Theodore E[manuel] Schmauk.

The year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world online

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of the Jesuit general and upon his promise to pay for it.

In this action the plaintiff affirms that the Paulist fathers
were organized to take away 10,000,000 American Catholics
from the jurisdiction of Rome. The plaintiff claims that the
Jesuits made unsuccessful attempts to oppose this new move-
ment until his project was put into operation. It was the ob-
ject of the new movement, according to the plaintiff, to extend
the influence of the Monroe Doctrine "to the practice of the
Roman Catholic faith." "Various priests and their followers


accepted the reform movement inspired by the Spiritualism of
the so-called Patilists, who preached direct relations between
God and man, without any priestly intervention." This Paulist
movement aimed at the independence of American CatJwlics over
all foreign influences, including the Papacy. It is claimed to
have received the support of the Federal government, headed
by President McKinley, and took as its motto, "America for
Americans," and became known as Americanism.

At the critical moment the plaintiff, the Roman corre-
spondent of the New York World, perceived the great danger
to the Holy See, especially as the Jesuits were unable to cope
with it, and after gaining abundant information through secret
agents from America, he went to the head of the Jesuit Order
and explained his plan for the defence of the Roman Church,
which included the cooperation of the Jesuits by having them
induce the Pope to issue an encyclical against Americanism and
to discipline Archbishop Ireland "the leader of the reform
ideas." Then the plaintiff was to induce American correspond-
ents to censure the Papal attitude, which he would defend,
through a newspaper to be published in Rome. On Febru-
ary 4th, 1889, the plaintiff issued his Italian-English paper
called "True American Catholic," which he distributed widely.
On the January following the Pope issued his Encyclical
against Americanism, and thus, "the Hydra of Americanism
was crushed ; the victory of the Holy See was complete." The
only evidence that seems to legally connect the head of the
Jesuit order with a plan of this kind was an interview which he
admits, and a statement made by him as follows : "There are
good deeds that we compensate."

We give this episode, not with any idea that the plaintiff
could make good his claims, but as an insight into the possi-
bilities and ways of working things through the Jesuits in the
Roman Church of America.

One of the genuine religious sensations of the year was
the public renunciation by a French Countess, formerly the
American Miss Mary G. Caldwell, of the Romish faith. Miss
Caldwell lias been the founder and the leading patron of the
Roman university at Washington, and her case awakened great


interest. The Associated Press published the following in-
terview : •

"Yes, it is true that I have left the Roman Catholic Church. Since I
have been living in Europe my eyes have been opened to what that church
really is and to its anything but sanctity.

"But the trouble goes much further back than this. Being naturally
religious, my imagination was early caught by the idea of doing something
to lift the church from the lowly position which it occupied in America, so
I thought of a university or higher school where its clergy could be educated,
and, if possible, refined. Of course in this I was greatly influenced by Bishop
Spalding, of Peoria, who represented it to me as one of the greatest works
of the day.

"When I was twenty-one I turned over to them one-third of my fortune
ior that purpose. But for years I have been trying to rid myself of the
subtle yet overwhelming influence of a church which pretended not only to
the privilege of being 'the only true church,' but of being alone able to open
the gates of heaven to a sorrowful, sinful world. At last my honest Pro-
testant blood has asserted itself and I now forever repudiate and cast off
'the yoke of Rome.' "

It will be remembered that Miss Caldwell was the daugh-
ter of a wealthy citizen of Louisville, Kentucky, who became
a Roman Catholic shortly before his death. At his death the
daughters were placed in the care of Catholic friends, and
Bishop Spalding was their guardian and the administrator of
their father's large estate. Miss Caldwell became interested
in the new project of having a great Catholic university in
America and offered to endow the proposed institution. Her
first gift was a half-million dollars. She purchased 80 acres
on the edge of the city, turned the land into a park, and built
three of the costliest buildings of the present group of 14, in-
cluding the chapel, and provided for the maintenance of the
university for three years. Whatever the cause of her re-
nunciation of the Roman faith, it must be a stunning blow to
the church, which, so far as we know, has endeavored to main-
tain an attitude of absolute silence with regard to the matter.

A NATIONAL Catholic Church has been organized in the
Philippines, it is said, entirely free of Rome. Our read-
ers recall that the Philippines exhibited hatred toward
the Spanish clergy, especially the monastic orders, and that
the monks received seven and a half-millions of dollars from
the state, and left the islands ; and that the Pope organized a


new hierarchy, which, however, has not been able to hinder
the rise of the new national church. Its head -is the for-
mer Roman priest Aglipay in Manilla, who bears the title
Abispo Maximo. The new church has published an official
weekly for about a year. The new communion with fifteen
bishops is in possession of the churches, but this possession is
disputed by the new Roman Bishops. Aglipay and his fol-
lowers assert that the possessions were gathered by the Philip-
pines and not by Rome, and that they belong to the people and
to the national clergy. The matter will probably require judi-
cial decision.

This national Catholic Philippine Church stands in friend-
ly relation to the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches, and
praises the wisdom of Governor Taft's administration, as pro-
tecting all forms of worship equally, without being influenced
by any. Roman papers in Europe assert that "the schism has
already come to a lamentable end."

The former Superintendent of education in the Philip-
pines, Frederic W. Atkinson, has given us a discriminative in-
sight into many things that need be done in the Philippines be-
fore these people reach a common American standard. The first
great movement was the separation of church and state. The
second was the division and co-ordination of judiciary, legis-
lative and executive powers. The third was the right of suf-
frage, the writ of habeas corpus, and assemblv. The fourth
was the abrogation of obligatory military service, and aboli-
tion of the practice of banishment. Remember Spain has jus-
tified her conquest on religious grounds, but as the United
States professes hers on moral grounds, there are many more
things which America must undertake. She must cultivate a
greater political trustworthiness, and respect of the minority,
and freedom from aristocracy and caste, which would be fatal
to a democratic form of government ; a reliance on the security
of property in the interior, and on prompt justice and a power
of moral restraint. Mr. Atkinson asserts very positively that
no jury system will be possible for sometime to come, and that
all public money must be handled by American officials of in-
tegrity. No matter whether we consider the Philippines to


have been acquired rightly or wrongly, the Philippines are
bound to develop in some way, and we are now to a large ex-
tent responsible for the right or wrong of that way.

IT is not only in the Philippines, or among uncivilized peoples,
or in the Roman Church that church quarrels and unex-
pected religious developments take place. A most aston-
ishing thing happened last August in the Presbyterian Church
in Scotland. Twenty-four ministers and their congregations
were declared by the British House of Lords as legally con-
stituting the whole Free Church of Scotland, and as the owner
of more than $10,000,000 in accumulated capital, with over a
thousand churches and manses throughout Scotland, with col-
leges, assembly halls, and missions throughout the world, and
with a total property which could not be replaced without an
expenditure of $50,000,000 ; while at the same time 1 100 minis-
ters and congregations, constituting almost the entire Presby-
terian Church of Scotland and forming the new United Free
Church, were dispossessed of all this property. The total
working assets of the United Free Church have been taken
away, and the 1100 ministers have been at least nominally de-
prived of their pulpits and homes.

This extraordinary British decision is the culmination of
a four years' legal battle, which came as the climax to a gen-
eration's effort to unite the Scotch Presbyterian Church.
These Scotch Presbyterians have ever been interminable in
their sectarian off-shoots and, in migrating to America, laid
the foundation for more than their share of this new world's

Thirty years ago Dr. Rainy, Principal of New College,
Edinburgh, proposed to make an effort to unite the many
scattered kinds of Presbyterians. There were the Secession-
ists of 1733, and the Relief Church which was founded in 1761,
which two bodies fused together into the United Presbyterian
Church in 1847. I n addition to this United Presbyterian
Church there was also the Established Presbyterian Church
of Scotland, from which the Secessionists had revolted. In
1843, 45o ministers, with Dr. Chalmers at the head, seceded


from the Established Church and constituted themselves into
the Free Church of Scotland, which in the course of several
decades attracted other bodies of separatists. Among these
were the earlier Seceders who united with the Free Church in
1852, and, after a long struggle, the New Lights united with
the Free Church in 1876.

At last in 1900 the life-long effort of Dr. Rainy proved to
be successful and he had the satisfaction of being able to fuse
together the two largest religious bodies in Scotland, viz., the
United Presbyterian Church with a membership of almost 200.-
coo and the Free Church with a membership of nearly 300,000
into one body, dependent upon voluntary support. . This
was now the one great body dissenting from the established
order of the Scotch Presbyterian Church.

This great reunion, which was a matter of property adjust-
ment rather than of theological discussion, was arranged by a
Joint Committee who took five years to making a series of
compromises. It was adopted in the vear 1900, unanimously
in the United Presbyterian Synod, and by a vote of 522 to 29
in the Free Church.

It is this protesting remnant of 29, which was reduced to
24. and which remained outside of the New United Free
Church, which has been creating the sensation this year. They
have actually gotten absolute control, as far as the law is con-
cerned, over the ecclesiastical funds and properties of the
Church. They constitute the more ignorant and less benevo-
lent congregations in the Highlands. First of all they appeal-
ed to the Scottish Courts, and were twice unsuccessful. Four
judges united in the decision that the Free Church was a self-
governing body, and that the majority had the right to carry
the property with them into the United Free Church.

But these 24, still unabashed, appealed to the House of
Lords and this highest authority, amazing to say, sustained
their appeal.

The decision of the House of Lords is based upon the
legal effect of the disposition of a trust. Its foundation is the
dictum that the original purpose of a trust predetermines the


use which is to be made of the accumulations of money un-
der it.

Lord Halsbury declares that the Free Church was not a
revolt against the principle of an Established Church, but against
an inequitable enforcement of it ; and that therefore its funds
could not be diverted to the United Church which had been
founded and administered on the voluntary principle. He also
finds essential differences between the two Bodies on the Cal-
vinistic and Armenian doctrines of Predestination, and decides
that fusion involves abuse, and violation of trust, and that the
remnant of 24 is entitled, as the real Free Church, to ad-
minister all the vested interests of the Church founded in 1843.

Three judges and the Lord Chief Justice concur with the
Lord Chancellor in this view, but two other judges dissent.
The majority declares that when men have subscribed money
for a particular object and left it behind them for the promotion
of definite principles, their successors have no right to divert it
from the original purposes.

Meantime, however, this decision is so sweeping that the
Highland ministers cannot fail to be embarrassed by their very
wealth. They cannot administer the properties declared to be
theirs, nor expel the ministers of the United Free Church, and
supply the vacant pulpits. It is supposed that the only remedy
will be an act of Parliament which will have to arrange some
sort of Concordat between the two parties. One comment on
this final decision of the House of Lords has been that while
it is doubtless good law, it may be very poor sense. And it
is not the first time in ecclesiastical controversy that good law
and good sense have come to an absolute divorce from each
other. The constitution and discipline of the Lutheran Church
may seem to be very primitive in comparison with the more
highly developed type of ecclesiastical Presbyterianism, and
our resorts to ecclesiastical procedure may be quite crude and
bungling, on occasion ; but let us be thankful that the energies
of our Church are not devoted to the development of bristling
technicalities in connection with ecclesiastical law, and that
our leading Lights, do not, as sound Lutherans cannot, lay the
emphasis on the external side of ecclesiastical organization^


even though Dr. Carroll and other American unionists deem
it criminal not to do so.

WHEN we come to look at Europe as a whole, in its po-
litical and religious development during the year 1904,
one of the most, striking Twentieth Century features
that wc behold is the fact that the heads of the great nations
are now themselves taking the leading and decisive role in af-
fairs, and their prime ministers and foreign ministers are be-
ing relegated to the background. In olden times it was Bis-
marck rather than William, Gortschacoff rather than Alexander
II, Crispi rather than King Humbert, Disraeli, Gladstone, Bal-
four, Chamberlain, rather than Queen Victoria, who ruled.
But to-day it is Edward the VII himself ; it is the Italian King;
it is the German Kaiser, who are standing at the head of af-
fairs, as representatives of their own nation. The fact that in
France President Loubet is a secondary figure, and in Russia
the Czar only rules in his own majesty on occasion, does not in-
validate the principle.

It is quite possible that Edward VII, who has adopted the
policy of his mother, in keeping in his own hands a direct con-
trol over the foreign affairs of Great Britian, has been under
the influence of the German Emperor, whose imposing per-
sonality has been so prominent in his several visits to England.
But the conviction is gaining ground that Edward is winning
a place in the political world by the side and at the expense of
the German Emperor.f In Europe he seems to be regarded as
the first and most accomplished diplomatist of his country, as
a great constitutional sovereign, respected by his people and
deferred to by his ministers. It is the pen of a Frenchman,
of course, that has drawn the following picturesque compari-
son :

tThe Kaiser, according to news of December 21, has just thrown down
the gauntlet to England and told the British Cabinet that if it wanted war,
it could have it at once. The trouble has arisen from a series of articles
in the British army and navy gazette stating that the, Kaiser's navy was
growing so as to be rapidly becoming a menace to Great Britain.


"Edward VII. abuses neither pen nor language. He does not. yield to the
temptation of uttering oracles. He constructs no sermons, no courses in
history, DO theological dcflnilioiiK. He has never spoken of Hammurabi nor
of Baruch. He says what i.s necessary, and be Kay« it. with moderation.
iii« realistic sense would prevent bim from recalling the Hobenstauffens to
the memory of our epoch, if he has thought It necessary to mention Water-
loo, he would have refrained from ascribing the whole credit of the victory
to l he, heroic a rice of Wellington. I lis tact, permif.H him to venture
upon bistorlcal illusions without giving offense.

"Edward the VI 1. hat) a knowledge, a practical acquaintance, an under-
standing, of other nations. He doe« not interpret everything instinctively,
as do the majority of his countrymen, in accordance with his insular con-
ception*. This gift is precious at a time when England begins at last to
perceive that most of her recent vexations must be attributed to her self-
esteem, SO disdainful of everything foreign."

England perhaps places the scheme of the Bagdad Rail-
way, which loaded upon London the loan for Emperor Wil-
liam's Asia Minor railroad project, and the action of Great Brit-
ain in the Venezuelan expedition, also, perhaps under stimulus
of the German Emperor, to the discredit of Edward VII. But
in extricating his country from the international difficulties of
the Boer war, and in the present prudent position of England
in its delicate situation in connection with the Russo-Japanese
war, the wisdom of Edward is extolled.

Edward the VII, during the past year must be given the
credit for bringing about the agreement signed last April,
which provided for a satisfactory settlement of all or most of
the difficulties hitherto existing between England and France,
and for drawing these two hereditarily hostile nations much
closer together.

One of the most satisfactory features of this settlement is
the end of the long dispute between Erance and England over
Egypt. For more than a score of years Erance has maintained
theoretically that Great Britain should withdraw from Egypt,
or at least set a definite date for withdrawal, and has been
blaming the British administration for managing Egyptian
finance as it deems best. Under the new treaty the French
government declares that it will not obstruct the government
of Egypt in England in any way and that it will assent to the
proposed changes to be made in the revenues. This settles
one standing source of quarrels between these nations.


The management of Egypt and of the Soudan by the Eng-
lish during the past twenty years is one of the great and vast
accomplishments of modern civilization. For a thousand years
Egypt had been falling deeper and deeper into the slough of
misrule, infertility, and financial hopelessness. What England
has achieved to alter these conditions is one of the most bril-
liant and hopeful facts of modern times and points to what
might be done in Turkey and Asia Minor under similar eco-
nomic management.

When Egypt assigned for the benefit of her creditors it
was freely prophecied that she could never be restored finan-
cially. The fellaheen were groaning under impossible bur-
dens of taxation and the dreary desert, with famine in its
bosom, was encroaching every year upon the beautiful fields.
Then came a modern Joseph. Lord Cromer wrought his won-
drous administrative change. He built the Delta barrage, the
new barrage on the Zammeita and another at Assouit, and con-
structed the Assouan dam, 126 feet high at its deepest point,
turning the river back upon itself for a distance of 140 miles.
In twenty years he has spent $45,000,000 in irrigation and
drainage, and has made the country prosperous.*

Last year the revenues of Egypt exceeded the estimates
by a handsome sum, the debt was reduced, the area under cul-
tivation was greatly increased and the prosperity of the people
advanced. It is said that Lord Cromer's expenditure of three
and a half-million Egyptian pounds has done more good for

*Mem:s is said to have made the first attempt to control the extreme
high and low floods of the Nile. Lower and upper Egypt was more or less
successfully irrigated by a system of diked terraces, and in these days was
the granary of the Mediterranean. With the coming of the, Arabs, 700 A. D„
i ho deterioration began. By 1800 A. D. the population was reduced from
L2.000.000 to 2,000,000, and the greater part of the Delta had become a desert-
id swamp. But Mehammet Ali was sent to Egypt as Viceroy in 1S10. Me-
Lammet tried to build the first barrage by dismantling the pyramids. This
was impossible. Yet lime-stone quarries were opened near Cairo and foun-
dations of the barrage were dug. But it was not until 1872, long after his
death, that this first barrage was in a condition to be used. Ismail, the
reigning Khedive, at once determined to extend the. system to Upper Egypt,
and I lie following year, the great Ibrahimiyah Canal was dug giving per-
petual irrigation to three provinces. But when the British came to occupy
Egypt, the barrage, like the government, was in a wretched and decaying
condition, and it has only been by Lord Cromer's efforts for a generation that
the country has been restored.


the people of Egypt than the one hundred million pounds spent
by the Ismail Pacha.

It may not be generally known that Cairo is the headquart-
ers of Moslem jurisprudence and orthodoxy, and possesses a
university which for many years has been the principal seat for
Mahometan learning, to which teachers, clergy and judges
flock from even the most remote portions of Asia and Africa,
in order to obtain the purest interpretation of the doctrines and
law of the Koran ; and any decision reached here will be ac-
cepted throughout the whole of Islam.

It has been impossible ever to get the Moslems to deposit
their moneys in bank. Mahometan countries have often been
called grave-yards of gold because they swallow up this pre-
cious metal and remove it from circulation. In India the 80,-
000,000 prosperous Moslems have been continuously abstract-
ing from the gold supply of the world to the amount of over a
billion of dollars within the last forty years. It has been esti-
mated that there are at least twenty million gold sovereigns
that have been thus hoarded in the Presidency of Bombay
alone, and the practice of the Mahometans has been extended
to the Hebrews. All that the Christian nations can do through
the discovery of gold mines to increase the supply of gold seems
to be very ineffective in increasing its annual volume. Jew-
els, too, which are more easy to conceal than gold, have found
their graves in the Mahometan world in large quantities. But
Lord Cromer, who has gained the confidence and respect of
the Mahometans in Egypt, Soudan and India, because of his
unblemished integrity as well as because of his deference to
Mahometan prejudice, has this year had a number of inter-
views with the Grand Mufti and other high authorities of Ismail
law for the purpose of securing through them a more liberal
interpretation of the Koran which deal with usury, so that while
usury itself shall be prohibited, the followers of the prophet
may be permitted to make use of banking institutions and re-
ceive non-usurious rates of interest for their deposits.

The Koran has all along strictly forbidden usury, and de-
nounces it as one of the most unpardonable of offences. For
more than twelve centuries the Mahometans have abstained

6 4

from lending money out at interest, and have never made use
of hanking- institutions. But with the religious permission of
Mahometanism for the populace of Egypt to deposit their
hoarded millions in the banks, a much brighter period is likely
to dawn in the history of Egypt.

It was Disraeli who twenty-nine years ago purchased the
Khedive's shares in the Suez Canal for the British government.
This interest the United Kingdom would never relinquish.
Gladstone plunged England into war and drove Bright out of
the British cabinet in order to protect this investment. France,
under the machinations of Bismarck, refused to work with Eng-
land in this undertaking, and the most intense jealousy was
awakened between these two lands. It is all this which has
been removed during the past year.

BUT the jealousy between France and Germany abides.

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Online LibraryTheodore E[manuel] SchmaukThe year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world → online text (page 6 of 11)