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Theodore E[manuel] Schmauk.

The year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world online

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By and by Archbishop Tait of Canterbury took an interest in
him from sympathy, and made him his chaplain and then his
secretary. This, very naturally, led to his becoming the
Bishop's son-in-law. The rest of his history follows logically.

Last May the Protestant Episcopal Church permitted an
adoption of the. Monastic system within its borders by the
dedication in West Park, New York city, of the Monastery of
the Holy Cross. The placing, a few weeks later on, of a
mural painting entitled The Epiphany in which the Virgin
Mother is the most prominent figure, in the. Protestant Epis-

*lts rich property is supposed to yield an income of about $40,000,000 a
year, and is used in paying the stipends of archbishops and bishops, the
salaries of minor dignitaries, and in improving buildings.



7 6

copal Church of St. Mary the Virgin, in West 46th street,
New York, is an indication of the growing power of the
ritualistic idea in certain parts of Protestantism. In this
painting the Holy Child is shown upon his Mother's breast,
while, she is seated upon a raised Dais or Podium. Near
Joseph, stands St. Anna, mother of the blessed Virgin, hold-
ing the partly open book of the Prophecies.

The services of this Church of St. Mary the Virgin have
been noted for their similarity to those of the Roman Cath-
olic Church. There are in it several confessionals, and on the
walls the stages of the Cross. Suspended from the ceiling
before the altar are vessels of ever burning incense. In the
altar is a tabernacle for the preservation of the Sacrament
after it has been consecrated for use. In the confessionals,
confessions are heard and absolution is granted ; but con-
fession is not obligatory. Connected with the church is a
branch of the Order of the Holy Nativity and Sisterhood,
whose members have taken the vow of celibacy for life. The.
Church has two choirs; one a surpliced male choir occupy-
ing seats in the chancel, and another a mixed choir stationed
at the gallery in the rear. The mass is sung, the clergy wear-
ing special vestments. At the High Mass the congregation
does not receive the Sacrament. Candles and a gong are
used, but the service, is entirely in English and is simply that
of the book of Common prayer. The elevation of the host is
practised.

In Great Britain ritualism has apparently suffered a tem-
porary check. The ritualistic controversies which have been
going on since 1889 have resulted in the formation of a Royal
Commission to investigate the reputed violations of the laws
by the ritualists in the order of worship and in the fitting out
of buildings. The. Commission is to draw attention to the
laws already existing for the purpose of curbing irregulari-
ties, and to propose new rules that may be necessary. It
consists of fourteen members including the Archbishop of
Canterbury, the. Bishop of Oxford, the President of the Bible
Society, and the Church Missionary Society and some lawyers



77

and parliamentarians. No extremists seem to have been in-
cluded in its make-up.

The appointment of this Commission appears to be an
attempt on the part of the government to oppose the grow-
ing - Catholicization of the Anglican Church. The greatest
difficulty it will encounter will be to determine, what acts are
lawful. For the ritualists assert that they have the full right
to interpret the thirty-nine articles and the Book of Common
Prayer in their own sense and that thus the mass, the adora-
tion of saints, prayers for the dead, the use of incense, etc.,
are permitted. But they are unable to deny that they ar^
violating the civil acts pertaining to the Church, particularly
the so-called Public Worship Regulation Act. On this ac-
count the ritualists long ago came to the conclusion that the
Church should be. entirely free from the state.

The high-church Church Times believes that the report
of the Commission may result in the direction of a dissolution
between church and state. But the Bishop of London evi-
dently believes that the ritualistic movement is nothing but
an over blown soap bubble, and that instead of 10,000 clergy-
men and half of the bishops, out of the 22,000 in the Anglican
Church, not more than a few dozen are leading the church
toward Rome, and that the remainder of the 10,000 are the
historical high church party of England, which has just as
much right in the Anglican church as any other party. Never-
theless, this governmental interference can be regarded as a
successful move on the part of the anti-ritualists.

It may not be generally known that the high-church party
in England has been hoping to have the Anglican succession
of Bishops and the Anglican ordination recognized by the
Greek Church, and that an association termed the. "Eastern
Church Association" has actually been formed for the fur-
therance of this purpose. The association last spring pub-
lished the letter of the Russian Holy Synod to the Oecumeni-
cal Patriarchs on the attitude of the Orthodox church to
Non-Orthodox confessions.

The position taken is interesting to us Americans not
only because of its views with regard to the Anglican Church,



78

but also because of its clear statements with reference to the
schismatic position of the Roman Church. The position is
as follows :

The Western churches are one and all schismatic. The
first step was the smuggling in of the filioque into the creed.
After Rome had introduced the schismatic spirit by this act,
she cannot complain of its spread: for Protestantism is only
the logical development of the principle that the individual
stands higher than the church. Thus is Rome herself, who is
so fond of charging Protestantism with the spirit of secession,
separation and division, laden with the charge of being her-
self the. mother of all the offspring of schismatic Protestants.

The letter divides non-orthodox Christianity into two
parts, viz, Latin Christianity and the Protestants. But it dis-
tinguishes the Anglicans from the Protestants. Curiously
enough it charges Protestantism with laying more stress on
external good works, and especially on social improvement,
than on religious faith. Protestantism is also charged with
fanaticism, and with a growing contempt of orthodoxy. It
is supposed that the utterances of German University the-
ology, with its wild conclusions, its prejudgments, and its
pride of culture, has much to do with the formation of this
estimate of Protestantism as a whole by the heads of the
Greek Church.

The Anglicans are absolved from all these Protestant
sins (mirabile dictu). "Their love for our welfare," says the
Russian Synod, "awakens also a love on our part nourishing
in us the hope of a future, union." But the Anglican Church
is given to understand that the High Church desire in this di-
rection must first embrace the whole Church of Great Britain
in its grasp and that the said Anglican Church must entirely
give up any Calvinistic tendencies.

THE Episcopal Church in this country, and indeed a great
many people and denominations outside of that Church,
have, within the last year, been giving renewed atten-
tion to the. subject of divorces. There is no Christian country
in the world where so many divorce processes are served as



79

in the United States. In 1902 the number of divorces granted
was exactly double the. number granted in Germany and
France taken together. In 1901 there were 61,000 divorces
in the United States, while in the same year England had
only 177 and Canada only 19.

This state of affairs has not come on suddenly, but has
been gradually gaining in strength for the last 20 or 30 years.
Between 1867 and 1886 the average annual number of di-
vorces was 16,436. In 1867, it was only 8939, whereas in 1896
it already registered 25,535. Fifty or sixty thousand divorces
a year would seem to be enough to ruin the soundest moral
life of a nation.

Last March an Interdenominational Conference was held
in New York on the invitation of the Episcopal Church which
was joined in by the Presbyterians who had five delegates,
the Methodists three delegates, the Reformed Alliance three
delegates, and the Baptists two delegates. A number of
other denominations were also represented (excepting Uni-
tarians, Universalists, and the Roman Catholics, which last
church nevertheless expressed its sympatny with the move-
ment by letter). The proceedings were behind closed doors,
but the following resolutions were made public :

Resolved, That in recognition of the comity that should exist between
Christian churches it is desirable, and would tend to the increase of a spirit
of Christian unity for each of the churches represented in this conference
to advise, and, if ecclesiastical authority will allow, to enjoin its ministers
to refuse to unite in marriage any person or persons, such ministers have
good reason to believe are forbidden by the laws of the Church in which
either party seeking to be married holds membership.

Resolved, That the report of the committee on national and State leg-
islation be recommitted to the committee for further inquiry and sugges-
tion as to the best methods of securing such uniformity of law and usage
among the churches as may tend to secure legislative harmony.

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to prepare and
issue in their discretion a declaration and appeal to the public as to the
sanctity of marriage and the grave dangers of existing laxity in the fre-
quency of divorces.

The greatest difficulty which a good strict divorce law
has to encounter lies in the fact that each one of the forty-
five states has its own mamage laws, of which some are strict,
others more free and others quite lax, as for example in the



8o

states of Rhode Island and Michigan. The Congress of the
United Stairs lias no right to interfere with the divorce laws

of the individual states. There seems to be nothing' to do

but for the Churches to make stricter laws in marriage in
doubtful eases, and to awaken the conscience of the people
for the sanctity and permanency of the marriage vow. The
Methodists and Presbyterians have approved of the action of
the Conference.

This matter has heen before the General Council for tin-
last six 01* eight years. At Norristown the following action
(with more still to come) was taken:

Whereas, The great and Increasing disregard of the plain teaching of
tlu> Holy Scriptures concerning the nature of the marriage covenant, de-
mands the serious consideration of all Christian people, their most earnest
protests against all violations of God's Law, and their hearty co-operation

in all measures that would remedy the 'evil;

Resolved, That we deem it the solemn duty of all pastors to Instruct
their congregations concerning the permanency of the- marriage relation,
and to warn against its violation or disparagement, as a crime against God,
thai Cannot be mitigated ox apologized for by any defects of the, civic laws
or any lowering of the standard prescribed In God's Word on the part of
i lie community around them, or those who may be regarded leaders of
public opinion.

2. That this testimony should be given not only when some notorious
violation of God's baw attracts general attention, but in frequent instruc-
tions and admonitions from the pulpit, even where no occasion for it seems
to be immediately urgent; and especially with all fidelity and earnestness
in the instruction of catechumens.

;'.. That we regard every pastor who performs a marriage ceremony as
testifying, by that very act, that, so far as he has had the opportunity of
discovering, after earnest endeavors to ascertain the facts, said marriage Is
regular ami in accordance with God's Word; and that it is our conviction.
further, that in invoking God's blessing upon the union, he becomes partici-
pant in the gu.lt. if he be without reasonable assurance that both parties
to tiie contract comply with the Divine requirements.

4. That wo teach that the licenses, issued by the State, and compliance
with every civil requirement, while indispensable, cannot of themselves be
a gnult to the conscience of either pastors or individual Christians; anil the
distinction bet ween the standards that avail before man and before God,
Should never be forgotten. Nor can the State by its enactments and per-
mission ever legitimate what the Word of Hod condemns.

Till*- predominant importance of the subject of Education,
both as a practical question for the rising generation,
and also as a keen and sharp test of the nature of our
civilization, has often been emphasized in these pages. And



81

we have frequently expressed the judgment that there is no
more important question, technical or practical, before the
Lutheran Church to-day.

In the United States present educational ideals and ef-
forts, as far as the higher education is concerned, seem to be
projected on a quantitative basis. The great universities of
America are running a swift pace with each other to increase
the number of their students and professors and the amounts
of their endowments. This year Harvard still leads in the
race with nearly 6000 students. Columbia comes second
with 4700 students. Chicago lines up third with 4400. Cor-
nell follows with 3400 students. Yale is set down 20,00
students, while Princeton and the State universities bring up
the rear.

One of the great events of the year in college life was
the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the founding of
the. Columbia University at the end of October. The charter
of the University was issued on a historical Lutheran day,
viz, October 31st, 1754. It was given by George II. The
name given to it was King's College. The President re-
ceived a salary of $1125 a year, and the vestry of Trinity
Church gave him an assistant at a salary of $750.00.

The founders of the College did not wait until the char-
ter arrived to begin their work, but at once chose an English
minister by the name of Samuel Johnson as the. first Presi-
dent. Already in the Spring of the year he made the follow
ing newspaper announcement :

To euch parents as have now (or expect to have) children prepared to
be educated in the College of New York — it is proposed to begin tuition the
first day of July next, in the vestry room in the new school houee adjoining
to Trinity Church.

The work began with eight students, who sat on wooden

stools, placed at regular intervals along a crack in the floor,

in the vestry room of Trinity Church. The names of the

students are still known, viz:

Samuel Verplanck, Rudolph Ritzema, Samuel Ritzema, Philip Van Oort-
landt, Robert Bayard, Thomas Marston, Henry Cruger and Joshua Bloomer.

The finances of the institution came from a public lot-
tery, an act having been passed as early as 1746 for raising



82

£2250, which ten years later was increased to £6404, of
which one-half was given to the College. The College also
received £500 from the internal revenues of the state. The
first commencement of the College is reported to have been
more like a funeral than anything else, the speeches of students
and professors being heavy and interminable. Church at-
tendance on the part of the students was necessary as a mat-
ter of law; and laughing, jostling or winking at public wor-
ship was a punishable offence. There were prohibitions
against fighting cocks, playing cards, dice, and any unlawful
game. With the Revolutionary war the Tory name "King's
College" disappeared, and the patriotic name "Columbia Col-
lege" took its rise. The growth of the. Institution was slow,
and in 1857, when it moved into its second home, it had only
13 instructors and 172 students. In 1878 it had 94 instructors
and 1400 students. In 1888 it had 203 instructors and 1700
students. In 1890, under the Presidency of Seth Low, it be-
came a university, and in 1898 it had 339 instructors and 2600
students. At present it has 455 instructors and 4709 students.
Seth Low reorganized the institution and has brought it in
matter of size beyond all its older rivals, viz, Harvard, Wil-
liam and Mary, Yale, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Washing-
ton and Lee, excepting Harvard. It is connected with the
Episcopal Church.

The present 150th Anniversary is marked by the laying
of the corner-stones of four more buildings, viz, the chapel, to
cost a quarter of a million, the school of mines, to cost the
same amount ; and two dormitories each to cost $350,000. It
is said that the new buildings will increase the wealth of the
University to nearly $30,000,000. How small, in comparison,
is the educational effort of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania
in spending $200,000 upon its buildings ! Some keen ob-
server has remarked :

The more Columbia gets the more it wants. Little old Columbia Col-
lege of a generation or two ago seemed pretty well able and content to get
along with the endowment which it had; hut when it joined the university
movement and began to enlarge its borders and its work there was a dif-
ferent story. Money came to it by millions, but still it needed and called
for millions more. To-day it ranks, we believe, as the third richest insti-
tution in America, and yet scarcely any other is more earnest and urgent



S3

in its calls for further gifts. Nor are those calls idle or unfounded. Co-
lumbia needs more money. So does every university and college worthy of
the name. The more it gets, the more it needs, for the reason that with
every addition to its resources it increases its work and its liabilities to a
still greater extent. That is the story.

It is natural and inevitable that it should be so. The highest interests
of the human mind and soul are not pecuniarily profitable in themselves.
They cannot pay their own way. But they do pay the way of others, and
they are objectively profitable in the highest degree. Columbia University
cannot pay its own way as a business enterprise; but the instruction it has
given in all these years has added to the money making power of the com-
munity to a simply incalculable degree. To say that because of Columbia
and its influence the wealth of New York has been increased by uncounted
millions would be safely within the truth. It is upon that ground, if no
other, that this and every other worthy institution has an unanswerable
claim, in justice and in equity, to the most generous material support of
the public.

With greater endowments, more complete and more
magnificent equipments, there comes also naturally a great
increase in the luxury of college life, and a disposition to the
enjoyment of the period of youth, as a holiday, and a season
of elegant leisure. It is said that the average student in Yale
University spends a thousand dollars a year, while at Harvard
the average expenses are considerably higher. One great
argument for the value of church colleges is that such ex-
travagances are neither fashionable nor possible. President
Roosevelt, himself a graduate of Harvard University, does
not propose to allow his son to remain there for the full four
years. He believes that the student should be under pres-
sure and should get his education in the shortest time possi-
ble, that he. should not dawdle along, spending time and
money and dissipating when he ought be engaged in the seri-
ous pursuits of life. He has given his son several years in a
preparatory school at Groton, Connecticut, and has now put
him under a private tutor for a year and will then expect him
to take his degree at Harvard in three years.

The recent expansion of Muhlenberg College into a first-
class institution, up to the full limit of what should be ex-
pected for young men who are to become the intellectual toil-
ers and burden bearers of state and Church, is a matter for
congratulation. Too long has the Lutheran Church delayed
in the educational field. Now she has moved. Now the



8 4

loyalty of Lutherans to their own higher educational insti-
tutions should be cultivated zealously and judiciously by
those who hold in their hands the power of advice, and di-
rection.

The inauguration of the new President and the increase
of the Professors in the Faculty of this Institution at the end
of the College year, together with the entrance of the students
into the new buildings during the present Christmas vacation
should mark a great epoch in the educational history of our
Church. For upon this educational Institution both the
Home and the Foreign Mission Work of the Council and the
activity of both the Chicago and the Philadelphia Theological
Seminaries has to a large degree depended.

At St. Louis, this year, the. meeting of the National Edu-
cation Association which hoped to show an enrollment of 50,-
000 persons and which was one of the 250 Conventions, many
of them scientific or educational, which met at the St. Louis
Exposition, might be termed typical, in one sense, of American
intermediate education.

The school exhibit of the Missouri Synod received the
Gold Medal at the St. Louis Exposition. This is very high
praise indeed, and it is deserved. Lehre und Wehre says it
is the best refutation of the assertion which Dr. Haas made in
The. Lutheran some years ago against congregational schools,
that they are doomed to perish because they cannot accom-
plish anything of such a thorough character as to be com-
pared with the schools of the state. We do not recall any as-
sertion of this kind by Dr. Haas, but we will here and now
say that Missouri may win many a medal within the coming
generation without disproving the statement that parochial
schools of the regulation order are doomed to perish in this
land. Let Missouri herself get one-half century older and
then she will be in a better position to pass judgment on this
point. We went through the Missouri Synod exhibit and
State School exhibits at St. Louis with considerable care, and
we know the strength and weakness of both.

The question has been vigorously disputed, in view of cer-
tain attacks of Cardinal Gibbons upon the public school sys-



*5

tern of America, whether denominational and church parochial
schools produce a better type of moral character than the pub-
lic schools. This is one of the favorite assertions of the advo-
cates of German (and English) parochial schools in the Luth-
eran Church, and we are not sure but that it is true. How-
ever, it will not do to take the matter for granted, or hastily
to approve the cry that "the godless public schools are rush-
ing America to ruin." The parochial schools of this land, Lu-
theran, and especially Roman, have their own tendencies and
peculiarities toward moral weakness, which could be described
if necessary, and which form an element in the sober considera-
tion of educational problems.

In view of the charges made by Cardinal Gibbons, nine-
teen college presidents are said to testify almost unanimously
that the moral character and conduct of public school boys is
quite as high as that of boys from religious or other private
schools.

The President of Cornell University gives figures to show
that the public school actually produces a larger percentage of
church members than the private schools. He says that from
a system of inquiry in use, he has learned that 6$ per cent, of
the young men coming to his university from the public schools
declare themselves to be church members, while only 56 per
cent, coming from private schools make such declaration. He
continues : "The fact that practically two-thirds of our freshmen
who come from the public schools are church members is a
conclusive refutation of the allegation that the public schools
are breeding an irreligious, immoral and anarchical class of citi-
zens." This same President of Cornell, in completing his
statement, makes one of the most important remarks that we
have ever yet seen emanating from the head of an American
University. He says: "I do not believe the American people
will ever consent to vote public moneys for denominational
schools. But I see no reason why voluntary arrangements
should not be made by the clergy of the respective localities
for the systematic religious instruction of children in the public
schools under such conditions of time and place as the school
authorities might permit, the attendance of pupils at such in-



86

struction, of course, to be wholly optional." This remark is
important not because the method proposed cannot be im-
proved on, but because a great secular educational authority
here recognizes the need and the right of the Church to give
systematic instruction to its own rising generation.

Last year the Mosley educational commission visited


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Online LibraryTheodore E[manuel] SchmaukThe year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world → online text (page 8 of 11)