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ADDITIONAL SPEECHES,
ADDRESSES,



OCCASIONAL SERMONS,



IN TWO VOLUMES.



BY



THEODORE PARKER,

MINISTER OF Tlil^ T V"E\TY-EIi>F^VIi;c6is'i;i}^EG/\TIONAL SOCIETY

- ' ' ; . TIT Bos^bi^. ', , " ^ "



YOI-U]NiE 11.



BOSTON:
LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY.

1855






29.46855

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1655, by

THEODORE PARKER,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massaclnisetts.



CAMBRIDGE:
ALLKN AND FARXIIAM, PRINTERS.



CONTENTS OF VOL. 11.



I.

PAQE

Some Thoughts on the Progress of America, and the
Influence op her Diverse Institutions. An Ad-
dress prepared for the Anti-Slavery Convention
IN Boston, May 31, 1854 ....... 1

II.

The New Crime against Humanity. A Sermon

PREACHED AT THE MuSIC HaLL, ON SUNDAY, JUNE 4,

1:854, WITH THE Lesson for the day of the pre-



vious Sunday



III.

The Law of God and the Statutes of Men. A Ser-
mon PREACHED AT THE MuSIC HaLL, ON SUNDAY, JUNE

18, 1854 179

IV.

A Sermon of the Dangers which threaten the
Rights of Man in America, preached at the Music
Hall, on Sunday, July 2, 1854 . . . . 213



IV CONTENTS.

V.

Some Account of my Ministry. T\vo Sermons
preached before the twenty-elghth congrega-
TIONAL Society in Boston, on the 14th and 21 st
November, 1852, on leaving their old and enter-
ing A NEW Place of Worship 295

VI.
A Sermon of the Public Function of "Woman,

PREACHED AT THE Music Hall, March 27, 1853 . 370

VIT.
A Sermon of Old Age, preached at the Music

Hall, on Sunday, January 29, 1854 . . . .413



SOME THOUGHTS



PROGRESS OF AMERICA,



INFLUENCE OF HER DIVERSE INSTITUTIONS.



AN ADDRESS



PREPARED FOR THE



ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION IN BOSTON,



MAY 31, 1854.



VOL. II.



ADDRESS.



At this day there are two great tribes of men in
Christendom, which seem to have a promising future
before them — the Sclavonic and the Anglo-Saxon.
Both are comparatively new. For the last three
hundred years each has been continually advancing
in numbers, riches, and territory ; in industrial and
military power. To judge from present appearances,
it seems probable that a hundred years hence there
will be only two great national forces in the Chris-
tian world — the Sclavonic and the Anglo-Saxon.

The Anglo-Saxon tribe is composite, and the
mingling so recent, that we can still easily distinguish
the main ingredients of the mixture. There are,
first, the Saxons and Angles from North Germany ;
next, the Scandinavians from Denmark and Sweden ;
and, finally, the Normans, or Romanized Scandina-
vians, from France.

This tribe is now divided into two great political



4 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

branches, namely, the Anglo-Saxon Briton, and the
Anglo-Saxon American ; but both are substantially
the same people, though with different antecedents
and surroundings. The same fundamental charac-
teristics belong to the Briton and the American.

Three hundred years ago, the Anglo-Saxons were
scarce three millions in number ; they did not own
the whole of Great Britain. Now there are thirty
or forty millions of men with Anglo-Saxon blood in
their veins. They possess the British Islands ; Heli-
goland, Gibraltar, Malta, and the Ionian Isles ; St.
Helena, South Africa, much of East and West Af-
rica ; enormous territories in India, continually in-
creasing ; the whole of Australia ; almost all of
North America, and I know not how many islands
scattered about the Atlantic and Pacific seas. Their
geographical spread covers at least one sixth part of
the habitable globe ; their power controls about one
fifth of the inhabitants of the earth. It is the richest
of all the families of mankind. The Anglo-Saxon
leads the commerce and the most important man-
ufactures of the world. He owns seven eighths
of the shipping of Christendom, and half that
of the human race. He avails himself of the latest
discoveries in practical science, and applies them to
the creation of "comforts" and luxuries. Iron is
his favorite metal ; and about two thirds of the
annual iron crop of the earth is harvested on Anglo-
Saxon soil. Cotton, wheat, and the potato, are his
favorite plants.



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 5

The political institutions of the Anglo-Saxon se-
cure National Unity of Action for the State, and
Individual Variety of Action for each citizen, to a
greater degree than other nations have thought pos-
sible. In all Christendom, there is scarce any free-
dom of the Press except oa Anglo-Saxon soil. Ours
is the only tongue in which Liberty can speak. An-
glo-Saxon Britain is the asylum of exikd patriots,
or exiled despots. The royal and patrician wrecks
of the revolutionary storms of continental Europe,
in the last century and in this, were driven to her
hospitable shore. Kossuth, Mazzini, Victor Hugo,
and Comte, relics of the last revolution, are washed
to the same coast. America is the asylum of exiled
nations, who flee to her arms, four hundred thousand
in a year, and find shelter.*

The Sclavonians fight with diplomacy and the
sword, the Anglo-Saxon with diplomacy and the dol-
lar. He is the Roman of productive industry, of
commerce, as the Romans were Anglo-Saxons of
destructive conquest, of war. The Sclavonian na-
tions, from the accident of their geographical position,
or from their ethnological peculiarity of nature, in-
vade and conquer lands more civilized than their own.
They have the diplomatic skill to control nations of
superior intellectual and moral development. The
Anglo-Saxon is too clumsy for foreign politics ; when
he meddles with the affairs of other civilized people,
he is often deceived. Russia outwits England con-
1*



6 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

tinually in the political game now playing for the
control of Europe. The Anglo-Saxon, more inva-
sive than the Sclavonian, prefers new and wild lands
to old and well-cultivated territories ; so he conquers
America, and tills its virgin soil : seizes on Africa, —
the dry nurse of lions and of savage men, — and
founds a new empire in Australia. If he invades
Asia, it is in the parts not Christian. His rule is a
curse to countries full of old civilization ; I take it
that England has been a blight to India, and will be
to China, if she sets there her conquering foot. The
Anglo-Saxon is less pliable than the Romans, a less
indulgent master to conquered men ; with more plas-
tic power to organize and mould, he has a less com-
prehensive imagination, limits himself to a smaller
number of forms, and so hews off and casts away
what suits him not. Austria conquers Lombardy,
France Algiers, Russia Poland, to the benefit of
the conquered party, it seems. Can any one show
that the British rule has been a benefit to India ?
The Russians make nothing of their American terri-
tory. But what civilization blooms out of the sav-
age ground wherever the Saxon plants his foot !



I must say a word of the leading peculiarities of
ihis tribe.

1. There is a strong Love of Individual Freedom.
This belongs to the Anglo-Saxons in common with



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 7

all the Teutonic family. But with them it seems
eminently powerful. Circumstances have favored
its development. They care much for freedom, little
for equality.

2. Connected with this, is a Love of Law and
Order, which continually shows itself on both sides
of the ocean. Fast as we gain freedom, we secure it
by law and constitution, trusting little to the caprice
of magistrates.

3. Then there is a great Federative Power — a
tendency to form combinations of persons, or of com-
munities and States — special partnerships on a
small scale for mercantile business ; on a large scale,
like the American Union, or the Hanse towns, for the
political business of a nation.

4. The Anglo-Saxons * have eminent Practical
Power to organize things into a mill, or men into a
State, and then to administer the organization. This
power is one which contributes greatly to both their
commercial and political success. But this tribe is
also most eminently material in its aims and means ;
it loves riches, works for riches, fights for riches. It is
not warlike, as some other nations, who love war for
its own sake, though a hard fighter when put to it.

5. We are the most Aggressive, Invasive, and Ex-
clusive People on the earth. The history of the
Anglo-Saxon, for the last three hundred years, has
been one of continual aggression, invasion, and exter-
mination.



8 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

I cannot now stop to dwell on these traits of
our tribal anthropology, but must yet say a word
touching this national exclusiveness and tendency
to exterminate.

Austria and Russia never treated a conquered
nation so cruelly as England has treated Ireland.
Not many years ago, four fifths of the population of
the island were Catholics, a tenth Anglican church-
men. All offices were in the hands of the little
minority. Two thirds of the Irish House of Com-
mons were nominees of the Protestant gentry ; the
Catholic members must take the declaration against
Transubstantiation. Papists were forbidden to vote
in elections of members to the Irish Parliament.
They suffered " under a universal, unmitigated, indis-
pensable, exceptionless disqualification." " In the
courts of law, they could not gain a place on the
bench, nor act as a barrister, attorney, or solicitor,
nor be employed even as a hired clerk, nor sit on a
grand jury, nor serve as a sheriff", nor hold even the
lowest civil office of trust and profit ; nor have any
privilege in a town corporation ; nor be a freeman of
such corporation ; nor vote at a vestry." * A Catholic
could not marry a Protestant : the priest who should
celebrate such a marriage was to be hanged. He
could not be " a guardian to any child, nor educate
his own child, if its mother were a Protestant," or

* Bancroft, History of United States, vol. v. p. 66, e< seq.



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 9

the child declared in favor of Protestantism. " No
Protestant might instruct a Papist. Papists could
not supply their want by academies and schools of
their own ; for a Catholic to teach, even in a private
family, or as usher to a Protestant, was a felony,
punishable by imprisonment, exile, or death." " To
be educated in any foreign Catholic school was an
unalterable and perpetual outlawry." " The child
sent abroad for education, no matter of how tender
an age, or himself how innocent, could never after
sue in law or equity, or be guardian, executor, or
administrator, or receive any legacy or deed of gift ;
he forfeited all his goods and chattels, and forfeited
for his life all his lands ; " whoever sent him incurred
the same penalties.

The Catholic clergy could not be taught at home
or abroad : they " were registered and kept, like
prisoners at large, within prescribed limits." " All
Papists exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; all
monks, friars, and regular priests, and all priests not
actually in parishes, and to be registered, were ban-
ished from Ireland under pain of transportation ; and,,
on a return, of being hanged and quartered." " The
Catholic priest abjuring his religion, received a pen-
sion of thirty, and afterwards of forty pounds." " No
non-conforming Catholic could buy land, or receive
it by descent, devise, or settlement ; or lend money
on it as security ; or hold an interest in it through a
Protestant trustee ; or take a lease of ground for



10 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

more than thirty-one years. If under such a lease he
brought his farm to produce more than one third
beyond the rent, the first Protestant discoverer might
sue for the lease before known Protestants, making
the defendant answer all interrogations on oath ; so
that the Catholic farmer dared not drain his fields,
nor inclose them, nor build solid houses on them."
" Even if a Catholic owned a horse worth more than
five pounds, any Protestant might take it away," on
payment of that sum. " To the native Irish, the
English oligarchy appeared as men of a different
race and creed, who had acquired the island by force
of arms, rapine, and chicane, and derived revenues
from it by the employment of extortionate under-
lings or overseers." *

The same disposition to invade and exterminate
showed itself on this side of the ocean.

In America, the Frenchman and the Spaniard
came in contact with the red man ; they converted
him to what they called Christianity, and then asso-
ciated with him on equal terms. The pale-face and
the red-skin hunted in company ; they fished from
the same canoe in the Bay of Fundy and Lake Su-
perior ; they lodged in the same tent, slept on the
same bear-skin ; nay, they knelt together before the
same God, who was " no respecter of persons," and
had made of one blood all nations of men! The

* Bancroft, ubi sup. p. 67, et seq.



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 11

white man married the Indian's daughter; the red
man wooed and won the pale child of the Caucasian.
This took place in Canada, and in Mexico, in Peru,
and Equador. In Brazil, the negro graduates at the
college ; he becomes a general in the army. But
the Anglo-Baxon disdains to mingle his proud blood
in wedlock with the "inferior races of men." He
puts away the savage — black, yellow, red. In New
England, the Puritan converted the Indians to Chris-
tianity, as far as they could accept the theology of
John Calvin ; but made a careful separation between
white and red, " my people and thy people." They
must dwell in separate villages, worship in separate
houses; they must not intermarry. The general
court of Massachusetts once forbid all extra-matri-
monial connection of white and red on pain of death !
The Anglo-Saxon has carefully sought to extermi-
nate the savages from his territory. The Briton does
so in Africa, in Van Dieman's Land, in New Zeal-
and, in New Holland — wherever he meets them.
The American does the same in the western world.
In New England the Puritan found the wild woods,
the wild beasts, and the wild men : he undertook to
eradicate them all, and has succeeded best with the
wild men. There are more bears than Indians in
New England. The United States pursues the same
destructive policy. In two hundred years more there
will be few Indians left between the Lake of the
Woods and the Gulf of Mexico, between the Atlan-
tic and Pacific Oceans.



12 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

Yet the Anglo-Saxons are not cruel; they are
simply destructive. The Dutch, in New York, per-
petrated the most wanton cruelties ; the savages
themselves shuddered at the white man's atrocity:
" Our gods would be offended at such things," said
they ; " the white man's god must be different ! "
The cruelties of the French, and, still more, of the
Spaniards in Mexico, in the West Indies, and South
America, are too terrible to repeat, but too well
known to need relating. The Spaniard put men to
death with refinements of cruelty, luxuriating in de-
structiveness. The Anglo-Saxon simply shot down
his foe, offered a reward for homicide, so much for a
scalp, but tolerated no needless cruelty. If the prob-
lem is to destroy a race of men with the least expen-
diture of destructive force on one side, and the least
suffering on the other, the Anglo-Saxon, Briton, or
American, is the fittest instrument to be found on
the whole globe.

So much for the Anglo-Saxon character in general,
as introductory to an examination of America in
special. It is well to know the anthropology of the
stock before attempting to appreciate the character
of the special people. America has the general
characteristics of this powerful tribe, but modified
by her peculiar geographical and historical position.
Our fathers emigrated from their home in a time of
great ferment, and brought with them ideas which



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 13

could not then be organized into institutions at
home. This was obviously the case with the theo-
logical ideas of the Puritans, who, with their de-
scendants, have given to America most of what is
new and peculiar in her institutions. Still more, the
early settlers of the North brought with them senti-
ments not ripened yet, which, in due time, devel-
oped themselves into ideas, and then into institutions.

At first necessity, or love of change, drove the
wanderers to the wilderness ; they had no thought
of separating from England. The fugitive pilgrims
in the Mayflower, who subscribed the compact,
which so many Americans erroneously regard as the
" seed-corn of the republican tree, under which mill-
ions of her men now stand," called themselves
"loyal subjects of our dread sovereign. King James,"
undertaking to plant a colony " for the glory of God,
and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor
of our king and country." In due time, as the colo-
nists developed themselves in one, and the English
at home in a different direction, there came to be a
great diversity of ideas, and an opposition of inter-
ests. When mutuality of ideas and of interests, as
the indispensable condition of national unity of ac-
tion, failed, the colony fell off" from its parent : the
separation was unavoidable. Before many years,
we doubt not, Australia will thus separate from the
mother country, to the advantage of both parties.

In America, two generations of men have passed

VOL. II. 2



14 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

away since the last battle of the Revolution. The
hostility of that contest is only a matter of history to
the mass of Britons or Americans, not of daily
consciousness ; and as this disturbing force is with-
drawn, the two nations see and feel more distinctly
their points of agreement, and become conscious that
they are both but one people.

The transfer of the colonists of England to the
western world was ah event of great importance to
mankind ; they found a virgin continent, on which to .
set up and organize their ideas, and develop their
faculties. They had no enemies but the wilderness
and its savage occupants. I doubt not that, if the
emigrant had remained at horhe, it would have taken
a thousand years to attain the same general develop-
ment now reached by the free States of North
America. The settlers carried with them the best
ideas and the best institutions of their native land —
the arts and sciences of England, the forms of a rep-
resentative government, the trial by jury, the Com-
mon Law, the ideas of Christianity, and the tradi-
tions of the human race. In the woods, far from
help, they were forced to become self-reliant and
Thrifty men. It is instructive to see w^hat has come
of the experiment. It is but two hundred and forty-
six years since the settlement of Jamestown — not
two hundred and thirty-four years since the Pilgrims
landed at Plymouth ; what a development since that
time — of numbers, of riches, of material and spir-
itual power !



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 15

In the ninth century, Korb Flokki, a half-mythical
person, " let loose his three crows," it is said, seeking
land to the west and north of the Orkneys, and went
to Iceland. In the tenth century, Gunnbjiorn, and
Eirek the Red, discovered Greenland, an " ugly and
right hateful country," as Paul Egede calls it. In
the eleventh century, Leife, son of Eirek, with Tyr-
ker the Southerner, discovered Vinland, some part
of North America, but whether Newfoundland, Nova
Scotia, or New England, I shall leave others to
determine. It is not yet four hundred years since
Columbus first dropped his anchor at San Salvador,
and Cabot discovered the continent of America, and
cruised along its shores from Hudson's Bay to Flor-
ida, seeking for a passage to the East Indies. In
1608 the first permanent British settlement was
made in America, at Jamestown ; in 1620 the pil-
grims began their far-famed experiment at Plymouth.
What a change from 1608 to 1854! It is not in my
power to determine the number of immigrants be-
fore the Revolution. There was a great variety of
nationalities — Dutch in New York, Germans in
Pennsylvania and Georgia, Swedes and Finns in
Delaware, Scotch in New England and North Caro-
lina, Swiss in Georgia ; Acadians from Nova Scotia,
and Hugenots from France.

America has now a stable form of government.
Her pyramid is not yet high. It is only humble
powers that she develops, no great creative spirit here



16



THOUGHTS OX AMERICA.



as yet enchants men with the wonders of literature
and art — but her foundation is wide and deeply laid.
It is now easy to see the conditions and the causes
of her success. The conditions are, the new conti-
nent, a virgin soil to receive the seed of liberty : the
causes were, first, the character of the tribe, and next,
the liberal institutions founded thereby.

The rapid increase of America in most of the ele-
ments of national power, is a remarkable fact in the
history of mankind.

Look at the increase of numbers. In 1689, the
entire population of the English colonies, exclusive
of the Indians, amounted to about 200,000. Twenty-
five years later there were 434,000, now 24,000,000.*



* Table of Population in 1715.



Colonies.


Whites.


Negroes.


1

Total.


New Hampshire ....

Massachusetts

Rhode Island

Connecticut

New York

New Jersey

Pennsylvania and Delaware

Maryland

Virginia

North Carolina

South Carolina


9,500
94,000

8,500
46,000
27,000
21,000
43,300
40,700
72,000

7,500

6,250


150
2,000
500
1,500
4,000
1,500
2,500
9,500

23,000
3,700

10,500


9,650
96,000

9,000
47,500
31,000
22,500
45,800
50,200
95,000
11,200
16,750


375,750


58,850


434,600



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 17

The present population of the United States con-



In 1754, another return was made to the Board of Trade, in
the following

Table of Population in 1754.

Whites. Blacks. Total.

1,192,896 292,738 1,485,634

We will now give the population at seven successive periods,
as indicated by the returns of the official census of the United
States.

Table of Population from 1790 to 1850.



Years.


Whites.


Free Colored.


Slaves.


Total.


1790


3,172,464


59,466


697,897


3,929,827


1800


4,304,489


108,395


893,041


5,305,925


1810


5,862,004


186,446


1,191,364


7,239,814


1820


7,872,711


238,197


1,543,688


9,654,596


1830


10,537,378


319,599


2,009,043


12,866,020


1840


14,189,555


386,348


2,487,355


17,069,453


1850


19,630,738


428,661


3,198,324


23,257,723



The following is the official report of Immigration from 1790
to 1850. Much of it is conjectural and approximate.

Table of Immigration fvm 1790 to 1850.
From 1790 to 1800 .... 120,000

• " 1810 to 1820 . . . . . 114,000

" 1820 to 1830 .... 203,979

" 1830 to 1840 778,500

" 1840 to 1850 .... 1,542,840

2,759,329

The immigrants are thus conjecturally distributed among the
nations of the earth. The estimate is a rough one.

Table of Nationality.

Celtic — Irish, (one half ) 1,350,000

Teutonic — Germans, Danes, Swedes, etc. (one fourth) 675,000
Miscellaneous — All othernations .... 734,329
The following statement exhibits the nationality of the immi-
2*



18 THOUGHTS ON AMERICA.

sists of the following ingredients. The numbers are
conjectural and approximate.

Table of Nationality.
White Immigrants since 1790, and their white

descendants 4,350,934

Africans, and their descendants . . . 3,626,585
White Immigrants previous to 1790, and their

-white descendants .... 15,279,804

This does not include the Indians living within
the territories and States of the Union. These facts
show that a remarkable mingling of families of the
Caucasian stock is taking place. The exact statistics
would disclose a yet more remarkable mingling of
the Caucasian and the Ethiopian races going on.
The Africans are rapidly " bleaching " under the in-



gration to the United States for the calendar year, 1851, (Dec. 31,
1850 to Dec. 31, 1851): —

Nationality of Immigrants in 1851.

From Great Britain and Ireland . 264,222

" Germany 72,283

" France 20,107

Of these there were Males . . . 245,017

" Females . . 163,745

" Unknown . . QQ

Table of Immigration foi' the frst four months of 1853.
From the British Islands . . . 15,023
" French Ports .... 8,768
" German Ports .... 3,511
" Belgian and Dutch . . . 2,747
" Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian 135



THOUGHTS ON AMERICA. 19

fluence of democratic chemistry. If only one tenth
of the " colored population " has Caucasian blood in
its veins, then there are 362,698 descendants of this
" amalgamation ; " but if you estimate these hybrids
as one in five, which is not at all excessive, we have



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