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Theodore E[manuel] Schmauk.

The year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world online

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America in the interests of English education, and the report,
which is now out, makes some comparisons. It declares that
in America "the teachers seem filled with enthusiasm and there
is a thirst for knowledge shown by pupils which is largely lack-
ing in England." "The average American boy when he leaves
school is better fitted for his vocation and struggle in life than
the English boy." The fact that struck the Commission in
going through the public schools was the success attained in
making the scholars self-reliant, in bringing out their indi-
vidual qualities, and teaching them to reason. "In some re-
spects this seems to be the most important factor in all Amer-
ican education, and largely accounts for the success of the pu-
pils in after life." Another striking fact was "the large pre-
ponderance of women teachers in all branches of education
throughout the country. Personally I should favor the em-
ployment of female teachers for boys and girls up to the age
of say. twelve years : for the reason (as it appears to me) the
woman claims the sympathy of children in younger years and
understands the working of their minds in a way and to an ex-
tent that no man can. Beyond this point, however, I am in
favor of turning the pupils over to a man ; here, if I may say
so. American education in my view requires some overhauling.
Not only did I find comparatively few men engaged in teach-
ing, but also few preparing to become teachers ; and upon fur-
ther investigation I discovered the reason to lie in the small-
ness of the remuneration. This is a serious defect." This is
a corroboration of the principle for which our German Synods
have, rightly, been standing in education. What the growing
youths and maidens of church and state need, in this free land
especially, in Sunday school, parochial and secular school, after
they reach a certain age, is a schoolmaster.



87

THE Religious Educational Association has published
that out of 946 superintendents of public schools in all
parts of America 454 superintendents have reported
that the Bible is read in all their schools, 295 superintendents
have reported that the Bible is partly read in their schools, and
only 197 superintendents have reported that it is not read at
all in their schools. That is the Bible is read, at least in part,
in four-fifths of the schools. Another report shows that out
of 808 cities, 651 use the Bible in public schools. In 157 cities
there were no religious exercises, and in "jj cities they were
forbidden. In 53 of these cities prayer was used. In only 99
cities was it forbidden to explain the sections of the Bible that
were read.

The Missouri Church assumes that it is a breach of the
Golden Rule to justify the taxing of Roman Catholics for pub-
lic schools in which the Protestant's Bible is read. One might
as well say that it is a breach of the Golden Rule for the United
States to tax those of its citizens who were opposed to the
Spanish and Philippine war for the payment of the expenses
incurred by this war. Or one might say that it is a breach
of the Golden Rule for the state of Pennsylvania or New York
to tax bachelors, who have no children, for school purposes at
all. Or one might as well say that it is a breach of the Golden
Rule to justify the taxation of property belonging to women,
for municipal purposes, from a voice in which women are ex-
cluded by their inability to cast a ballot. It is right and proper
in all these instances for the minority to pay taxes to be used
as the will of the majority may decide, provided that in none
of these instances the minority itself be forced against its own
conscience to make use of the improvements thus provided ;
and, if we were a Papist, or bachelor, or a woman, we should
feel thankful to the state for the. introduction of even a little
Christian religion into the public schools, not because of its
influence on the souls, but on the citizenship of the pupils. A
Christian citizen, whether he be. a Methodist, a Roman Cath-
olic, or Congregationalist, is a better citizen and of more
value to the state than an atheist.

We are among those v/ho believe that America is a Chris-



88

tian nation both by extraction and history, and also by ma-
jority ; and that if the President of this country affirms that
things are done "In the year of our Lord" 1904, the teachers
of our country may and should use the name of our Lord in
their prayers, and that the church is giving- away a most valu-
able heritage, by consenting to allow the state, "the vicar of
God," to be regarded under the rationalistic conception
of "a neutral." In our judgment, minorities must yield to the
majority, and while special care should be taken to give fullest
religious freedom to even the smallest minority, and to per-
mit and encourage religious exercises of their own for mi-
norities and to excuse them from the religious exercises of the
majority, yet the fact that there, is a known non-Christian mi-
nority in the land should not oblige the Christian religion and
Christian training to be excluded from the public schools.

SECRET Associations in America, we regret to say, have
had a flourishing year. The newer orders in particular
have been spreading through the land. One of these
orders, that of the Elks, is especially harmful to the Church,
in its religious, social and moral point of view. Its funeral
service is almost a travesty on a sound morality and religion,
and its annual services of tribute to the dead, for which some
ministers can always be found to deliver addresses, and which
are generally held on some Sunday afternoon toward the end
of the year, are notable for their open defiance of Christian
teaching with respect to death and judgment. At one of the
rhetorical addresses delivered in Philadelphia this year, the
memorial speaker said, "Not with funeral balm and the minor
form of grief, but with music and eulogy we mourn through
resurrected radiance. Brotherly love should rule the world.
Then there will be no more crime. We are progressing. The
altruistic decree of 'Live and let live' has been changed to 'live
and help others to live.' "

Another order of remarkable growth is the fraternal order
of Eagles. It is said to have been formed in 1898 by five
men in Seattle, Washington, and is stated to number 300,000
men, and, if the recent rate of growth continues, will before



-89

long reach a million. The five men who organized the order
met in February, 1898, on Sunday. They were all connected
with the management of variety theatres. They gathered on
succeeding Sundays with headquarters in the theatre and ini-
tiated new members. The order has swept through the West
and then came into the East.

The secret orders are not the allies, but the enemies of
the Church. An article in the December Arena, just out, is
written to disprove this statement. It takes exception to the
recent stern attitude of the Roman Catholic Church toward
Free Masonry, and exhibits both of these ancient organiza-
tions (it says, The Roman Catholic Church has a history of
two thousand years, but Masonry antedates Catholicism "far
beyond the apprehension of finite minds") as divine brothers
who should walk hand in hand on the same pathway :

"Brothers all are the members of the two organizations, one in the es-
sentials of rectitude and righteous living, making towards the same humani-
tarian and spiritual ultimate Therefore, as 'Brother Soldiers' let us salute.
And as Knights and Companions of the true Cross, let them join in the bat-
tle for Truth, Purity, and for Peace, ready to fight, and if necessary to die
for the Rig^i."

We would be interested in seeing the Roman Church re-
turn this brotherly salute! The Arena claims that there was
a time when there was no prohibitive injunction in the Roman
Church against Masonry, when the District of Columbia had
for its first master a devout Roman Catholic, Captain Hoban,
of Dublin, the architect of the nation's capital and the White
House. This writer claims that originally "America was fron-
tiered and bulwarked with the spirit of Masonry. Out from
its living hearts sprung those sentiments and principles of true
liberty and impartial laws which led to the formulation of the
Declaration of Independence." He does not cite Thomas
Jefferson as a member of the Masonic Order, but he mentions
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Paul Revere, and
states definitely that "the generals who commanded the Revo-
lutionary forces, together with four-fifths of those who signed
the Declaration of Independence, were Masons." He men-
tions that very strange fact, viz., that Roman Catholics are
permitted to join the Society of Elks, the Odd Fellows, the





Maccabees and others. We are curious to know whether the
writer of this article is in good standing- in the Roman Catholic
Church ; also the reason why that Church admits an Elk and
excludes a Mason : and whether the broad assertions made
concerning - the universality of Masonry in connection with the
origin of our free institutions are correct.

Tn Europe it is well known that the members of royalty
are connected with the Masonic Craft. Edward the VII, the
German Emperor and King Oscar of Sweden were all Masons.
Erederic the Great of Germany with both of his successors
were Masons. Tn Erance King Louis XVI and Louis XVIII,
Charles X. King Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. were
Masons.

But the present reigning Monarchs have found it neces-
sary to withdraw from lodges to which they belonged. The
German Emperor and King Oscar have taken steps to sever
their connection with the Craft. During the last year of
Queen Victoria's reign. King Edward as Grand Master of the
English Rite was obliged to denounce the French Masons be-
cause they had instituted an Atheistic Masonic lodge in Eng-
land. For the grand Orient of France in 1877 banished the
Almighty from its lodges, and excluded from its ceremonies all
reference to the grand architect of the universe. A few
weeks after the accession of Edward the VII. among the ear-
liest petitions received by him was one by a large number of
Turkish Free Masons, calling on him to use his influence to
secure the freedom of the ex-Sultan Murad who has been im-
prisoned for the last quarter of a century at Constantinople by
his younger brother, the present Sultan. This principle of
brotherly help works against justice as often as for it.

OF the many sad tilings that occurred to shroud weeping
hearts in sorrow, during the year 1904. we have space
to mention but a few. New Year's day itself opened
with a dreadful disaster. Chicago was draped in mourning.
Five hundred and eighty-two beings lost their lives in attend-
ance at the Iroquois theatre. The attempt of the clergy to
prove this a Providential punishment upon theatre goers was



91

not very successful under the sarcastic remarks of the secular
press. The truth is that Providence was working- then, as al-
ways ; but was working in mystery, as is God's wont. The
Saviour's Word concerning the tower of Siloam is the key to
a proper interpretation. The fact that this disaster cannot be
proven to be a direct punitive visitation of God, or that the
medium of visitation was human negligence or crime, does
not at all prove that theatre going is not wrong, nor that pun-
ishment was not visited on some or all of those theatre goers.
On the other hand, the fact that the people in the theatre were
good, or respectable, and that many more wicked than those
escaped this fate, does not prove that justice and punishment
will not in due time be meted out to all. Finally, the fact that
good people were taken away from life in a doubtful place,
while it bears its warning, cannot be used in a wholesale way
by the Church of Christ to decide on the fate of these people.

Early in February a mighty outburst of fire ate out the
heart of Baltimore's business district ; the loss is said to have
surpassed that of the great Chicago fire in 187 1, and of the
Boston fire in 1872. We believe that has run to almost two
hundred millions of dollars. None of our churches were di-
rectly affected by the conflagration.

Few horrors have ever shocked the American world so
thoroughly as that which was connected with the burning of
the General Slocum, with over a thousand Lutherans on board,
in the East River, New York, last June. It has been said that
even Herod himself could not have devised a more awful fate
for the hundreds of women and children that lost their lives
on this steamer. Raising the question of Providence, our dear
friend and co-worker, the Rev. Dr. G. C. F. Haas, who lost
his own dear ones (including a little daughter, a special friend
of the writer), and came near losing his life, the great bulk of
whose congregation was swept at one stroke into the other
world, made a notably strong and effective reply to unbeliev-
ers, and a very powerful contribution to apologetics, in the
words that sprang, in the depths of his stricken soul, from the
faith in which he has hitherto lived. He was indeed a hero.

It was the greatest disaster that ever appalled the metrop-



92

olis. The President ordered a rigid investigation and ap-
pointed a committee of five prominent persons including mem-
bers of the army and navy and of the departments of corpor-
ations and commerce and labor for this purpose. They found
that out of a total list of 1358, 955 persons lost their lives,
while 175 persons were injured. The Commission is very
severe in placing the moral and legal responsibility on the
owners of the vessel and the crew.

In less than a month later the Danish steamer "Norge,"
bound for New York, foundered off the coast of Scotland and
the majority of the crew, 774 souls in all, perished. It is said
that if the vessel would have been built within the last ten years
and with the improved bulkheads she would probably have
made a port. The vessel was afloat only twenty minutes after
striking. The captain went down with his ship, but was sub-
sequently rescued.

IF we turn from disasters to deaths, the year has much to tell.
Last July it was just one century since Alexander Ham-
ilton fell before the pistol of Aaron Burr on the shores
of the Hudson. The work of Hamilton for America, and his
invaluable aid to Washington, have not been fully appreciated.
He was not merely a good soldier and brilliant lawyer, and
great financier, but he stood for that in statesmanship which
has to-day rendered America a nation rather than a congeries 01
quarreling commonwealths. Talleyrand, a good judge of men
pronounced Hamilton the greatest man of his epoch. Neither
Hamilton nor Jefferson dreamed of a state dependent on uni-
versal suffrage (something given to America by the democ-
racy of Jackson). Nevertheless his ideas of nationality have
been followed out by our American government. The begin-
ning came with the annexation of Louisiana which transformed
the country from a confederation into a national sovereignty.
The long line of Chief Justice Marshall's decisions was a vic-
tory for the principles of Hamilton, and the Civil War con-
firmed the work begun by him. Hamilton laid the foundations
of our commercial and revenue systems, and, despite his sins,
deserves to be held in great gratitude in this land.



93

The death of Isabella, the deposed queen of Spain, this
year, takes us back to the history of the nineteenth century.
Inheriting the proud crown of Leon and Castile, she became
the centre of the stormiest scenes of modern Spain — the Carlist
wars, the last effort to unite the French and Spanish crowns,
the revolt of the Spanish people, and the establishment of a
short-lived republic. Our readers may recall that the candi-
dacy for her vacant throne was made the pretext for the war
which turned France into a republic, and united Germany into
an Empire. After her own exile she had the satisfaction of
seeing" her son and grandson ascend her throne. She was a
wicked woman, with a kind heart and a generous nature.

On the 12th of last August, the death of M. Waldeck-
Rousseau, the greatest of French advocates and prime minis-
ters and the saviour of the Third Republic, took place. The
real career of Waldeck-Rousseau began in June, 1899. And it
was only three years in length. But it was the longest on
record in the history of the present Republic. In the six years
preceding it there had been no less than nine ministers. Wal-
deck-Rousseau, when France was in great confusion because of
infamous wrong, including a corrupt military caballe and the
scheming of a fanatical clericalism, took the French portfolio,
and reopened the Dreyfus case. He crushed the intrigues of
the army and the clergy so thoroughly that little has been
heard of them since. But he did more: He cured France of
her capriciousness in administration and convinced her of the
advantages of a stable cabinet. Waldeck-Rousseau was one of
the most eloquent oratorical advocates in France, not fervid
and flowery, of the style of Gambetta, but perfect in form, fault-
less in logic, and often cold. At heart he was tender and
gentle, like many public men, and his distant bearing was due
to a secret timidity which surrounded him with reserve in
public.

On July 14th Paul Kruger, the former president of the
South African republic, died in exile at Clarens on Lake Ge-
neva, Switzerland. Flow quietly this sturdy old Dutch Presi-
dent, seated at his front door in Pretoria, pipe in mouth, Bible
on knee, an elephant gun in hand, has disappeared from the



94

page of history! He has missed a martyr's fame and fate.
That he transported the bulk of his fortune out of the country
and left it in its dying position did not add to the respect of
the world for him, nor did he enjoy the life of a deposed ruler.
The absoluteness of his rule, which he believed was from God,
and inspired of God in every detail, so that a word or blow
against him was not only treason against the Transvaal, but
blasphemy against the Anointed of the Lord, was a remark-
able thing. In many respects he was like unto a patriarch
of the old type, and in others he has been compared with the
Judges of Israel who slew the tribes of Canaan that God's peo-
ple might enter in, and who ruled as with a rod of iron.

On the day of his death A Last Appeal in behalf of the
Boers was circulated through Germany, imploring the German
people to aid the downtrodden nation in the establishment of
parochial schools, for the Christian training of their orphaned
youth. It appears that the English government does not pro-
pose to allow the state schools to be used for this purpose by
the Boers. The Church has consequently organized its own
schools, over two hundred in the Transvaal alone. From
60,000 to 80,000 marks will be needed to accomplish the pur-
pose. The funeral expenses of Kruger will be borne by Eng-
land, it is said.

Sionism has lost its leader, Dr. Theodore Herzel, of Vi-
enna. His death was an ovation to his ideas. In eastern Eu-
rope he was regarded as a Messiah. But he died at the op-
portune moment. His scheme, especially in view of the Sul-
tan's definite opposition to Herzel's settlement of Palestine, was
visionary. His plan of Uganda only served to conceal the
failure of the original scheme. Nevertheless he has reached
a high stage of historical significance by his influencing great
heads of the earth, the emperor, the sultan, the pope. As one
born to rule, though he was but a simple journalist, by his per-
sonal appearing, his writings, his agitation, his colonial pro-
jects, his Zion, he has awakened the national Jewish feeling in
a manner that will long be felt. He has given the Jews a con-
sciousness of national unity, and he has done for them in a less
degree what Cavour did for the Italians, or Bismarck for Ger-



95

many. He is one of the spirits of the nineteenth century who
wrought for national unification.

Among other men of affairs who died during the year
were Prince Herbert Bismarck of Germany, and ex-Governor
Pattison of Pennsylvania ; James T. Lewis, one of the war gov-
ernors ; and a former premier of New South Wales.

Sir William Harcourt, who died in England early this
Fall, was one of the historic figures of the British House of
Parliament. He has been called "the last of the Whigs."
Though he played the part of a democrat, he was an aristocrat
as far as family pride was concerned. But if he could not
sympathize with the spirit of his grandfathers, he also despised
the crew who entered the Parliament in search of titles or to
get into society. It has now been nearly six years since he
retired from the leadership of the Liberal party in England.
His letter to Mr. John Morley, announcing his retirement, may
still be remembered for its vigor. But he remained in the
House of Commons as a great personal power. His scholar-
ship, his legal learning, his nimbleness of wit, his editorial skill,
his vigor of debate, made him an effective if not an oratorical
speaker. He was a tower of strength in his party, one of its
wisest and most authoritative counsellors. But, he had drop-
ped out of the ranks as a political force. He was one of those
men, sitting on the front bench in the House, who in difficul-
ties, in excited debate, would rise and recur to the annals of the
last half-century or bring forth some clearing principle from
the mazes of international law.

Early in October, the death of Senator Hoar took place.
Entering Congress in 1869 he has served there continuously
ever since. He always had to be reckoned with as a force in
legislation and in public policy. He was fearless, intelligent,
enthusiastic and had great confidence in the rectitude of his
own opinions. He believed that his views represented the
correct position of the American people. We cannot say that
we always admired Senator Hoar.

The second week in August, Senator George G. Vest,
whose public activities have covered nearly half a century,
dropped from the ranks. At thirty-three years he was sena-



96

tor in the Confederate Congress, and at seventy-three he had
been in the United States Senate for twenty-four years con-
tinuously. He was a trusted and influential, intellectual
leader of the South. He had spoken for the South in i860 in
the Missouri Legislature, fought for the South, and had been
elected to the Confederate Congress, but he accepted the con-
stitutional results of the war, throwing himself particularly
into the crusade against protection. He was a true Cobdenite,
and an enthusiastic advocate of free silver coinage.

On the 7th of last July, General Howard, of the Confed-
erate Army, and a veteran of five wars was taken by death ;
and on the first week of August, the wife of General Nelson
A. Miles was taken in the same way. On the second week in
November Paul Cassagnac, the Bonapartist deputy and well-
known journalist, died in Paris ; and on the first week of Oc-
tober F. A. Bartholdy, the French sculptor and designer of
the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, died in the same
city. On the second week of July the Golden Rule Mayor of
Toledo, Samuel M. Jones; and on the last week in July Rear
Admiral Taylor, chief of the Bureau of Navigation ; and James
N. Galvin, the newspaper man who unearthed the St. Louis
boodle scandals, died.

Among inventors and men skilled in the technical arts,
were Robert Schwarzenbach (died July 2d), head of the largest
steel manufacturing business in the world ; John N. Jones,
who is said to have made in 1855 the first typewriting ma-
chine in this country ; Charles H. Mosley, in Brooklyn, the
first dentist who used nitrous-oxide gas ; in September, in Chi-
cago, Mr. Haskins, the inventor of the multiple telephone
switch board ; and in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, Mr. Pollack,
Ericsson's chief assistant in the reconstruction of the Monitor ;
in Brooklyn Henry Waterman, the inventor of the steel strap
pulley block ; in New York, G. W. Pach, the widely-known
photographer, and General George Smithwick, for a long time
Superintendent of the Harper's Art Engraving department
and recently of the Ladies' Home Journal. Mr. Cornelius
Shields, who has figured very largely during the past year as
the manager of the Lake Superior Corporation, a financial



97

concern that brought great losses to many of the smaller in-
vestors, died early this Fall.

Among clergymen and lecturers we find the death of Dr.
Leonard Moss, a prominent Baptist lecturer and editor, in the
second week of July ; Colonel Copeland, a famous Lyceum lec-
turer, in the third week of July. In the second week of Au-


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Online LibraryTheodore E[manuel] SchmaukThe year of our Lord, 1904; a survey of the world → online text (page 9 of 11)