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LIBRARY ^

UNIVERSITY Of I
CALIFORNIA I

SAN OICSO j



2




I^S^



INTERNATIONAL SERIES, No. 3

KDITED HY

CAPTAIN ARTHUR L. WAGNER,

Sixth Infantry, U. S. Army; Instructor in the Art of War at the V. S.
Infantry and Cavalry School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

TACTICAL STUDII<:S

ON THE

Battles Around Plevna,

By THILO VON TROTHA,

Captain of the Grenadier Regiment P'rederick William IV. Attached).



WITH ONE MAP.



Translated by Carl Reichmann,

First Lieutenant gth Infantry, U. S. Army.



lyH-,.

HUDSON-KIMUKKI.Y rrBI.lSIllNC. COMTANY.

lOH lOlti WvANHorrF. Strekt.

KANSAS CITY. MO.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1896,

By HUDSON-KIMBKRLY PUBLISHING CO.,

In the OflSce of the Librarian of Congrsss, Washington, D. C.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.

Among the many books on the Turko-Russian war of
1877 8, two works stand out prominently; namely, Greene's
"Russian Campaigns in Turkey," which is universally recog-
nized as a military classic, and Von Trotha's able work,
which, though long and favorably known in Germany, is
here presented in English for the first time. Of the latter
work it is perhaps sufficient to say that, in its full and care-
ful consideration of tactical matters, it forms a worthy sup-
plement to the former, and as such it will doubtless prove
welcome to American and English readers.
U. S. Infantry and Cavalry School,

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1, 1896.



INDEX.

Ammunition supply, 52.

Archangel Regiment, at Plevna on July 19th, 43; inaction on July 20th,

46; losses on July 29th, 49; criticised, .52; at first battle of Plevna, 57;

at second battle'of Plevna, 105; at the last sortie, 185.
Armament of the opposing infantry, 212.
Arnoldi, General, supersedes Kryloff on the left bank of the Vid, 155;

at Dolni Dubnik, 167.
Artillery, comments on, 221.

Astrachan Dragoons, ordered to the left bank of the Vid, 134.
Babakonak pass, 37.

Bashi-bozouks, mentioned, 22, 77; on the left bank of the Vid, 141.
Bazaine, Marshal, his action at Metz, discussed, 196.
Berdan rifles used at Plevna by Russians, 117, 211.
Biskupski, makes a reconnaissance on July 29th, 68.
Bug Lancers, ordered to the left bank of the Vid, 141.
Caucasian Cossacks, action on night of 1.5th-16th July, 43; at Plevna

on July 19th, 43; in action July 20th, 48; at capture of Lovtcha, 83;

at second battle of Plevna, 94; on left bank of the Vid, 142; at

Gorni Dubnik. 160; at Telis, 169.
Cavalry, comments, 215.

Charkof Lancers, on the left bank of the Vid, 145.
Charles of Roumania, 15; commands Roumanian Army, 27; orders

final dispositions at Plevna, 184.
Chasseur regiments, at Gorni Dubnik, 163; at Telis, 165.
Chefket Pasha, reenforces the army at Plevna, 153; attempts to succor

the "etappen" posts, 169.
Chifsi Pasha, commanding the fortified posts in rear of Plevna, 154;

surrenders, 164.
Coast Arm}', mentioned, 9.
Combat, character of, 2"3.
Czarowitz, mentioned, 13, 15
Daniloff, General, at the last sortie, 186.
Danube campaign, review of, 9.

Dismounted fighting, criticised in the Russian Army, 219.
Dobrovolski, General, at capture of Lovtcha, 84; at second battle of

Plevna, 100; killed, 126.
Dobrudja, mentioned, 12.
Don Cossacks, before Plevna on July 19th, 43; in action of July 20th,

45; criticised, 51; at second battle of Plevna, 94; ordered to the

left bank of the Vid, 134; numbers, 216.
DoTobanzes regiments, at sortie of August 31st, 76; at second battle of

Plevna, 105; on the left bank of the Vid, 139.
Dragoon regiments, at sortie of August 31st, 76; on the left bank of

the Vid, 138; at Telis, 165; at Dolni Dubnik, 168; at investment of

Plevna, 182.
Ellis, General, at Gorni Dubnik, 159.
Entrenching tools, 212.
Estland Regiment, at capture of Lovtcha, 87; at second battle of

Plevna, 98.



Inaex. 5

Finland Regiment, at Gorni Dubnik, 162.

Fire of masses, 203.

Formak, General, commanding militia brigade, 157.

Fortresses and field entrenchments, 225.

Galitz Regiment, in action of July 20th, 47; at first battle of Plevna, 57;

at sortie of August 31st, 76; at second battle of Plevna, 94.
Ganetzki, General, commands a sector of the line of investment, 182;

at last sortie, 189; receives the surrender, 191.
Gorni Dubnik, use of artillery at, 224.
Gortaloff, Major, killed, 125.
Gourko, General, mentioned, 13, 15; in rear of Plevna, 155; captures

Gorni Dubnik, 162; seizes the passes over the Balkans, 183.
Grand Headquarters, mentioned, 13, 15.
"Green Hills" of Plevna, mentioned, 39; attacked, 98.
Grenadiers, arrive from Russia, 31; defeat the final sortie of the Turks,

33, 185; at Gorni Dubnik, 159; at Telis, 167; at investment of

Plevna, 182.
Grivitza redoubt, mentioned, 30, 97.
Guard corps, arrival from Russia, 31, 154; in actions in rear of Plevna,

174.
Haki Pasha, surrenders at Telis, 170.
Hussar regiments, at sortie of August 31st, 75; on the left bank of the

Vid, 143; at Telis, 165; at Dolni Dubnik, 168; at investment of

Plevna, 182.
Imeretinski, General, arrives from Lovtcha, 29; ordered to attack

Lovtcha, 83; at second battle of Plevna, 94.
Infantry, comments on, 209.

Ingermanland Regiment, at second battle of Plevna, 132.
Ismailof Regiment at Gorni Dubnik, 163.
Jablonitza pass, mentioned, 92.
Jaroslof Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 62; losses, 65; at sortie of

August 31st, 76; at second battle of Plevna, 108.
Kalarashi regiments, on the left bank of the Vid, 138.
Kaluga Regiment, at capture of Lovtcha, 86; at second battle of

Plevna, 98.
Kataley, General, commands a sector of the investment, 182.
Kazan Dragoons, ordered to the left bank of the Vid, 134.
Kazan Regiment, position on August 31st, 76; at capture of Lovtcha,

83; at second battle of Plevna, 108.
Kerim Pasha, his secret plan, 10, 2D2.
Kieff Regiment, at the second battle of Plevna, 94.
Koloma Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 59; losses, 65; assigned to

the left wing, 73; at sortie on August 31st, 76; at second battle of

Plevna, 108.
Kosloff Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 56; at second battle of

Plevna, 108.
Kostroma Regiment, arrives before Plevna, July 19th, 43; in the action

of July 20th, 47; losses, 49; criticised, -52.
Kourloff, General, at the last sortie, 189.
Krenk rifles, used by Russians, 117, 211.
Krishin redoubt, attacked, 98.
Kriidener, General, mentioned, 14; orders the occupation of Plevna,

24; reinforced, 25; defeated, 26; at the first battle of Plevna, 56;

criticised, 67; at the second battle of Plevna, 93; commanding a

sector of the investment, 181.



i5 Index.

Kryloff, General, commanding cavalry on the left bank of the Vid, 31;
commanding the Fourth Corps, 75; at the second battle of Plevna,
93; commanding the "combined cavalry corps," 142; driven back
by Turkish relief troops, 153.

Kuban Regiment, on the left bank of the Vid, 146; at Gorni Dubnik, 161.

Kuropatkin, Captain, at capture of Lo\i:cha, 89; at second battle of
Plevna, 113; wounded, 123.

Kursk Regiment, at battle of Plevna, 55; losses, 65.

Lancer regiments, at sortie of August 31st, 75; on the left bank of the
Vid, 135; at Dolni Dubnik, 168; at Telis, 170; at investment of
Plevna, 182.

Leontieff, General, at second battle of Plevna, 94.

Levis, Colonel, on the left bank of the Vid, 145; driven back by relief
troops, 154.

Libau Regiment, at capture of Lovtcha, 86; at second battle of
Plevna, 100.

Loshkareff, General, on the left bank of the Vid, 31, 134; at the first
battle of Plevna, 55; at the second battle of Plevna, 94; ordered to
Bogot, 142.

Lovtcha, mentioned, 83; advance on, 19, 83; arrangements for capture
of, 84; action on right bank of the Osma, 85; action on the left
bank, 87; losses, 88; attempts to relieve, 88; comments, 89.

Mariopul Hussars, on the left bank of the Vid, 145.

Mariopul Regiment, at the second battle of Plevna, 94.

Mehemed Ali Pasha, mentioned, 15,17; at Sophia, 32.

Midhat Pasha, governor of the Danube province, 35.

Moscow Regiment, at Gorni Dubnik, 159.

Moszewoi, Colonel, at second battle of Plevna, 115.

Muravieff, General, at investment of Kars, 192.

Mustahafiz, mentioned, 11.

National Guard, mentioned, 11.

Nicholas, Grand Duke, mentioned, 9.

Orloff, Colonel, at second battle of Plevna, 121.

Osman Pasha, mentioned, 10, 11, 14; starts from Widdin, 23; sortie of
August 31st, 28; surrenders, 34, 191; at second battle of Plevna,
119; supplies his army, 154; attempts to break the investment, 183.

Pawlof Regiment, at Gorni Dubnik, 162.

Peabody-Martini rifles, used by the Turks, 211.

Pelisha't, sortie of August 31st, 28, 75.

Penza Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 57; at second battle of
Plevna, 108.

Plans of operations, 19-^.

Plevna, review of operations around, 22; geographical conditions, 35;
topographical conditions, 38; fortifications, 40; advance on July
19th, 43; attack on July 20th, 14, 45; losses on July 20th, 49, battle
of July 30th, 54; position of troops on July 29th, 54; dispositions for
July 30th, 55; events up to 2:30 p. m. July 30th, .56; Russian right
attack July 30th, 57; Russian left attack Ju y 30th, 60; Skobeleff's
attack July 30th, 62; losses on July 30th, 65;' panic at Sistova, 65;
comments on battle of July 30th, 67; artillery attack on Septem-
ber 7th-10th, 93; comments on artillery attack, 101; battles on
September 11th andl2th, 10:^; dispositions on September 11th, 103;
attack on the Grivitza works, 105; attack on the Radischevo works,
107; attack on the Krishin works, 109; losses in second battle of



Index. 7

Plevna, 125; comments on second battle of Plevna, 127; cavalrv on
the left bank of the Vid, 134; cavalry under Loshkareff, 134; cavalry
under Kryloff, 142; comments, 148; investment from the west, 153,
communications to the rear, 153; Gourko's task and dispositions,
154; capture of Gorni Dubnik, 158; events at Telis on October
24th, 165; events at Dolni Dubnik on October 24th, 167; capture of
Telis on October 28th, 168; losses on the left bank of the Vid, 173;
comments on events in rear of Plevna, ^74; the fall of, 181; gen-
eral measures for the investment, 181; signs of the Turkish at-
tempt to break out, 183; Russian dispositions for December 10th,
183, events on the left bank of the Vid, 185; events on the right
bank of the Vid, 189; the surrender, 191; losses, 191; comments, 192.

Pokof Regiment, at capture of Lovtcha, 87.

Radischevo redoubt, attack of, 97; "Red Hill" at Lovtcha, 85.

Reaf Pasha, mentioned, 11.

Reval Regiment, at capture of Lovtcha, 86; at second battle of
Plevna. 109.

Richter, General, commanding bridge at Sistova, 66.

Rifle battalions, at capture of Lovtcha, 85; at second battle of Plevna,
100; in rear of Plevna, 15 ; at Gorni Dubnik, 161; at investment of
Plevna, 182.

Rifle-trenches, 203

Rodionof, General, at second battle of Plevna, 106; wounded, 126.

Rosalita pass, 37.

Roschiori, on the left bank of the Vid, 135.

Rosenbach, General, at Gorni Dubnik, 159.

Roumanian Army, mentioned, 10, 11, 16; joins the Russians, 27, 29;
at the investment of Plevna, 181.

Roumanian troops, at sortie of August 31st, 78; at second battle of
Plevna, 94; ordered to the left bank of the Vid, 134; at Dolni Dub-
nik, 168; at the last sortie, 185.

Rykatschef, Colonel, at second battle of Plevna, 107.

Rylsk Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 60; losses, 65.

Schilder-Schuldner, General, mentioned, 2+; ordered to advance, 43;
criticised, 50; at first battle of Plevna, 57.

Schnitnikoff, General, at second battle of Plevna, 108; commands the
fifth sector of the investment, 184.

Serpuchoff Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 59; losses, 65, in sup-
port of left wing, 73; at sortie of August 31st, 76; at second battle of
Plevna, 108.

Shakofskoi, General, at first battle of Plevna, 55.

Shernosuboff, General, on the left bank of the Vid, 141.

Shestakoff, at second battle of Plevna, 114.

Shipka pass, mentioned, 13, 17, 38.

Shuja Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 61; losses, 65; at sortie of
August 31st, 75; at capture of Lovtcha, 83; at second battle of
Plevna, 108.

Skobeleff, General, attacks the "Green Hills," 30; at first battle of
Plevna, 55; his use of the three arms, 74; at capture of Lovtcha, 83;
at second battle of Plevna, 98; commands a sector of the invest-
ment, 182; at the last .sortie, 189; his handling of artillery, 223.

Snider rifles, used by the Turks, 211.

South Army, mentioned, 9.

btalkenberg, Colonel, mentioned, 143.



8 Index.

Sulienian Pasha, mentioned, 11, 17.

Susdal Regiment, at sortie on August 31st, 75; at second battle of

Plevna, 101.
Tamboff Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 57; at second battle of

Plevna, 108.
Tcherkass, Colonel, mentioned, 147.
Tcherkesses, mentioned, 11, 22; on the left bank of the Vid, 1.37; at

Gorni Dubnik, 161; at Telis, 169; numbers of, 215.
Tchermat, General, commander-in-chief of the Roumanian Army, 46;

commanding a sector of the line of investment, 181.
Tebjanik, General, at second battle of Plevna, 114; wounded, 123.
Telis, use of artiller\' at, 223.
Tetewen pass, mentioned, 92.
"Three Wells," mentioned, 95.

Todleben, General, "assistant" to the commander-in-chief, 154; pre-
pares the investment of Plevna, 181.
Trajan's wall, mentioned, 12.
Trojan pass, mentioned, 37.

Turkish Army, mentioned, 10; strength at the end of August, 10, 81.
Turkish cavalry on the left bank of the Vid, 136.
Tutolmin, Colonel, at first battle of Plevna, 63; on the left bank of

the Vid, 143.
Uglitz Regiment, at sortie on August 31st, 75; at second battle of

Plevna, 108.
Vladi Caucasian Regiment, on the left bank of the Vid, 145.
Vladimir Regiment, at sortie of August 31st, 76; at second battle of

Plevna, 109.
West Army, strength of Russian, 30; strength at end of August, 81.
Widdin, mentioned, 23.

Wilhelminoff, General, at first battle of Plevna, 55
Wologda Regiment, before Plevna on July 19th, 43; in action of July

20th, 46; losses on July 20th. 49; criticised, 52; at first battle of

Plevna, 57; supports attack, 71; at second battle of Plevna, 106; at

the last sortie, 185.
Woronesh Regiment, at first battle of Plevna, 60; at second battle of

Plevna, 108.
Zeddeler, General, at Gorni Dubnik, 159.
Zgalevitza, sortie on August 31st, 28, 75; position of troops before, 75;

Turkish attack on, 76; Turkish repulse at, 78; Russian pursuit, 79;

losses at, 80; comments, 80.
Zimmerman, General, mentioned, 12.
Zotoff, General, commmands the Russian West Army, 27; at sortie of

August 31 9t, 76; chief of staff, 100; at second battle of Plevna, 121;

commands a sector of the investment, 182.



The Damihe Canijmif/v.



PART I.

IXTKODUCTORY REVIEW OF THE DANUBE
CAMPAIGN.

The army designated to operate against European Tur-
key, and called the Army of the South, was commanded by
the Grand Duke Nicholas and consisted of the YIIL, IX., XI.,
and XII. Corps of t\v(> infantry and one cayalry diyision
each, of the 4th Rifle Brigade, a combined Cossack diyision,
and a. number of separate Cossack regiments attached to the
corps and diyisions. On April 24th the Army began to
cross Mie Roumanian frontier, and (•omi)leted its strategic
deployment along the Danube during the ensuing month,
mostly by marching and to a smaller extent l)y the use of
the railroad, which was largely occupied hj the transport of
the heayy artillery, the pontoon ])arks, and other stores of
munitions and proyisions.

^^'hile the greater part of the cayalry held the line of
the Danube from the mouth of the Aluta downward, the
main body of the army stood toward the end of May in the
yicinity of Bucharest, the right wing at Slatina on the
Aluta, the left wing at Oltenitza on the Danube, On the
lower Danube was one diyision of the XI. Corps, strength-
ened by a. detachment of the ^'II. Corps, which latter, to-
gether with the X. Corps, constituted the Coast Army for
the pi'otection of the northern shores of the Black !r>ea.



10 T<i<-tic<il Shidiix oil the lidfth s Around I'lcina.

Of three other corps also mobilized and assigned to the
fiekl army, the XIV. Corps was directed to- advance to the
lower Danube and relieve there the division of the XL Corps
wiiich was to rejoin the main army, while the IV. and XIIL
Corps were to join tlit^ main army directly. Political reasons
preventedtlieRonmanian Army fr;)m active i)articipati()n in
the campaiji'n. This force consisted of four divisions posted
in Lesser Wallachia, and in a certain sense constituted the
right fltuik guard of' the Russian deployment in Greater
Wallachia.

On account of the complete absence of any fixed organi-
zation of the Turkish army, and on account of the unsettled
state of the Turkish Empire, the strength, distribution, and
special formation of the Turkish troops can not be given with
comx>lete accuracy, although the following round figures
may be approximately correct. At the time of the Russiaji
passage of the Danube there w^ere:

1. In the (]u ad ri lateral Shumla — Varna — Silistria —
Rustehuk, the main (East) army under Kerim Pasha, 100,000
strcmg, of which about 00,000 men may be considered avail-
able for field operations;

2. In the Dobrudja, about 10,000 to 15,000 men ;

'A. In Nikopolis, Sistova, and Tirnova, about 10,000
men ;

4. At Widdin, the Western Army under Osman Pasha,
50,000 strong, of which about 40,000 men probably marched
toward Plevna at the end of June ;

5. At Sophia, about 20,000 men, a. sort of reserve army,



The JJ(titiih( < '(niijKii(/ii. 11

for the most pai't a,lso niaitliin^' to Plevna to join Osnian
Pasha;

G. South of the Balkans, on the line Philii)i>opolis —
Adi'ia.n(>i)le, sonu^ 10,000 to 15,000 uwu iindtM- Ivcui' I'aslui,
will) (lid not assnnu' actual conunand until aftci- thr tirst
passages of the I^alkans by tlu^ Russians;

7. About 30,000 men under Suleiman I'asha, which had
been put in motion towai-<l Kounudia from the theater of war
in ^NIontenegTO ;

S. The reinforcements of regular troo]»s from Constan-
tinople, fr(un distant provinces, and from new organizations
which had been formed with considerable zeal and skill, are
estimated at not h^ss than 40,000 nn^n. Most nf tlu^se were
scmt to Suleiman Pa.sha.'s army.

The Tcherkesses,a.n irregular but excellent light cavalry,
numbering about 20,000 men, are included in the above data.
The Mustahaiiz or National Guard are not included, as their
militai'y value is doubtful and has not yet been tested in
actual conflict Avitli Russian troops.

On the side of the Russians the infantry divisions may be
put down at 10,000 men, the cavalry divisions at 2,'M) horses,
the Cotssack regiments at 500 horses; the entire tield army of
seren coiq^s is therefore to be estimated at about 150,000 in-
fantry, 25,000 cavalry, 20,000 special troops, and 800 field
guns; in. a<l<li1ion there was a. siege jtarlc of ."MO hea\y and
medium guns.

The R(Minianian Army, so far as lit for the held. ina>- be
estimated at 40,000 men.



12 Tdclival l^ludie-'i on (he Batilvs AroumI Plrnia.

Active pperations suffered a further poslponemeut of
four weeks through the unusually high and long-continued
rise of tJie Danube; the delay in the arrival of the large
masses of bridging material required, due to defective or-
ganization of the Roumanian railways; and the necessity of
rendering the Turkish monitor flotilla on the Danube harm-
less by the use of batteries and torpedoes.

On the 21st of June General Zimmermann crossed the
Danube at Galatz with the head of his (XIV.) corps, and es-
tablished himself on the opposite bank after a brisk engage-
ment. The remainder of his corps followed during the next
few days, and was subsequently joined by a. part of the VII.
Corps ; the whole constituted the so-called ^'Column of the
Lower Danube," which advanced through the Dobrudja,
meeting insignificant resistance on the part of the enemy,
and reached Kustendje and Trajan's Wall about the middle
€f July. None but small reconnoitering parties crossed this
line. Unfavorable sanitary conditions, difficulties of sup-
ply and the duty of guarding the shore line, caused the
larger portion of the column of 30,000 men to remain inactive
in the Dobrudja and to exercise no influence whatever on the
operations in Bulgaria beyond. The opposing Turkish
troops appear to have been greatly inferior.

We now turn to the main army. On the 27th of June
the VIII. Corps crossed the Danube at Zimnitza under a
sharp engagement with a Turkish brigade posted at Sistova ;
by the 5th of July the IX. and Xni. Corps, the 4th Rifle Bri-
gade, the Bulgarian Legion, and the combined Cossa<:'k



Tlic Ddinihc ('(nup(ii(/ii. 13

division had also completed their passage at this point.
Anticipatino- somewhat, we note here that by the middh' of
July the XL, XII., and IV. Corps were also brought to the
right bank.

The Yantra bridge at Biela having fallen into the hands
of the Russians on the 3d of July, General Gourko occupied
Tirnova on the 8th of July v^dth a mixed advance guard,
crossed the Balkans from here by the trail to the east of the
Shipka pass, reached the village of Hankioi at the southern
foot of the mountains on the 14th, and turned westward, took
Kazanlyk <m July ITlh, whn-c lir found liimsolf in tli<' rear
of the Shipka pass, which was unsuccessfully attacked on
the same day by a detachment of the VIII. Corps coming
from Gabrova. The appearance of Gourko in rear of their
position caused the weak Turkish garrison to evacuate the
pass on the 19th without resistance, and to i-ctreat by side
paths. One of the principal l.alkau passes was thus in
Russian hands.

Grand Headquai'ters was moved from Sistova to Biela
on the 8th of July, and thence to TirnoA'a on the 17th.

Tlie passage of the Balkans divided the Russian army of
operation in Bulgaria into three separate groups: the cen-
ter, consisting of th(^ N'lII. Coips ;ind Goui-ki)"s mixed ad-
vance guard, operated in the P.alkiUis and f«»r sonic linio also
to the south of them; the loft wing, ronsistiiig <»f the XII.
and XIII. Corps, charged with the investment and siege of
Rustchuk and placed under the orders of the Czarowitz,
extended along the Lorn from the Danube to Osman-Bazar,



14 Tdcticdl Sftnlics on the lUtttki^ Around I'lcrna.

Willi headquarters at Kadikioi. The ri<iht winj?, consisting
of the IX, Corps, under (xeneral Ivrudeiier,\vas cliarged in
the first ])lace with takinjr Nikopolis, j^niarding the line
Nikopolis — Phmia. — Lo^'tcha, and establishinj; eomniunica-
tion from the latter place with the center in the Balkans,
The IV. and XI. Corps were at this time in the act of c.ross-
ing: the Danube.

Meanwhile General Kriidener with the IX. Cwps had
moved on Nikopolis. On the loth of July the commandinji'
and strong^ly fortified positions in front of the x>l^ce were
taken by assault, and ol the Kith the o^arrison capitulated.

(>sman Pasha, who marched from Widdin with his
oorx)S about the end of June, had in the meantime- reached
Plevna without being discovered by the Russians. A weak
detacliment of the IX, Corjis dispatched against this place
on the 20th of July was repulsed with considerable loss.

The un<'xpected api>earance of this strong Turkish army
in the space between the \\(l and the Osma caused a com-
plete change in tlie situation.

Kriidener, with the IX, Corps reinforced by a brigade of
the XI, and a division of the I^", Corps, attacked Plevna on
the 30th of July and sutfered a heavy defeat,

Osman Pasha ^'a.s pre■^'ented, probably by the deficient
character of his army, from acting on the offensive and reap-
ing the fruits of his victory, and the Russian communica-
tions by way of Sistova, senously menaced at first, remained
undisturbed, XeverthelesS( the Russian offensive had not
only been checked for the present, but the Russians were



The Duniihe Ca»}piii(/ii. 15

obliged to make retrograde raovemeuts in the center and on
both, flanks.

On the left the Czaro\\itz. whose forces had been
angmented by a. part of the XI. Corps, raised th<' invest-
iinent of Knstchuk and took a defensive position along the
Black Lorn against the Tnrkish army assembling in his
front. After his snccessful passage of the Balkans, (Jonrko
extended his troops in the Tundja valley, called the Bul-
garians to arms, spread terror and confusion as far as IMiil-
ippopolis and Adrianople. He was defeated at Eski-Zagra on
the 31st of July and compelled to retreat to Kazaulyk. by
Suleiman I'asha., who had brought his corx)s, heretofore em-
ployed against ^Montenegro, by water from Antivari to Ded-
eag at the mouth of the Maritza, thence by rail to Adriano-


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