Copyright
Thomas A. Smith.

Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) online

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120

1,200

1,800




48
1,800
1,800




75
4,800
4,200












1,800


2,500


8,000
200

75
100

65
100

85
80

50

175


1,000








tig

[20




600
600






475
375




100
100

65
100

125
50
20
50











[21








[22










[23

[24

[26




240
120
360
240
1,200


300
120




150

150

75

300

2,244

1.500








20
24






24


[27







150


?8






[29
[^0


200
70
90

200

175

160

200

263

400

150

100

50

30

50

25

75

400

30
100


50
70
100
60
250
200
100
141




300
300
300
300


600






300

J 50

r,5oo




[31
[32

C33




180


120






100


125








360
180
360
120
360
120
360


300
240






135
t36
[37

r^8

















150


36


75

100

40

30

150

100

75
150

16
300




360




^39
[40






770
300


24


360


240


MT






I/]?.


250
100




1,200

1 ,800

360

120






M3








[44


240
96
48

600


120


150
150


36
36
12


i/]6




M7


360














1




30.413


13.903


1,495


38,130


35,285


18,972


775,147


3,553



150 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF



DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCT.



The product of these establishments is distributed in lour
different ways, namely: Through the shops where the
bakery is located, through hand or wagon delivery at the
homes of the people, or by being sold at other shops owned
by the bakery, or to other shop keepers. We have not tabu-
lated the products sold in other shops owned by the bakery
baking the product, nor the amount sold to other shop
keepers, because they are of small amounts, but have grouped
them in the small table that follows the table. We have,
however, brought together in tabular form how much is sold
in the shop at the bakery and the amount sold by hand and
wagon deliver5^ which very largely covers the entire product
of the 146 establishments.

The totals of these various deliveries need not be repeated
here, but suffice to say that nine-tenths of the entire product
of the bakeries of Baltimore is delivered by hand or by wagon
to the homes of the people, or is sold directly from the shops
to the consumer.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



151



4)

a


Amount Soi i? in Shop at Bakery.


Amount Sold Through Hand and
Wagon Delivery.


1

w


♦J

V

(0

HI

>



h4


Pi
at
(LI
>


M

a

tn




a;


Ph


-r-(

(0


u


en

a

pi

P

CO

lU



V

Pk


en

cd
in

C



Ah


en

<u

CO

HI


a


■(J

cd
CI

<n

%

cd

h4


(U

?-,

Pi
tn
V

>
cd



M

"a

u

ft

a

a

Pm

10

CI

>

§

...
20

17


10

a
s
w

CO

u


V


(0

■3

in

3

CO

CI



V


i

a

bJO
3


Q

CO
CI

u
it


<n

V
M
cd

CO



Pl*


u

s

CO

V

u


I


75
100

75
33
25
75

30
60
50
10

30
25
50
10

35

15

180

55

5

20

25

7

ICX)

75
12

75

325

50

40

100

50

40

50

45

75

65

100

10


50

75

50

300

25

75

30
40
10
70
20
15
50
150
10

50
20

125
2
6

30
105

50
4

30

75
5

25
50
60

75
25
55
25
15
50
10

25
10


25

500
"8

12


600
120
120
240
240

360

300

'"60
120

"'"60

""60

24

144

96

"i56
240
48
144
460
340
240
150
120
180
120
360
72
180
240
i8c






30


40
24

18
40

...
12

18






120

480
360
372

420

""60

120
180

36

324
144

«50

312
120
228

360










2


180




100

125

67

55

125

50

250
10


75
100

550

40

125

175

40

150

20


120




24


3
4
5
6




10
20
15




40




240




360





3° i

20 1

1










7
8






.....„^










9
10






















II


120

144


120




120

156


120






12






13
14
15
t6


1










3%'


50
10

65
20


150
10
70
40






















3^




17
t8














1... .










19
20


60




15























21
22


84
48

"96

156
96

180
30
72

300

120
600

180
120

72


24

48

180


5


170
10


19

55


276

96


■■■36


15




23
24

25
26

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
56

37
38
39
4C

41








20














13
200

25
38


6
70
25
15


324

204


1




84

2T6

300
180
144
144
144
72


8
10
II
10
8
8
10


156


17




90


960


34


54


50


50


























100
250

125

15

225


175

75

5

150


90


72


i>^




72
300

444
12


15
25
15
13
4
50










24


396

156

24


75
5

37




240
600




600


75


240




50





152



RErcn^T OF THE BUREAU OF



J Amount Sold in Shop at Bakery.



W



42! 6

43J 15

44, 120

45; 50

46; 60

4/1 225

481 15

49! 100

50 10



51
52



53 40
541 100

55 15

56 100

57 20

58

59 27
6oj 100

61 100

62 100

631

64I 100

65, 152
66! 12

25
200

30
30
30
18
80
45

250

100

17

15

100

20



67
68
69
70
71
72

73
74
75
76

77
78

79
80
81
82






CU



10

20

100

50

35
50
75
50
25
25
20
80

15
20

25



180
168
120

144
120
480
144
60

600
120



120
180



240
192

120

180

240

180

120

48

96

60

72
120

144

300

72



300
60



240



144



120

60



180
60



bo

480

120

84

168

240

120

72

36

60

. 24



72
240

24

120

60



180
360

144

600



240



600



Amount Sold Through Hand and
Wagon Delivery.



3
12
18

2

22K
40
8
40



30
50
35



35

25

87K

10

20

25

30



120
480

"60
360



96

180
120
"60



15
60



12
50



50



25

2>^
15



24



72



35

50

25

225

100



100
155



128



160

200
38
48
50

100
70



120
90

510
300

33

10

700

55



ID
100



^4



15



20

125

5

75

120

25
30



40
180



10

150

60

25

175

50



60



480

"60

1,200



60



480



180
120
480



84
132

144
120



900
72



120 60



60



60



360



300



360



720



60 120
120' 120



a



2

15

35



40



16

20

150



10
25



15



480

156

72

600



552



180
180



204



240



60



15
15



25



35



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



153





Amount vSold in vShoi' at


IUkicky.


Amount Soij> Tiirovcu Hand
Wagon DkIvIVERY.


AND


.2

en


V

a

pi


a

V

in

<u




tn

OJ

t-
CS

l-I


M
i-i

E

Pl.
U]

>


.-I


en

pq

(n

a<
u

5


tn

u

W

<u



(n

"3

bc



Q
tn

u
Pm


tn

(LI

M

CJ
en
(U
CJ

i!

TOO
20
50
20

25


en

en
01
CJ

5


V

en

<Ll


h4


6

en
(U




1

P^

en
eu

a


J


en

c

3

en
<u
u

(LI


en
• t^

3

en

m

(n

V
ej
(U

Pu


"So
3


Q

CO

<u



en

9)

0) ^

fO 0)

a ^
.2

PU [ PLi


83
84

85

86


100

50

100

100
15
25
10

25

5

1;

28
50
30
15
20
10
50
90
120
80
50
25
25
15
30
6
20

25
20

15
750

200
50
25
65
50


100
50
50
10
50
10

25
10

25
10
20

15
130
10
40
20

25
20

25
15
50

35
30
14
10

14

50

125

25

75
25
65
50


15

20
50

12

25
90


120

360

300

120
60
48

120
96
96

120

240

120
144
204

144
180
60
288
600

"■36
120
144

"60
300
900

600
420

120


240
60
300
180
240
60
300

"60


300


300
\50


300
50


280

ft.

75


"60
180

360

120
120

72
180

"180
60

"60

840
600

180
120


240
60


1












S7
88
59
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

97
98

99
100


100

85


25
90


24ri
180


372


1


25




10
10






















5
10

25

30
150

75
75


40
20

45

10

25

50

35










24
120
60
48
36
84
120

36

96

96

180


180




36


120












120








1




48




i


2AO


4
















lOI










102
103
104
105
106


48
600


4
50

5
15

2

5

12

3K


84


132

600


II

25








180




15






240














107
108












109
no


220


220


















III


48
120






130

10

2000

250


25

330

15










112

113
114

"5

116
117

tt8










24
432
900


9<


30


3^
94
III


24

1200

600








600


150

86








25
15




119
120
















25
75

50


25
75

50






ID




121








122
123


120






15


"180










154



RF.PORT OF THIv BUREAU OF



a

a


Amount Sold in Shop at Bakery.


Amount Sold Through Hand and
Wagon Deiiivery.


in

(0

o

u
a

3


ca

(0

0)

>


60
60
50
87

125
70
20

200

75

60

100

100

400

50

50

50

30

20

10

75

125

30

25


6

tn

>
ca


75
30
20

25

30

70

25
60
100
75
50
41

25
50
40
30
50
25
75
50
16
100


"a
u

"&■

3
s

(0

>


25

75
25


to

a
s
pq

tn
«

60
240
240
600

180
300
120
300

120
120

120
120
120
120
360

360

48

300


en

y

M
en

V

y


"5

w


Q

en

H

u

V


CI

a
U
en

n
a


Ph


tn

a
K

tn

HI


<u


en

(LI

>

CS




tn

tA


1-r


a

u

Ph

3

a

Q-,
tn

41
>
a

h4


en

a
a
PQ
tn

(U

y

a
60

120
120

180

240
240
120



300
13074


i

"B

y
.2

pq

tn

m
y
_y

60


1 <n

a

a

•a
bp



Q

en
i<

y

Pu


en

en

a


PL,


tn

V
en

(U

y


124

125


60




10

20

75
75


ID
15
24

75
100

36
12

36
36
12


25

20


50
20




100

175
75

890






10

9


126












T27










T28




360


75
70




20



75










129

130




240






20
10

75






131


96


120






7




132








133






100
100
100
163


150

125

50

100










134


96
120

120








180








135












T3<^






120








137




7/2








T3«


100
50

30
15


50
50

100

75


240








139

140




25
20




25


12


360


240









141










142


300
600
360
120






900
1200








143

144












120


20
10








T-IS


275


100










146










147


180






75


200
6400


180


















9255


5434


919


20598


13868


9432


2022^


S04


11118


10344


6848


1227^


319



STATISTICS AND INl-ORM ATION.



155



In addition to amounts indicated in the table above, as
sold in the shops at the bakery and delivered by hand and
wagon to the consumer, the following amounts were sold in
other shops owned by the bakery and to other shopkeepers.

These figures are not very full, but it is well that they be
considered in connection with the table above:

AMOUNT SOLD IN OTHER SHOPS OWNED BY BAKERY.



Number.


^3


CD

h4


CO


CO .


Dougnuts
Pieces.


Cakes,
Pounds.


Pies,
Pieces.


75
88


400
250

125
250

88


roo
75

45
25


720
6co
120
60
600


1,200
720


840
720


277
50


125


92

115
127
128




168




56

75
25






75



















Total. ..


1,113


245


2,100


2,088


1,560


483


200



AMOUNTS SOLD TO OTHER SHOPKEEPERS,



ii


*j CO


(0


Pumper-
nickel
Loaves.


CI <D


i"cn-


co"

S en

J CJ

bcv

Q


- CO

en f^

-^ 5


- (0

CO t(


41
63
75
83

86


30

25

400


20
450
100


68
120


420
720


1,200

2,580

1,200














840


196

48,333K
75


125




500


150
50

25

190

225

10




360


276
1,620






87
90

91
100


45
50






25

90

20

125




600




10

1%












68




720
300






116


300


300


45




117
118




2,500


8,000


1,000










...














Total....


9.215


2,220


351


1,800


8,496


1,140


48,333 >^


2.625



Kstablishment No. 20 reports that it sells $115,000 worth
to other shopkeepers, but gives no detail.



AGRICULTURE.



In the three next preceding reports are various articles
on special advantages offered by Maryland for agriculture
and horticulture, together with itemized tabulated statements
of the cost of production, showing prices obtained and profits
realized. These articles and statements, though conservative,
have been the means of bringing desirable settlers to the State.
Because of this fact, and the desirability of having our farming
sections subdivided by increased agricultural population, it is
thought wise to republish some of these articles in a condensed
and recapitulated form, showing cost of production, etc., on the
farm. Since the publication of the Eleventh Annual Report
it has been the pleasure and privilege of the writer to visit a
farm of fifteen acres, managed and worked under highly
intelligent and intensive culture. Without going into minor
details, will state that about four acres of this fifteen are used
for buildings, yards and roadways, leaving about eleven acres
for actual cultivation. On this farm is twenty-nine head of
cattle, two horses and implements of modern pattern necessary
for working same. This farm and stock, under the direction
of an intelligent owner, is worked and handled by one man and
a bo}^ well paid, except that when filling soil, extra labor is
employed. Of course, from the number of cows, it will be
readily understood that this is a dairy farm. Everything used
for the support of these cattle is grown on the farm, except
bran, brewer sprouts and meals.

Frequently three crops of full grown timothy hay are mown
from the same land in one year. The first cutting, season of
1903, from a lot of two and one-half acres yielded thirteen
full two-horse wagon loads, and made a rick forty-two feet
long, twelve feet wide and as high as a man could pitch from
the wagon with a long-handled fork. In walking over the
stubble of this timothy patch, in the latter part of November
last, the new growth was so even and so thicklv matted on



158 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF

the ground that not only was there not a stubble visible, but so
soft was the tread that one could compare it to walking upon
a rich velvet carpet of a handsomely furnished drawing-room.

This gentleman and his family, from the proceeds of this
farm, are supplied with all the necessary comforts of life and
a constantly increasing bank account at the same time.

Another instance of intensive high culture and intelligent
management that came under my observation and attention was
the purchasing of six lots, aggregating less than one and one-
half acres, by a party for $500, in a village of my own (Car-
oline) county. This land was in a good state of cultivation,
but was not highly improved.

It was planted in strawberries, and the first crop year the
berries therefrom shipped to New York markets rewarded
the intelligent management of this little farm by an income
of $1,132, from which deduct the amount of $273.82 for labor,
phosphate, interest on investment, etc., and you have a net
income of $858.18. This statement and these figures were
not tabulated or mentioned in previous reports of this Bureau
because of the incredulity of the average casual reader, and I
do not now insert them simply to show possibilities by a sys-
tem of intensive culture, but for the purpose of presenting
it as a partial solution of the labor trouble and for the im-
provement of the social and financial condition of the laborer,
as well as the entire community.

The cities are very much congested with persons, compara-
tively without means, and who are living ' 'from hand to mouth, "
and in many cases are eking out an existence, while there is
plenty of opportunity for independence and competency to the
man of industr}-, who is willing to use his brain as well as
his brawn.

In the following recapitulation of costs, gross receipts and
profits of certain productions of Maryland soils (fully item-
ized and elaborated in the Bureau's reports of 1901-2} , the
same conservative lines will be followed, no attempt being made
at intensiveness. Comparisons will be made with results from
lands under ordinary and highly improved cultivation, and an
acre will be taken as the unit.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.
RECAPITULATION.



159



Commodity.



Land Under Ordinary
Cultivation.



Land Under Highly
Improved Cultivation



Total
Cost.



Wheat

Corn

Oats

Hay

Tobacco

White Potatoes..
Sweet Potatoes...

Peas

Tomatoes

Cantaloupes

Strawberries

Lucretia D e w -

berries

Apples

Pears



Average cost,
gross receipts
and net profit
per acre of the
14 commodities
above enumer-
ated



10 10

9 40

6 82

34 50

25 95

29 05

23 82
17 95
21 95
86 87

84 77

30 20

24 30



I416 83



Gross
Recp'ts



$13 18
23 70
12 00
12 50

45 50
50 00
74 80
45 00
30 00
62 50
122 50

130 00
45 00
52 50



Net
Profit.



|2 03

13 60

2 60

5 68

11 00
24 05

45 75
21 18

12 05
40 55
35 63



Total
Cost.



Gross Net
Receipts. Profit.



15
12
16
52
40
30
36
31
61
182



rig 18



45 23 105 40
14 80 49 80
28 20 ! 48 90



$302 35 $699 41



I29 77



)i 37



|2I 60



f 49 96



Wi 20

55 00

21, 40

30 00

91 00

100 00

150 00

90 00

70 00

250 CO

260 00

195 00

90 00

120 00



Si, 553 60



$16 50

39 60
8 70

13 08
38 73
59 75

119 35
53 08
38 75

188 30

77 45

89 60

40 20
71 10



19



$110 97



There are many other fruits, grains and vegetables, besides
those enumerated in the above table, that can be and are grown
here with as much satisfaction and profit as those mentioned
in the above recapitulation, but not having tabulated them,
could not at this time properly include them in this exposi-
tion. Among those omissions are all manner and kinds of
vegetables, grown anywhere else in this country, as well as
apricots, raspberries, cranberries, whortleberries (commonly
called huckleberries), cherries, plums, etc., in varieties almost
without number, many of which grow wild and can be had for
the gathering of them.

The luscious peach, and as fine as is grown in the known
world, is also a profitable production in all sections of Mary-
land.



l6o REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF

An analysis of the above figures shows the average cost,
gross receipts and net profits per acre of the combined commo-
dities to be $29.77, $51.37 and $21.60, respectively, on land
under ordinary state of cultivation ; and that under a highly
improved condition to average $49.96, $110.97 and $61, respect-
ively. This should clearly demonstrate the utility of the highly
improved cultivation, as well as the great advantages of diver-
sification of crops. The former should, as far as possible,
be raised from a highly improved condition to the intensive,
as the ratio of increase in net profits would be greater than that
between the ordinary and the highly improved. The latter
has been advocated and practiced by the writer for some time,
and in the preceding reports dwelt upon. It is generally
recognized by those who have an opportunity to know, that
Maryland, because of her geographical position and climatic
influences, offers greater opportunities for the successful and
profitable growth of diversified crops than any other State in
the Union.

Everything in the shape of grasses, grains, fruits and veg-
etables flourish in Maryland soil, hence the greatest possibility
for diversification exists, the advantages of which are well
understood by the intelligent farmer, and the masses are begin-
ning to realize that if the year's planting is confined to one or
two crops, and the season should prove unfavorable to them,
their balance would be small, if indeed, not on the wrong side
of the account.

The farmer who plants annually the variety of crops named
in the preceding recapitulated table, or such of them as com-
mend themselves to his markets and tastes of culture, and are
within the scope of his ability to properly cultivate and handle,
cannot have a total failure any year, because there is never
a season in this State so unpropitious but that most of these
crops mature and are profitable, and when the season is favor-
able to all of them, there can be no mistake on account of
diver.sitv.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



i6i



ACREAGE, PRODUCTION AND VALUE

OF

PRINCIPAL FARM PRODUCTS IN MARYLAND

FOR 1903.



The acreage of corn decreased about 6,000 acres in 1903,
as compared with 1902, and the production was less by nearly
three million bushels. This was due to a reduction in its
yield per acre of 3.7 bushels, as well as the smaller acreage,
but the acreage of wheat was greater by 52,577 acres, though
the yield per acre was less than in 1902 by 2.2 bushels. The
price per bushel for corn in 1903 was the same as in 1902, but
the price of wheat was seven cents higher in 1903 than in
1902. Some of the other staple Maryland crops show a
decrease also, but on the whole the year was an average one.

The following table shows the production and value of the
principal Maryland crops other than fruits and vegetables:



Corn ;.

Wheat

Oats

Barley

Rye

Buckwheat

Potatoes (while

Hay (tons)

Tobacco (lbs.)..





Yield


Acreage.


Per Acre,




Bushels.


622,692


28.7


809,667


12.5


38,340


20.6


1.544


25-9


20,732


13-7


8,374


16.3


28,513


70.0


295,161


Tons 1.24


33,059


Lbs. 650 ■

i



Total Price

Production Per
Bushels. Bushel.



17,871,260

10,120,838

789,804

39,990

284,028

136,496

1,995,910

366,000

21,488,350



* .51

•79
.40

.50
•59
•63
.60
Ton 14.02
Lb. 5-5



Total
Value.



,114,343
,995,462
315,922

19,995
167,577

85,992
,197,546
,131,320
,181,859



l62



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MARYLAND AND ITS COUNTIES.



Maryland, one of the original thirteen States, has a history
replete with interest to all students of American history, but
in this work of reviewing the counties of the State, their
resources, advantages and enterprises, it is not necessary to
discuss this very interesting history.

It was in the year 1524 that the first European, Lucas Vas-
quez d'Ayllon, entered the Chesapeake Bay, no years before
the settlement of Mar}dand, which, according to history
occurred on March 25, 1634, on the banks of the St. Mary's
river, now included in St. Mary's county.

On the 1 6th of June, 1632, the patent was signed by King
James I, which gave all that territory and much more, now
known as Maryland, to Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.
The province was named Terra Marise, that is, Maryland,
in honor of his queen, Henrietta Marise.

The original boundaries of Maryland are thus described in
McMahon's "History of Maryland:"

"All that part of the Peninsula or Chersonese, lying in the
parts of America between the ocean on the east, and the bay
of Chesapeake on the west, divided from the residue thereof
by a right line drawn from the promontory or head land,
called Watkins' Point, situated upon the bay aforesaid, and
near the river of Weighco on the west, unto the main ocean



Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 15 of 30)