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7.
Twelfth Annual Report



OF the;



Bureau of

Statistics and Inforaation

OF Maryland.

1903.

THOMAS A. SMITH, Chief.




110 WEST SARATOGA STREET,

BALTIMORE, AD.



baIvTimore;, md.
wm. j. c. dui,any co., sta'r:^ printer.

1904.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

BaIvTimore, March i, 1904.
To His Excellency ,

Kdwin Warfield,

Governor of Maryland:

Sir: In accordance with the statutory directions, I have
the honor to submit for your consideration my fourth and the
Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Infor-
mation of Maryland.

Most respectfully yours,

THOS. A. SMITH,

Chief.



Postscript: Since the copy of this report has been placed
in the hands of the State Printer, the great fire of Feb-
ruary 7-10, 1904, occurred in Baltimore, and the entire con-
tents of the Bureau, including library, files and statistics,
were totally destroyed.

Respectfully,

THOS. A. SMITH,

Chief.



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive

in 2010 witii funding from

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation



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CONTENTS.



age.

Letter of Transmittal 3

Contents 5

Prefatory 7

Introduction 9

Industrial 13

Strikes and Lockouts 26

Labor Organizations 60

Sweat Shop Inspections 65

Report of Free Employment Agency 95

Employment of Children in Mercantile Establishments 102

Employment of Women and Children in Factories 104

Bread — Production and Distribution 133

Agriculture —Resume of Cost of Production .' 157

The State of Maryland — Its Counties, Resources and Manufactures 164

Immigi-ation into the State 274

New Corporations in Maryland 278

Convention of National Bureaux of Labor Statistics 299

New Labor Laws 303

Financial Statement 313

Decision of Court of Appeals in Sweatshop Case 315

Index 327-331



PREFATORY.



The Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics
and Information represents the work of the fourth year by
the present incumbent. As to whether or not this and the
three preceding years have been properly utilized by the
Bureau, I must, of course, leave to the public, but from our
numerous letters of commendation, and the favorable com-
ment from time to time by the public press and people, I am
justified in saying that much good work has been accom-
plished, and that a fair start has been made in the effort to
make the Bureau of Statistics and Information a useful
adjunct to the State Government.

In the pages that follow will be found recommendations in
reference to the present Statutes now on the law books of the
State, passed by the I^egislature with a view to ameliorating
the condition of those who toil.

The successful beginning of the work of the Free Employ-
ment Agency, and the carrying out of the provisions of the
Factory Inspection Act, so well begun in 1902, is fully set
forth in the pages that follow, and if properly sustained by
the Court of Appeals, in the case now pending, and continued
in the same spirit by this department, there is no doubt of
the great value it will prove to the working people of the
State, and the manufacturing and business men at large.
The standard of clothing manufactured in Baltimore has
already been raised to a very considerable extent, and the
entire elimination of the evils complained of in sweat shops
and factories may be brought about if the work is continued.

The resume of previous work done in relation to the cost of
production on the farm and agriculture generally, will bear
close inspection, as it was a novel departure in securing exact
data on such a subject, and in connection with the accounts
of the progress made by the various counties of the State,
both from a manufacturing and agricultural standpoint, with



8 PREFATORY.

an account of their natural advantages for settlement, will, no
doubt, prove interesting as well as useful, both as an adver-
tisement of the State's resources and as a reference chapter
for our citizens generally.

Much of the work of the Bureau has been of a purel}'- tenta-
tive character in these four years, it being necessarj^ to estab-
lish a standard and progress from that standard upward,
breaking new ground, and filling the wide scope given the
Bureau by the Statute creating it.

We present in this volume the most complete record of
labor organizations and strikes ever published, and we look
forward to the time when this department of the report will
be a feature of no small consequence.

Thousands of letters, postal cards and books were sent out
during the j^ear in answer to inquiries for information, etc.,
and furnish ample evidence of the growing value of the de-
partment.

I also desire to take this means of expressing my sincere
appreciation of the work of Jacob G. Schonfarber, who has
been my efficient assistant during the past four years.

I desire to extend my thanks to the force in my office for
their conscientious helpfulness, and to many of the citizens
and officials of the State who have encouraged me by their
kindness, as well as commendation.



INTRODUCTION.



Since appointed to this office four years ago, my constant
aim has been to obey the law creating the Bureau ; give to the
people some tangible evidence of the usefulness of the depart-
ment, and suggest such changes in the laws as would
inure to the benefit of the citizens of the State and the particu-
lar interests committed to the Bureau's charge.

That we have in a measure accomplished this, I feel satis-
fied. In the four years we have established the Free Employ-
ment Agency, secured the adoption of an inspection law, and
gathered considerable information, which has been sought and
widely disseminated, all editions of the reports of the depart-
ment for the four years having been completely exhausted.

There are many laws on the statute books of this State
favorable to labor's interests, and which would, if enforced, make
far better conditions among those who toil for a living. Among
these may be included such acts as the law prohibiting the
employment of children under fourteen years of age, the sweat-
shop inspection act, the monthly payment of wages act, the act
providing for seats for female employees in stores, and other
similar- statutes; but unfortunately there is little, if any, pro-
vision for the enforcement of these acts. I would
advise that an amendment be made to the laws indicated, plac-
ing the responsibility for the enforcement of this legislation
and the observance of the laws upon the chief of this Bureau,
holding him strictly accountable for such enforcement. That
is to say, the police department having all it can attend
to without being put to the duty of making inspections and
laying information, should simply be the force through which
the Bureau of Statistics and Information would carry out the
law. At present, little, if any, attempt is made to enforce these
acts of the Legislature, and the amelioration of the condition
of the thousands of persons who might be benefited thereby is



lO INTRODUCTION.

left unaccomplished, notwithstanding the intentions of the
Legislators.

Two years ago, as noted in the Tenth Annual Report of this
Bureau, the paramount question in labor and other circles was
arbitration. The Civic Federation of Chicago had discussed
the question at length, at its session in New York, and recom-
mended to the various States, to the labor organizations,
and to the National Government the adoption of a conciliation
and arbitration act, voluntary in character, which it was con-
ceded would largely meet the wants of the situation.

At the session of the Legislature that year this Bureau recom-
mended the adoption by the General Assembly of a publicity,
conciliation and arbitration act, on the lines indicated
by the Civic Federation. This act, if enacted, would
have been of considerable utility in the past year or
two in Maryland. Unfortunately, after having passed
the Maryland State Senate, and having received two
readings in the House, owing to the rush of busi-
ness, failed to be taken from the files before the final
adjournment of the Legislature. We believe this act would be
useful and would largely enable employers and employees of
this State to get together when occasion required.

Nearly all the labor difficulties arise from one or two
causes, namely : The demand for higher wages, or the reduc-
tion of the hours of labor. The condition of the employers'
business and the status of the workingman are largely questions
for discussion and argument, and if the parties can be brought
properly together, with the advice of the State, there is little
doubt that many disastrous and costly strikes might be avoided.
Therefore, this Bureau renews this recommendation to the
Legislature, now in session at Annapolis, for the adoption
of this legislation, which is herewith reprinted for the consid-
eration of its members.



INTRODUCTION. II

A BILL "' " '■•

Entitled an Act providing means for the settlement of dispntes between

employers and employees by mediation, voluntary arbitration, and the

investigation of the causes of such disputes.

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That
upon information furnished by an employer of labor, whether person,
firm or corpocation, or by a committee of employees, or from any other
reliable source, that a controversy or dispute has arisen between em-
ployer and employees, involving ten or more persons, which controversy
or dispute may result in a strike or lockout, the chief of the Bureau
of Industrial Statistics of Maryland, or such person officially connected
with said Bureau of Industrial Statistics as may be deputized in writing
by the chief of said Bureau of Industrial Statistics, shall, at once,
visit the place of controversy or dispute and seek to mediate between
the parties, if in his discretion, it is necessary so to do.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That if mediation cannot be
effected as provided in Section i of this Article, the chief of the Bureau
of Industrial Statistics, or such person officially connected with said
Bureau as may be by him deputized in writing, may at his discretion
endeavor to secure the consent of the parties to the controversy or dis-
pute to the formation of a board of arbitration, which board shall be
composed of one employer and one employee engaged in the same or
similar occupation to the one in which the dispute exists, but who are
not parties to the controversy or dispute, and to be selected by the
respective parties to the controversy; the third arbitrator may be
selected by the two first named arbitrators, and said third arbitrator so
selected shall be president of the board of arbitration; and upon the
failure of the two first named arbitrators as aforesaid to agree upon
the third arbitrator, then the chief of the said Bureau of Industrial
Statistics shall act as such third arbitrator or he may deputize in writing
some person officially connected with the said Bureau so to act, and
said chief or the person who may be deputized by him shall act as
president of said board.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the president of said board
provided for in Section 2 of this Article shall have power to summon
witnesses, enforce their attendance and administer oaths and hear
and determine the matter in dispute, and within three days after the
investigation render a decision thereon, a copy of which shall be fur-
nished each party to the dispute and shall be final.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacfed, That in all such cases of dis-
pute as aforesaid, as in all other cases, if the parties actually
agree that the matter in dispute shall be arbitrated and deter-
mined in a mode different from the one hereby prescribed, said agree-
ment shall 'be valid, and the award and determinaion thereon by either
mode of arbitration shall be final and conclusive between the parties.
It shall be lawful in all cases for an employer or employee, by writing



12 INTRODUCTION.

under his hand, to authorize any person to act for him in submitting
to arbitration and attending the same.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That the Board of Arbitration shall
employ a clerk at each session of the board, who shall receive three
dollars per day for his services, to be paid upon the approval of the
chief of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics out of the funds appropri-
ated for the expenses of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That should the chief of the Bureau
of Industrial Statistics or the person deputized by him as aforesaid
fail to mediate or secure the consent of the parties to the controversy
or dispute, submit the matter to arbitration, then the said chief of the
Bureau of Industrial Statistics or the person deputized by him as
aforesaid shall proceed to thoroughly investigate the cause of the
dispute or controversy; he shall have the authority to summons both
parties to appear before him and take their statements in writing,
and under oath, and having ascertained which party is, in his judgment,
mainly responsible and blameworthy for the continuance of said con-
troversy or dispute, shall publish a report in some daily newspaper
assigning such responsibility or blame over his official signature.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of the in-
vestigation as aforesaid, the chief of the said Bureau of Industrial Sta-
tistics or such person as he may deputize in writing as aforesaid, shall
have power to administer oaths, to issue subpoenas for the attendance
of witnesses, and to enforce the attendance of witnesses, production
of papers and books, to the same extent that power is possessed by
courts or record or judges thereof in this State.

Sec 8. And be it further enacted, That all information of a personal
character or pertaining to the private business of any person, firm or
corporation, or which might have a tendency to expose the profits
or methods of doing business by any person, firm or corporation com-
ing to the knowledge of the chief of the said Bureau of Industrial
Statistics or person deputized by him, or to the arbitrators selected
under the aforesaid provisions, shall be deemed confidential and so
treated, and all documents and testimony taken shall be sealed and
filed in the office of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics.

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That all Acts inconsistent with this
Act be, and the same are hereby repealed.

Sec. 10. And be it further enacted. That this Act shall take effect from
the date of its passage.



INDUSTRIAL.



COST OF LIVING, WAGES, LABOR ORGANIZATIONS,
STRIKES, ETC.

Much has been written about the rise in wages and the in-
creased cost of living. No one disputes the latter fact. But
many dispute the amount of increase of wages. According
to the reports of the National Bureau of lyabor, issued in the
bulletin of November, 1903, the increased cost of living in
1902, as compared with the year of lowest prices since igooj
has been about 16. i per cent. This is the scientific deduction
from figures gathered in a scientific way; but we venture the
assertion that any housekeeper in the land will insist that
when she goes to market or to the dressmaker the prices she
will have to pay are much more than 16 per cent, above what
she paid in 1892. The report also shows that the average in-
come runs from $700 upward to $89 1 , and it does not need much
stretch of imagination to understand that this range of income
is much higher than would result from an investigation into
the incomes of the entire working population of the country.
Of course this increased cost of living of 16 per cent, is suffi-
cient to justify an increase of wages of equal amount to keep
the working people anywhere near the same relative position
they occupied before the rise in the cost of living; but if we
take into consideration the fact that with this rise in prices
and wages (the latter admittedly not over 10 per cent.), there
is also a rise in the standard of living and an increase in the
growing wants of the people, it will plainly be seen that the
wage increase is inadequate.

Without attempting to criticize the figures or methods of
the National Bureau, or differ with its conclusions as to the
increased cost of living, it is manifestly fair that attention be
called to the statements made in the eleventh annual report of
this Bureau. Therein it was stated that the figures gathered



H REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF

in this city showed a much greater increase in the prices of
products than is shown in the national report; but, of course,
the inquiry was more limited, and among those whose in-
comes were much smaller than shown by the average of those
in the national report. It would be interesting to enlarge this
field of inquiry as to the rise and fall of prices and wages, and
as far as possible secure data more satisfactory than any now
possessed by the general public.

In the last six months a reaction has set in in the industrial
world, and already the papers tell us of reduction in wages
without corresponding reductions in the prices of products.
Of course, Maryland has not suffered very much as yet from
the reaction. Always last to feel the upward tendency in
prices, our people are equally loth to cut wages, and it is to
be hoped before any such necessity arises the spring will have
again opened with industrial and building activity.

As an index to the fluctuation of retail prices in Baltimore
markets, we present in the following table a few comparative
figures of such prices in Baltimore in January, April, October
and December of 1903.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



15



AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN MARKETS IN BALIMORE, 1903.



Artici.es.



Fruit—

Oranges, per dozen

Pineapples, piece

Apples, peck

Vegetables —

Cabbage, per head

Lettuce, per head

White Potatoes, per peck.
Sweet Potatoes, per peck.

Carrots, bunch

Turnips, peck

POUT.TRY —

Roasting Fowls, per lb

Frying Chickens, per lb...,

Ducks, per lb

Turkeys, per lb

Butter and Eggs.

Fresh Eggs, per dozen

Packed Eggs, per dozen...
Butter, per lb

MEAT—

Porterhouse Steak, per lb

Sirloin Steak, per lb

Round Steak, per lb

Rib Roast, per lb

Chuck Roast, per lb

Corn Beef, per lb

Soup Meat, per lb

Veal — Roast

Veal— Cutlets

Veal — Chops

Fish —

Perch — White, per dozen.
Perch — Yellow, per dozen

Salmon, per lb

Rock, per lb



Cents

25
22

45



5K

30

30

5

20



13
15
16
16



32
23
30



25
17
14
17
9

ID

7
13
22
16



25
25
20
16



•n



Cents

40

22>^

55



6K
7K

25

40

5



18
20



16



27



25
18

14
18
II
II
9 ^

I2>^

25

15



45



25
20



Cents

45
18

35



5'A
4
28

30

5

25



16

i7
18



28

23
28



22
17
13
17
10
10

9

I2>^

25
15



60



15



Cents

35
25
37



6

7>^
30
30

5
20



15
16

17
19



37%
28

35



22

17
13
17
10
10
9

I2>

25

15



60
50



NEW LEGISLATION.

During the past year the Bureau has been actively engaged
in performing the work laid out in the larger sphere by the
legislation of two years ago. The Employment Agency and
Sweat-Shop Act. and the investigation into the conditions
surrounding women and children in the factories and work-
shops, in addition to numerous other small duties, has fully
occupied our attention, but not so much as to obscure the very
general demand for specific information as to wages and the
cost of living.

In previous reports of the Bureau we have presented data
and tables showing to what extent wages had increased and
hours of labor decreased, as well as the great increased cost of
living.

According to the figures recently published b}^ the United
States Department of Labor and the various State Bureaus,
this increase of wages, though general throughout the country,
is not as great as has been generally exploited by the news-
papers, and the following tables, culled from various sources and
collated in the New York Labor Bulletin of December, 1903,
will prove of interest and value for reference.

In examining the following figures it should be remembered
that they are taken under circumstances peculiar to the indus-
tries, most of the schedules being from organized workingmen
in the best equipped shops, working under the best conditions,
and that they do not indicate the actual conditions of the
vast army of unorganized and unskilled labor, comprising the
bulk of the 20,000,000 workers of the country.

THE TREND OF WAGES IN RECENT YEARS.

The recent report of the United States census office on wages
of factory operatives in 1890 and 1900 alludes to the inevitable
incompleteness of statistics for such widely separated periods ;
in view of which, the following statistics of wages in the last
decade have been collated from the reports of State bureaus
of labor statistics. To supplement these figures two tables are
also given containing statistics published by Federal bureaus
and covering agriculture, manufacturing and transportation.

r6



STA'J'ISTICS AND' INFORM A'l'ION. 1 7



WAGES IN TIJE UNITED STATES.



Maniikacturinc;
AND Mining.

[iJasfd on

reports from 14H

establishments in 26

industries, represent-

iuif 192 occupations.]

1891 taken as 100.


AOKICULTITRAT-.

[Relative

waues of farm

labor, per month

without board.]

1891=100.

98.6
lOO.O


lOO.O

100.3
99-32
98.06
97.88

97-93
98.96

98.79
101.54




102.6

95-4
95.1








104.2
108.7



Year.

1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899 ■

1900 103.43 "

Railroad Transportation (a).

AVERAGE daily COMPENSATION OF SPECIFIED CLASSES OF EMPLOYEES IN

Classes of Employes. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897.

General officers [ ^^ n, ^n ^^ fe 71 $9 01 $9 19 $9 54



§?h=Toffifers"!;::::;: i tin iszo



5 75 5 85 5 96 5 12

General office clerks... 2 23 2 25 2 34 2 19 221 2 18

Station agents i 82 i 83 i 75 i 74 i 73 i 73

Other station men i 68 i 65 i 63 i 62 i 62 i 62

Enginemen 3 68 3 68 3 61 3 65 3 65 3 65

Firemen 2 08 2 06 2 03 2 05 2 06 2 05

Conductors 3 08 3 10 3 04 3 04 3 05 3 07

Other trainmen i 90 i 92 i 89 i 90 i 90 i 90

Machinists 2 29 2 31 2 21 2 22 2 26 2 23

Carpenters 2 08 2 10 2 02 2 03 2 03 2 01

Other shopmen i 72 i 73 i 69 i 70 i 69 i 71

Section foremen i 76 t 75 i 71 i 70 i 70 i 70

Other trackmen i 22 i 22 i 18 i 17 i 17 i 16

Switchmen, flaginen,

watchmen i 80 i 82 i 75 i 75 i 74 i 72

Telegraph operators

and dispatchers i 92 i 96 i 93 i 98 i 93 i 90

Employes — account

floating equipment... 2 03 i 96 i 97 i 91 i 94 i 86
All other employes

and laborers i 68 i 70 i 65 i 65 i 65 i 64



a Based on the reports of the statistician of the Interstate Commerce
Commission.



i8



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OE



Railroad Transportation (a) — Con.



General officers

Other officers

General office clerks.

Station agents

Other station men....

Enginemen

Firemen

Conductors

Other trainmen

Machinists

Carpenters

Other shopmen

Section foremen

Other trackmen

Switchmen, flagmen,

watchmen

Telegraph operators

and dispatchers

Employes — account

floating equipment
All other employes

and laborers

Total















No. of














Employes?.


1898.


1899.


1900.


1901.


1902.


1902.


$9 73


|io 03


|io 45


$10 97


Jll


17


4,816


5 21


5 18


5 22


5 56


5


60


5.039


2 25


2 20


2 19


2 19


2


18


37,570


I 73


I 74


I 75


I 77


I


80


33.478


I 6i


I 60


I 60


I 59


I


61


105.433


3 72


3 72


3 75


3 78


3


84


48,318


2 09


2 10


2 14


2 16


2


20


50,651


3 13


3 13


3 17


3 17


3


21


35.070


I 95


I 94


I 96


2 00*


2


04


91.383


2 28


2 29


2 30


2 32


2


36


39.145


2 02


2 03


2 04


2 06


2


08


51,698


I 70


I 72


I 73


I 75


I


78


136,579


I 69


I 68


I 68


I 71


I


72


35.700


I 16


I 15


I 22


I 23


I


25


281,075


I 74


I 77


I 80


I 74^


I


77


50,489


I 92


I 93


I 96


I 98


2


01


28,244


I 89


I 89


I 92


I 97


2


00


7,426


I 67


I 68


I 71


I 69


I


71


147,201



1.189,315



^Switching train crews transferred from "Switching," etc., to "Other
Trainmen." Change slightly affects enginemen, etc.



STATISTICS AND INl'ORMATION.



19



CALIFORNIA.
< Ninth and Tenth Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.)



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