communion. The reports show-
ed that the bulk of the work represented was done in America
and England. A committee was apointed for the establish-
ment of Sunday-Schools in the Holy Land. Calcutta was re-
garded as possibly the next place of meeting.

The first International Congress of the Salvation Army
took place in London last July, and not less than six thousand
representatives, from all lands, were present. The Salvation.
Army is said to number more than a million. Among those
present were Japanese, New Zealanders and persons from
India. General Booth, who was present in person, was re-
ceived by the king of England, who assured him that he re-
garded the Salvation Army as an important element in the
religip-ethical education of the people. The Army is dis-
tributed throughout forty-nine lands, and devotes itself espe-
cially to the recovery of drunkards and the fallen. Its methods
often provoke irreverence even among the ignorant. An


Italian fruit vender, with a stand across the street from the
writer's desk, when he hears the shouting and drumming of
the approaching Salvation Army, frequently admonishes pass-
ers by, in sarcasm, "Why don't you go up to the corner and get
your soul saved?"

In Norway the battle between the old and the new has
continued incessantly throughout the year. Prof. Jeager (Dr.
Jur.) made an address before the Association of Norwegian
students, taking as his theme "Orthodoxy the enemy of Chris-
tianity." Jeager is one of the most popular young professors.
What made this address particularly significant was the fact
that Jeager was formerly an outspoken adherent of the Danish
Agnostic Dr. Brandes and here openly renounced Agnosticism
and accepted Christianity.

Jeager said, "There never has been a thoughtful materialist
who has not been obliged to come to the stunning result, that
all our life is without a meaning. But this view is the most

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Online LibraryTheodore E[manuel] SchmaukThe year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world → online text (page 10 of 11)