Theodore E[manuel] Schmauk.

The year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world online

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The effort of France to destroy the Triple Alliance and
isolate Germany was thwarted by William in a brilliant
way when he just happened to call upon Victor Emanuel im-
mediately before President Lon bet's widely heralded visit, and
when William succeeded in drawing from the Italian King a
public reaffirmation of the continuance of the existence of the
Triple Alliance, and a public admission that the bonds which
united the three countries were closer than ever before.

We have reviewed at length the uncompromising attitude
of President Combes toward the Pope. If we turn from this
attitude of the foe of the German empire toward the Pope, to
that of William II toward Rome, we shall find something very
suggestive. Although a Protestant Sovereign, William has
acquired an influence and favor at the Vatican and in the Cath-
olic Church throughout the world to which no Catholic mon-
arch, not even Francis Joseph himself, can pretend.*

Perhaps the most important religious event in Germany
during the year is the abrogation of the law by virtue of which
the Jesuits were expelled from the German Empire in 1872,
through the influence of Bismarck. This law has now been in

*It has been publicly boasted that this has been done "without alienat-
ing the good-will of his Lutheran subjects."


force for a whole generation, thirty-two years. Although the
Redemptorists and the Holy Ghost Fathers were authorized
to settle in the German Empire in 1894, the law of 1872 has
remained unchanged up to this year. But on the nth of last
March, the Reichsanzeiger published the following decree rati-
fied by the Emperor:

"We, William, by the grace of God, Emperor of Germany and King of
Prussia, order in the name of the empire and in accordance with the de-
cision of the Bundesrath and of the Reichstag, as follows: 'Paragraph 2 of
the law of the 4th of July, 1872, concerning the order of the Society of
Jesus is abolished.' Given at the Palace of Berlin the 8th of March, 1904."

A Roman writer in a French journal, commenting on this
imperial decree, says : "While France is driving Jesuits and
other religious orders away, Germany is opening her doors to
them ; while the eldest daughter of the Church wages upon
Catholicism a war without mercy or respite, Protestant Ger-
many protects Catholic interests, respects the Holy See, main-
tains and increases the power of the clergy, and combats secu-
larizing factions. France expels the congregations, Germany
recalls them, and repeals old decrees that seem to her unworthy
of a state claiming to respect individual liberty and solicitous
of promoting the interests of the Fatherland. In France the
Catholics are oppressed, in Germany they triumph."

ON the 30th and 31st of last August a remarkable celebra-
tion took place in Spires, Germany, in connection with
the consecration of the splendid new Church built in
honor of the Protestation of 1529. The streets of the city were
decorated with flags and crowns, and the auditories in the
new Church were completely packed with a mass of humanity.
It was a great Protestant festival.

The unveiling of the Luther statue in the Memorial Hall
of the Church began the exercises. Luther stands in the at-
titude of protesting; his eyes turned toward heaven, his right
hand clenched, the Word of God in his left hand, and the Papal
Bull under his feet. The unveiling was" by Prof. Gtimbel, who
for nineteen years has been the heart and soul of this great
building enterprise. The statue, it will be remembered, was


contributed by friends in America. An address was made by
Mayor Schieren, of Brooklyn.

The great assembly was held after the tolling of the five
bells in the tower. Of the fourteen states who once had pro-
tested, delegates were present from Nuremberg, Reutlingen,
Rindau, Isny. Nordlingen and Heilbronn, together with repre-
sentatives of principalities and of free cities, and of many asso-
ciations, as well as delegates of fifteen universities. The
Kaiser was conspicuous by his absence. He did not even per-
sonally answer the telegram that was sent him, although on the
1 2th of March, 1890, he had personally said to the deputation
of the building commission, "Begin to build with confidence,
and I will see to it that the work will be completed."

About the time of the consecration the Kaiser sent a warm
personal greeting to the Catholics in Regensburg! The
speeches made at the evening consecration festival were of a
historical order, and inspiriting. The main festival, held on
the 31st of August, began with a procession starting out in a
pouring rain from the Trinity Church, and passing between
immense throngs of people. Every congregation in the Pala-
tinate had sent one clergyman and a lay-representative to par-
ticipate in this great Festival of Protestantism. Any one not
a delegate was obliged to stand for hours before being able to
gain an entrance to the Church. Dr. Dryander preached at
10 o'clock on Heb. 10: 23-25. Pastor Wessel preached at 12
on II Tim. 2: 19. Pastor Cantzeler preached to the children,
at two o'clock, on II Tim. 1 : 5, and Dr. Decker preached the
xmsecration Sermon. The ceremony closed late at night
with the illumination of the Church, fire-works, and tolling of
bells. The cost of the building was 2,127,660 marks.

GERMAN Colonial expansion increases to a marked de-
gree. This is particularly true in South America. Ger-
many is increasing her trade more rapidly than North
America. In large ocean going steamers, Germany is second
only to Great Britain to which she is steadily catching up. Ger-
many is working scientificially to secure foreign trade. She
studies the desires and needs of foreign countries. She manu-

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factures goods expressly for export, and educates the young
people in technical and commercial schools. In 1903, the total
increase in German trade with all America was over forty-one
million of dollars, and that to South America was over twenty-
nine million of dollars alone, and, in 1904, the result will prob-
ably be more remarkable still.

The Kaiser himself is deeply interested in commercial
trade and industrial expansion. He has sought interviews and
information from American captains of industry, and is credited
with having invested the greater part of his fortune in industrial
enterprises and with being a large stockholder in steamship
companies. In his usual systematic manner he has prescribed
commercial studies for his three youngest sons.

The year has made it evident that the troubles of Germany,
and of the German missions, in South Africa are of the most
serious character. One of the results of the Boer war in South
Africa seems to have been a loss of respect by the blacks foi
the conquering white race, and some European journals pre-
dict that Great Britain, Portugal and Germany may be face to
face with a rebellion of the whole black race against a white
rule. The situation is particularly serious in German South-
west Africa. The imperial troops have failed to subdue the
Herrors, the formidable tribe in the north of the colony, and
as a result one race after another has revolted against the Ger-
mans. The revolting tribes appear to be well armed. One
German paper declares that Germany has lost every army of-
ficer in this up-rising who knew anything of the war. In Ger-
man military circles the mild rule of the German government
and the leniency of the missionaries are charged as the cause
of the insurrection, whereas, as a matter of fact, the poor mis-
sionaries who are risking their lives, did their best to keep the
natives in check by moral suasion. Fears are entertained in
many quarters that the war will be one of extermination and
that the male population will either be killed or driven away.


ONE of the most remarkable facts in Germany to-day is the
unsettled condition of the intermediate educational prob-
lems. The school question is causing intense agitation.
For any one to point to Germany and the Germans, to-day, as
a model for parochial and religious education would be to
stultify one's self. The poor Lutheran Church (that is those
sound in the Lutheran faith) is in embarrassment, because she
cannot stand with either of the two great parties in the strug-
gle. The one great party is that of the radicals and the ra-
tionalists. The other great party is that of the state churches,
with the Emperor at the head. Under this party the public
school system of Prussia has been bound hand and foot under
the two state churches, the Evangelical and the Catholic. With
the receding of socialist and radical victories, reactionary meas-
ures have become very strong in the German empire. The so-
called school freedoms of the Prussian type, which have been
adopted by a large majority, is a measure so retroactive in ed-
ucation that ten years ago it would have seemed impossible in
Germany. It is no longer safe for sound Lutheran parishes to
send their children to parish schools. In Wuertemberg there
has also been a very severe struggle between the Liberals and
the Ultramontanes for the possession of the schools. The
Evangelicals have come more and more to the conviction that
the close connection between church and school, justified as it
was in former times, can on longer be maintained. For the
Ultramontanes are too strongly entrenched. Nearly all the
Evangelicals have concluded that the influence of the clergy on
flic sclwols should be zveakened, and the religious Minister Weiz-
saecker, the son of the Tuebingen historian, is decidedly of this
opinion. But the power of Roman princes in the govern-
ment has negatived the endeavors of the Evangelicals.

It is very evident that the school teachers of Germany, who
are organized into associations, and who more and more resent
the control of the clergy over their department, do not desire
any supervision or direct relationship with the churches. This
is an astounding fact.

The Simultan plan introduced into Germany has caused
a demand to be made there that even the religious instruction

6 9

in the schools shall be "Simultan," that is, shall be the same
for Catholics, Lutherans, Jews and heathen. It appears that
the Koenigsberg Association of teachers has requested that
the teachers be freed from church supervision and be permit-
ted to give religious instruction which shall be based on the
moral truth inherent in all Confessions! The following is said
to be one of the prayers from the "Modern School Prayers'"
which one of the teachers' associations is using:

"We will conduct ourselves with earnestness that the teacher need not
•become angry. We will not speak, not make noise, not laugh, nor throw
things on the floor. We will show ourselves attentive, diligent, ready to
speak when asked, conduct ourselves in all respects in such manner that
parents and teachers will be heartily pleased."

We hope that America will be delivered from parochial
and public schools in which human promises are hypocritically
substituted for approach to our Heavenly Father in the name
of Christ.

FROM Germany to Hungary is but a short step. Here,
too, the predominant problem is that of the schools.
And the conflict, as usual, is between Protestants and
Romanists. During the past year Tisza, the son of the Pro-
testant minister of Hungary, was named as the Ministerial
President. His advent was greeted coolly by the Clericals but
enthusiastically by the Protestants, in whose interests he had
determined to treat all legally established churches with im-
partiality. The clericals used every effort to obstruct the Hun-
garian Parliament, but he has successfully overcome all diffi-

There is a universal desire in Hungary for the establish-
ment of a Protestant university. The lower schools are hav-
ing their troubles. In 1869 the so-called inter-Confessional
schools were introduced into Austria. In these schools the
Church retained the right of supervision in religious instruc-
tion, and the state the right of rule. There was to be a place
for educating the children of all confessions without distinct-
ion in order to make them citizens of one kingdom. Evan-
gelical schools were declared to be private schools. As a con-
sequence of this only those Evangelical congregations kept up


their parochial schools who were determined to bear the
double cost because they believed their own schools to be bet-
ter than the public schools, or because they did not fully trust
the new law. Ever since that time, Rome has been persistent-
ly seeking" to undermine the Confessional equality which ob-
tains in these schools. And, in 1883, she succeeded in passing
a law that the school teacher must belong to the same religion
to which the majority of pupils belong. This seemed to be a
just and harmless provision. But the result was that the Evan-
gelical teachers were removed from their positions, and
though all citizens are paying for education the ruling spirit
in them is strictly Roman Catholic. The children are taken
into the Roman Church before they go to the school. The
school building is dedicated by a Catholic priest. This conse-
crated building dare not be profaned by*the holding of hereti-
cal services. Several times a week the children are obliged to
attend the Roman mass in procession, including Corpus Christi
and other Roman holidays. In fact the inter-Confessional
school law, which was intended to give equal rights to all, is
now used altogether in the interests of the Roman Church.
The instruction throughout Austria begins with a prayer, gen-
erally the Lord's prayer, and then follows the greeting to the
Virgin Mary, when the children make the cross. This is also
demanded of the Protestant children. Roman hymns are used
in the singing, and in many schools the Protestant children
must participate. The national school board of Bohemia last
year decreed that the children were expected to participate in
the celebration of the mass, in the pilgrimages of the Church,
and that it was the duty of teachers to see that they took part.
If Protestant children should attend these schools, the services
should not be intermitted, as such scholars are not obliged to
participate in them. Recently a number of nuns were ap-
pointed school teachers in these inter-Confessional schools and
have become very influential. It is said that Protestant chil-
dren have been ridiculed by the teachers, that books have been
denied them, that they have been compelled to attend the Cath-
olic instruction, to make the sign of the cross, to sing the Cath-
olic hymns, and to hear their teachers tell them that Protest-


ants have no God. This is said to be the case in Vienna itself.

However, the Away-from-Rome movement in the Ger-
man provinces of Austria has not diminished in strength.

In the first half of 1904 according to the report of the ec-
clesiastical authorities in Vienna 2263 persons joined the Evan-
gelical Church of which 2069 persons had been Roman Cath-
olics. On the other hand in the same period, 566 persons left
the Protestant Church, of which 511 became Roman Catholics.
This shows a gain from the Roman Catholics of 1588 persons
in six months. Of these about 253 were of the Reformed type,
and the remainder adhere to the Augsburg Confession. Dur-
ing the last six years 25,000 persons have been converted to
Protestantism, and the Roman Catholic Church leaders and
papers are beginning to combat the movement. For instance,
a Roman Catholic journal in Bohemia has been publishing a
series of articles in which Luther is made to appear as a drunk-
ard. It then argues, Was Jesus a Protestant? No! Was Mary
Protestant? No! Were the Apostles Protestant? No! Is then
the faith of the Protestants the faith of Jesus? No! Great
scandals are attributed to the Protestant Church, and every
argument is used to appeal to the people. They are told that
they will have to pay large amounts of yearly taxes for the
support of the Protestant pastors, their wives and children,
while on the other hand it costs nothing to keep a Roman
Catholic priest and he charges nothing for his work among
the poor.

Very curious news from Germany reports it as the com-
ing temperance nation. The. Imperial Health Office at Ber-
lin is sending out elaborate literature against the use of alco-
hol as a beverage. The Journal of the Imperial parliament
prints pages of temperance arguments by the brother-in-law
of the Emperor, one of the most prominent "temperance re-
formers" in Germany. German University Professors are
said to be leaders in this reform. Within the last fifteen or
twenty years 871 books have been printed, and there are now
$7 newspapers and magazines and annuals in this language
devoted to the same, subject. At this rate German Americans
who delight to speak of the fanaticism of temperance reform-


ers in the churches of America may, in a few years, find them-
selves in a somewhat awkward position because of the situ-
ation in the Fatherland. As the Kaiser takes a paternal in-
terest in the welfare of his people, it would be a striking thing'
if he should determine, that, though the Jesuits are admitted,
beer must be exiled, — from Germany.

AS in Germany, and in Hungary, and in France, and to a
less extent in America, agitation on educational prob-
lems is a leading political issue also in England. The
question, at root, is the same throughout the world. Shall
the state control the child, or the church? Or. as a political
question, how can the state, the majority of whose members
are Christian, with a minority that is not, and with the Chris-
tians themselves divided, so use the moneys raised by tax-
ation that the child will receive the education proper to a
citizen, and not be brought up unbelieving and godless. We
noted in our Survey of the year 1902 that the Anglican
Church and its Clergy, by act of Parliament, had gotten hold
of the whole school system of England, and if we mistake not,
we pointed out at the time what the consequences of such a
clerical usurpation would be.

The result is as expected. Last summer Lord Rosebury
declared that the government "has wantonly raised against
themselves the whole body of non-conformist opinion in this
country," and that it has brought to a head bitter questions
that have lain dormant since Mr. Gladstone's Irish disestab-
lishment bill of 1809. Lord Rosebury has probably not ex-
aggerated facts. The Anglican Church in England has acted
just as that part of the Episcopal Church which considers
that it is the one thing needful to our American nationality
and institutions, often acts in America. Throughout Eng-
land the opponents of the Education Act have been engaged
in systematic passive resistance. Every week from 1700 to
2000 summonses are issued by London provincial magistrates
to delinquent tax-payers who make it a matter of conscience
to refuse payment of the school taxes. Those who refuse are
ministers, great councillors, prosperous merchants and even


magistrates and members of Parliament. The whole pro-
eeedings are conducted with great dignity, and no indignation
meetings or exciting scenes are taking place.

The rate-payers will not pay because of conscientious
scruples against supporting what they consider dangerous re-
ligious teaching. The. magistrates are forced to collect the
arrears by law. Private property is seized and sold at auction
and, in extreme instances, delinquents are imprisoned for
short terms. That this is not a slight affair may be seen from
the. fact that there have been over noo sales, and nearly 33,000
summonses together with 33 sentences of imprisonment since
the movement began.

Throughout Wales the resistance is even more thorough.
Under Lloyd-George, who is sacrificing his political future to
this work, county and town councils have dismissed their
teachers, schools have closed, all non-conformist children
have been withdrawn from schools, and voluntary schools
have been opened in non-conformist chapels. Thus there.
are neither boards of managers nor teachers for conducting
the government schools, and the whole system of elementary
education, which is managed by the educational department
in London, is most seriously embarrassed.

Though the government may be harsh on these delin-
quent tax-payers, the day of reckoning will come, and the
sweeping away of the present Education Act is a foregone
conclusion. But that does not settle the great question of
the age, viz, What is to take its place? Lord Rosebury's
remedy is that all schools supported by public money should
be taken from the church control and placed under public con-
trol ; and that, subject to that requirement, ministers should
have free entrance to teach children of their own congrega-
tion their own Creed.

The American principle that public money can be given
only for schools conducted on secular and undenominational
principles is being quoted. Dr. Dale has asserted that the
only solution is to be found in the absolute severance, of the
official syllabus from religion in state supported schools.


"This seems to be the path of moral justice, and what is
morally right can never he religiously wrong."

Thus again has the narrowness of that church whose
priests believe that their religion is the only one that is fitted
to become the governmental type, over-reached itself.

FOR the last twenty years "the Protestant Episcopal
Church" in this country has desired to change its name.
The high church party does not like the word "Protest-
ant." and others declare that this title is a misnomer. The Gen-
eral Convention before the last appointed a committee "on
change of name." and the following names, among others were
proposed : "The Church." "The Church of America." ''The
Catholic Church," "The American Catholic Church." "Ameri-
can Church." "National Church." The committee has reported
"that any change of the name of the Church at this time is in-
expedient." This is the judgment of the laymen, though the
priests of the Church would undoubtedly prefer a more im-
posing, more exclusive and arrogative, and churchly designa-

During the past summer America "enjoyed a gracious
visit" from the genuine archbishop of Canterbury, the Pri-
mate of all England, and the chief jewel of the Episcopal
Church. For the foundation of the See of Canterbury dates
way back to A. D. 507. and St. Augustine himself is claimed
as the first holder of it. while a number of Roman saints, in-
cluding St. Thomas a Becket. who was murdered in the Cathe-
dral of Canterbury 733 years ago. are among his successors
In England the archbishop ranks next to royalty, having the
'pas' over every one of the king's subjects, no matter whether
duke, premier, lord high chancellor or secretary of state.

The present archbishop is the 05th in the line of suc-
cession. He lives in the stately Lambeth Palace in London,
on the banks of the Thames, almost opposite the House of
Parliament, which has been the metropolitan abode of the
archbishops of Canterbury since the Twelfth century. Be-
sides this residence, he has the use of an official residence
within the cathedral precincts of Canterbury. He receives a


salary of $75,000 a year, which is only a drop in the bucket for
the Anglican Church.*

The archbishop lives in great state throughout the Lon-
don season. His household is run on a princely scale. He
lias gentlemen-in-waiting, chaplains, secretaries, purse-bear-
ers and chamberlains. He gives entertainments and grand
dinners and evening parties at the palace at least three even-
ings a week, and shines in lavish expenditure and great

The present archbishop in his personal appearance does
not measure up to the stateliness of his position. He is in-
significant to the eye. But he is keen of mind, and has
an infinite amount of tact. He is now about 56 years of age.
Though president of the Church of England Temperance So-
ciety, he is not a total abstainer, but believes in the use of
alcoholic beverages in strict moderation. It was through
his efforts that the habitual Inebriate's Law was enacted in
1901. His name is Dr. Randall Thomas Davidson. He might
have had the office prior to the appointment of Arch-
bishop Benson eight years ago, but then declined it. He has
been very intimate with the reigning family, and until his
elevation last year was the spiritual adviser to King Albert
as he had been to Queen Victoria.

His rise to his present position is enveloped in a curious
romance. Shortly after leaving college he received a gun
shot wound which threatened to make him helpless for life.

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Online LibraryTheodore E[manuel] SchmaukThe year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world → online text (page 7 of 11)