Thomas A. Smith.

Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) online

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Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 16 of 30)
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on the east, and between that boundary on the south, unto
the part of the ba}^ of Delaware on the north, which lieth under
the fortieth degree of latitude, where New England is
terminated ; and all the tract of land within the following
limits, to wit, passing from the said Delaware Bay in a right
line with the degree aforesaid, unto the true meridian of the
first fountain of the river Potomac, thence running toward the
south, unto the further bank of the said river, and following


the same on the west and south, unto a certain ])lacc called
'Cinquack,' situate near the mouth of said river, where it
empties into the aforesaid bay of Chesapeake, and thence by
the shortest line unto tlie aforesaid place or jjromontory called
Watkins' Point."

Of course, these original boundaries of the State of Mary-
land have Ijcen very materially changed since the time the
original patent was granted. A large portion of the territory
east of the Delaware river and north toward Philadelphia has
been ceded to Pennsylvania and Delaware, to say nothing about
that portion which has been ceded to the National Govern-
ment in the District of Columbia, and that portion now in
dispute with Virginia, so that finally Maryland territory has
dwindled down to a line bounded on the east by the State of
Delaware, on the southeast by the Chesapeake Bay and
Atlantic Ocean, on the south and southwest by the Potomac
river, on the west by West Virginia, and on the north by
Pennsylvania, covering a total area of 12,210 square miles,
with a land surface of 9,860 square miles and a water surface
of 2,350 square miles, and with an extreme width, from east
to west, of 240 miles and an extreme length, from north to
south, of 125 miles.

In 1763 the State employed two English surveyors, Messrs.
Mason and Dixon, who worked continuously up until 1767
in establishing the boundary line of the State. These gentle-
men progressed 244 miles west, where they were stopped by
the dispute between Maryland and Virginia.

Within the borders of Maryland is grown nearly every
conceivable fruit and vegetable produced in the North Ameri-
can climate, and within its borders abound such a variety of
food fish and animals as can hardly be duplicated in an)^ other
State in the Union, from the toothsome canvass back and
terrapin to the staple bovine.


Maryland was originally settled by Catholics, but in 1649,
April 21, the "Act of Toleration" was adopted by the General
Assembly of Maryland, giving equal rights to all citizens
who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ.

The first newspaper in Maryland and the second in the
United States was the Annapolis Gazette, issued in 1727.

The first post route established by the Government was from
the Potomac river through Annapolis to Philadelphia, and
was inaugurated in 1695.

The first electric telegraph line in the United States was
erected in Maryland in May, 1844.

July 4, 1828, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, running
from Baltimore to Ellicott's Aiills by horse power, was inau-
gurated, and in 1830 the first locomotive used in the United
States hauled trains over this route.

The first permanent fund for free schools was established
by the General Assembly of Maryland in 1812, and the founda-
tion of the present system of public schools dates from 1825.

To Maryland is also accredited the honor of establishing
the second agricultural college in the United States, in 1856.

Among other noted institutions of learning within the
borders of Maryland, established either through the mvmifi-
cence of private citizens, or by Acts of Assembly, are the fol-
lowing :

Washington College, near Chestertown, 1782.

St. John's College, Annapolis, 1789.

University of Alaryland, 1807.

Maryland Institute, 1825.

Peabody Library, 1859.

McDonogh Institute, 187^3.

Johns Hopkins University, 1876.

The Thomas Wilson Sanitarium, 1882.

Enoch Pratt Library, 1882.

Tome Institute, 1894.

These, with numerous elysmosnary and educational insti-
tutions, offer advantages rarely, if at all, equalled by any other
State in the Union.


In the western part of the State He the vast coal beds of the
Georges' Creek region, while in other parts may be found the
granite and lime quarries, almost equally as abundant as the
black diamonds in the Alleganies.

While our State is old, it is comparatively sparsely settled,
there being only 25.6 inhabitants to the square mile of land

According to the census of 1900, Maryland ranked in the
list of States in gross value of products as follows :

Canning and preserving oysters, first.

Fertilizers, first.

Iron and steel shipbuilding, second.

Canning and preserving fruits and vegetables, second.

Clothing manufacture, fourth.

Chewing and smoking tobacco and snufT, sixth.

Cigars and cigarettes, tenth.

Iron and steel, tenth.

Furniture, factory products, tenth.

Cotton goods, thirteenth.

Paper and wood pulp, thirteenth.

Manufacturing products, fourteenth.

Foundry and machine shop products, fourteenth.

Planing mill products, fifteenth.

Packing and slaughtering meat, fifteenth.

Agricultural pn)ducts, twenty-ninth.

With this brief lesume of Maryland as a whole, we now enter
into a discussion of the various counties of the State, seeking
to give their actual condition, both as to agriculture and manu-
facture, showing that each county possesses certain special
advantages for the various industries already located within
their boundaries, and suffice to say that each and all of them
go to make up a homogeneous whole that makes Maryland
one of the most favored States.

Maryland is practically divided into four districts by nature,
viz: The Eastern Shore, Northern or Central Maryland,
Southern Maryland and Western Maryland. The Eastern
Shore comprises all that part of the State east of the Chesa-
peake Bay, bounded on the East by Delaware and North by


Pennsylvania. This territory comprises Cecil, Kent, Caroline,
Talbot. Queen Anne, Dorchester, Somerset, Worcester and
Wicomico Counties.

The Northern i)ortion of the State, generally called Central
Maryland, comprises Harford, Baltimore, Carroll, Howard and
Montgomery Counties.

Lower, or Southern, Maryland is that part of the State which
was first settled, and comprises those counties bordering on
the Chesapeake Bay on the west, being Anne Arundel, Charles,
St. Mary's, Calvert and Prince George's.

Western Maryland comprises those counties bordering on
Virginia and West Virginia in the extreme west and north-
western part of the State, viz.: Montgomery, Frederick, Wash-
ington, Allegany and Garrett.

Each section of the State possesses certain natural advan.
tages not possessed by others. The Eastern Shore, often called
the "garden spot of America," abounds in a wealth of agricul-
tural and horticultural productions, as well as an abundance
of fish and fowl, to say nothing about the luscious bivalve.
The land on the Eastern Shore is especially adapted to the
cultivation of small fruits. There is hardly a county on this
side of the bay that does not raise a large proportion of vege-

Central or Northern Maryland is also an horticultural
country, but is more adapted to the raising of grain and cattle.

Western Maryland is as well known for its horticultural pro-
ductions as it is for its mineral output. The Georges' Creek
coal is known the world over. Frederick, Washington and
Montgomery Counties are among the richest in the State
in their wealth of horticultural and agricultural productions,
as well as manufactures.

Lower or Southern Maryland, at one time one of the richest
sections of the State, is more adapted to the production of
fruits, tobacco and grain. Though only sparsely settled, it
has become famous in history and novel. The rivers and creeks
are noted for their wealth of oysters and fish.

S'rATiSTrcs and inkormation, 169


Their Natural Advantages and Manufactures.

Under the various headings that follow we have endeavored
to give a brief description of the various counties of the State,
with the advantages for industry of all kinds. Unfortunately,
the figures for the, manufactures of the counties are not as
•complete or as satisfactory as they ought to be, owing to
the unwillingness of the proprietors of many of the manufac-
turing concerns to answer inquiries or furnish figures to the
Bureau. This indifference to inquiries arises from a fear that
the information will be used in some way to expose their busi-
ness, or come under the eyes of the tax assessors, enabling
them to raise assessments or tax unseen property. It is
unfortunate that this is the case, and it may take some time to
convince our farmers, manufacturers and business men gener-
ally of the fact that in no case will the information furnished
this Bureau be published or used in any way to expose them or
their business to publicor private discussion, care being taken
to so present it as to leave no opportunity for prying eyes to
segregate the businesses or form an idea of what individual
concerns are doing.

Where we have been unable to secure figures, we have
endeavored to secure complete lists of the manufacturers in
the counties, and trust that when the census of manufactures
is taken by the National Bureau in 1904-5, with the co-opera-
tion of this Bureau, more complete data will be secured.

Had the figures furnished us been fuller and more complete,
the magnificent progress made in the growing counties of the
State would have been more apparent, and would, no doubt,
have been a source of pride and gratification to all.



Allegany County, lying between Garrett and Washington Counties,
with the Potomac river separating it from West Virginia on the south,
and Pennsylvania bounding it on the north, was first settled about
1735-41. ■ Skipton, now called Oldtown, probably was the first settle-
ment. It is next to the westernmost county of the State. It was formed
from Washington County by Act of Assembly in 1789. The county
has an area of 520 square miles, with numerous mountain streams
running through it. The population of Allegany in 1900 was 53,694,
and the tax rate in 1903 was $1.23 on the hundred.

Capt. Thomas Cresap established Skipton, which was located about
twelve miles east of Cumberland. Fort Mount Pleasant, afterwards
called Fort Cumberland, was erected in 1753 by General Washington,
and was afterwards reconstructed in 1754 at the junction of Will's
creek and the Potomac river.


Cumberland is the county seat, the first court meeting there April 25,
1791. Frostburg, Lonaconing, Westernport and Midland are also in-
corporated, while Flintstone, Hazen, EUersley, Oldtown, Little Orleans,
Mt. Savage, Midlothian, Carlos, Lord, Borden Shaft, Ocean, Gilmo Nut Works, Ryan & McDonald
Mfg. Company, manufacturers of contractors' supplies. South Balti-
more Foundry, iron founders; South Baltimore Harbor & Improvement
Company, South Baltimore ; K. Boswell, canning factory, Waterbury ;
C. Nocklitz, canning factory, St. Margaret's ; Richard H. Maynard,
canning factory, Woodwardsville.



Baltimore County, standiiiR, as it docs, first among tlic counties of
Maryland in wealth, population and manufactures, and its area of 622
square miles being exceeded only by Garrett and Frederick Counties,
was organized in 1659, and so named from the fact that Baltimore was
the naifie of the Irish estates of the Calverts. It is bounrled on the
east by Harford County; on the west by Carroll County; on tlie south
by the Bay; the city and Patapsco river separating it from Anne
Arundel and Howard Counties. The Pennsylvania State line is the
northern boundary.

The population of Baltimore County was reported by the last census
as 90,755, and the tax rate for 1903 is 65 cents. Its proximity to Balti-
more City, with a loss of territory and population owing to the annexing
of a part of the county by the city, still leaves it the foremost county
in the State both in population and in the number of farms, and third
on the list in number of manufacturing industries, though largely the
first in value of plants of manufactures.


The seat of government in Baltimore County is Towson, seven miles
from Baltimore City, and the terminus of a city electric car line. It
has a population of 2,500, and with the other small towns throughout
the county adds to its industrial and commercial growth. Canton and
Highlandtown, with their manufactures, adjoin the eastern limits of
the city of Baltimore, while Catonsville, Mt. Washington and Roland
Park are residential suburbs of Baltimore. Sparrows Point, about
twelve miles from the City Hall in Baltimore, has the largest industrial
plant in the State.


The surface is uneven and varied, the greater part elevated and roll-
ing, traversed by numerous streams which create good water power.
The soil is strong and fertile, yielding grain of all kinds, fruit in great
variety and garden vegetables.

Much attention is paid to dairy products, the estimated value of
which, in 1900, was nearly $1,200,000, and there were at the same time
3,641 farms in the county producing these products. The proximity
of Baltimore City furnishes a ready market and the excellent railroad
facilities, by means of which the milk can be delivered in the city in a
few hours, gives a great impetus to this branch of farm work.

Agriculture in Baltimore County has been carried, in many instances,
to an intensive point, and the results have been both satisfactory and


The farms contiguous to Towson, the county seat, have been superbly
developed. Corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables and fruits are raised
throughout the county in large quantities. About 25,000 gallons of
milk daily find their way into Baltimore City from this county, the dairy
business, as stated above, being one of the largest interests in the
county. This milk finds its way over the Northern Central Railroad
to the extent of about 5,500 gallons from 200 shippers ; over the West-
ern Maryland to the extent of about 7,800 gallons from 175 shippers;
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad brings in about 1,400 gallons from
twenty-seven shippers, and the Maryland & Pennsylvania carries in
about 4,200 gallons from eighty shippers, while about 5,000 gallons are
hauled in on wagons from 125 shippers.


In mineral resources Baltimore County is particularly fortunate.
From the early days of the colonies the iron ores attracted capital, and
from time to time numerous iron manufacturing establishments have
been in operation. Copper mines were formerly worked in the county,
and from the industry grew the large copper works at Canton, which
now use copper from Montana, the mining of the county deposits being
very expensive.

The building stones of the county are widely known throughout the
adjoining States. The famous Woodstock granite is found in the south-
western corner and has been quarried since the '30s. It has been
used in many of the chief buildings in Baltimore City, and in the Con-
gressional Library and the Washington Postoffice. It is quarried by
the Guilford Granite Company.

The Beaver Dam marble has been used in the construction of the
Washington Monuments in Washington and Baltimore, and also in
federal, State and municipal buildings throughout the East. It is now
quarried by the Beaver Dam Marble Company, at Cockeysville .

These companies have a capital of upward of |20o,ooo, employ about
250 hands, who receive about $125,000 in wages, and the annual total
output is about f 225,000.

The crystalline marbles of Baltimore County are said to be the most
valuable found in Maryland.


The position of Baltimore City has brought many railroads through
the county. The B. & O., the P., B. & W. and the W., B. & P. Rail-
roads traverse the southern portion, while the N. C. Railroad extends
north throughout the county to Pennsylvania, and the W. M. and M.
& P. in the same northerly direction, the former passing into Carroll,
and the latter into Harford County.


The suburban towns are now in close connection with Baltimore
City by a network of electric railways, which have given a tremendous
impetus to suburban development, especially the railway connecting
Reisterstown and Glyndon, which is over twenty miles in length. One
of the handsomest suburbs in the East is Roland Park, where land is
very valuable and much sought.


In her public school facilities Baltimore County stands high among
the counties of Maryland. The course of instruction as now planned
by the most efficient examiner will compare with the best equipped, as
also the salaries of her teachers.

The enrollment of pupils for the last year was 14,607, while the aver-
age attendance was 10,445, the number of teachers employed being 402,
to whom were paid salaries amounting to $185,197.05. Among other
educational institutions of the county are the Maryland College for
Young Ladies, at Lutherville ; the McDonogh School for Orphan Boys,
on the Western Maryland Railroad ; the Catholic Seminary at Wood-
stock, Notre Dame of Maryland, etc.


Baltimore County has achieved a wide reputation for its mineral
waters from the springs of Chattalonee, Roland, Strontia, Lystra and
others. The water from these springs is bottled and sold throughout
the country, the shipping of this mineral water having grown to be an
important business in the county.


Along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay and the numerous rivers,
including the Patapsco, Back, Bush, Middle and Gunpowder rivers, are
numerous and much frequented pleasure resorts, including many fishing
and ducking shores.

The Little and Great Gunpowder rivers, Patapsco river and Gwynn's
and Jones' Falls furnish excellent sites for extensive copper, cotton
and woolen factories, paper and flour mills, furnaces and foundries.


Baltimore County is second only to Baltimore City in its importance
as a manufacturing locality, nearly 400 such establishments being
scattered throughout the county and on its water front. First in rank
among these, of course, is the mammoth plant of the Maryland Steel
Company, located at Sparrows Point, 12 miles from Baltimore, which


Ui:i'()Ki' oi.- THH liUREAU OF

manufactures steel rails, coke, iron and their various products, some
of the largest ships that plow the waters of the ocean being built at
this plant. The building of the great dry docks for the United States
Government by this concern has attracted the attention of the whole
world to its unexcelled facilities for marine building work. This plant
alone represents an invested capital of upwards of $10,000,000, and gives
employment to nearly 3,000 persons, with a total product reaching into
many millions of dollars, and a yearly pay-roll of nearly $4,000,000.

It is estimated that the principal rnanufactures of Baltimore County
will foot up in amount as follows :


Flour, feed and cornmeal

Bread and other bakery prod-

Carriages and wagons

Canned fruits and vegetables.

Lime and cement

Rye whiskey

Railroad ties, telephone and
telegraph poles, bridge and
framing timber


Printing and publishing

Harness and repairs


Cotton duck, jeans and cottons

Kersej', cashmeres and chev-






























Value of

























These estimates are for only a few of the principal industries in
the county, but will give an adequate idea of the immensity of the
industries therein.

The following list of businesses and manufactures of the county, cor-
rected from the census, adds to the strength of the statement hereto-
fore made that Baltimore County is one of our foremost manufacturing

Flour and Grist Mill Products— Black Rock Mill, Butler; J. M.
Bryan & Son, Brooklandville; Franklin Flour & Grist Mill, Franklin-
town ; Mantua Mills, Cockeysville ; Manor Mills, Daubs ; Joseph Y.
Kenny, Freeland ; J. L. Benson, Glencoe ; David L. Kendig, Gwynn-
brook ; Keystone Mills, Hartley ; Bushland Mills, Hereford ; Meadow-
ville Mill, Long Green; Jacob S. Gorsuch, Mt. Carmel ; Harris' Mill,
Heathcoate Brothers, Maryland Line; Atlanta Mill, Monkton Mills,


Monkton; Harry (). i,uttgcrdinfc', North I'.rruicli ; luireka Mills, Acr-
hart Green, Owings Mills; Georges' Creek Roller Mills, Silas H. Shaw,
Parkton; Cnro Mills, Geo. K. Ensor, Philopolis; Carroll Mill, Phnenix;
Laurel Mills, Sweet Air; W. W. Tlafer, Ui)perco ; Merryinan Roller
& Flour Mill, Warren; Thomas Hunter, Whitehall; Lock Lynn Chop-
ping Mill, Woodenshurg.

Bread and Other I^akcry Prfxlucts— Louis N. Held, Towson ; (/eorge
W. Penn, Glyndon ; Julius IJotthof, Julius Wildt, Perry Hall; Wm.
Storey, Cockeysville.

Carriages, Wagons, etc. — Aerhart Green, W. & J. Buckman & Com-
pany, Owings Mills; Samuel Roche, Jr., Mt. Washington; John Arthur,
Fork; Phillip Markline, Gemmill's ; Clarence Stansfield, C/lyndon ;
Slade Brothers & Company, Long Green; Jason C. Flory, Ceo. H.
Stevenson, Reisterstown.

Canned Fruits and Vegetables — Alfred Crossmore, John L. Cullcm,
Bradshaw; Charles G. Suavely, Fork; John B. Foard, Gittings ; J. R.
Price, Jacksonville; E. J. Bell, Chapman Brothers, G. W. Montgomery,
V. B. Rittenhouse, Kingsville ; Wm. A. Hanway, Timonium ; A. M.
Hutchins, Manor; Bell & Baxter, Lorely; Walter P. Reckord, Reckord;
Thos. J. Jessop, Sweet Air ; Wm. L. Clark, William E. Robinson, Vale.

Iron and Steel — Maryland Steel Company of Baltimore County,
(Inc.), Sparrows Point.

Lime and Cement — Thomas Lee, Wm. P. Lindsay, Wm. C. Ditman,
John Pollett, Texas ; Charles Councilman, M. S. Friedenwald, John B.
Harris, Glyndon.

Liquors, Distilled — Canton Distilleries, Carstairs Brothers, Canton ;
Sherwood Distilling Company, Cockeysville; Melvale Distilling Com-
pany, Melvale; Winans Distilling Company, Federal Distilling Com-
pany, Pikesville.

Lumber and Timber Products — Thomas Simms, Carnj' ; Dihvorth
Brothers & Company, Fork ; Francis Bull, Sylvester Hare, Freeland ;
Jacob D. Geist, Glyndon; Wm. Dunty, Jr., Perry Hall; Horace W.
Strewig, Reisterstown; David M. Bucher, Louis Moorfoot, Upperco;
Merryman Corbett ; A. A. Sparks, Parkton ; Edward D. Selby, Reis-

Paper and Wood Pulp — Shrewsbury Paper Mill, Beckleysville ; Coon
Box Mill, Daniel & Jas. B. Young, Bentley Springs ; Andover Mills,
Freeland ; Gunpowder Paper Mill, Parkton ; Chas. H. Wise, Whitehall.

Patent Medicines and Compounds — Johnson, Erbe & Company, Reis-

Paving and Paving Materials — Frank H. Zouck, Reisterstown.

Printing and Publishing — Baltimore County Democrat, Baltimore
County Uiiion, Maryland Journal, Towson; Catonsville Argus, Catons-
ville; Highlandtown Sentinel, Highlandtown.

Pumps — Orrick Naylor, Glyndon.


Roofing and Roofing Materials — G. S. Sandner, Gittings.

Saddlery and Harness — Henry Dienstbach, Towson; D. M. Wilhelm,
Mt. Carmel ; Thomas Kaufman, Samuel Miller, Monkton ; Henry E.
Waggoner, Reisterstown.

Tinsmithing, Coppersmithing and Sheet Iron Working — ^V. J. Brown,
John W.' Gormely, Reisterstown ; L. P. Kraus Company, Keysville.

Tobacco, etc. — Morris & Stover, Phoenix; Frank M. Slack, Reisters-

Woolen Goods— W. J. Dickey & Son, Oella.

Foundry and Machine Shop Products — F. H. Hooper & Company,

Kaolin and Other Earth Grindings — P. G. Zouck, Reisterstown;
Wilson & Bahn, Whitehall.

Powder and Dynamite — Rockdale Powder Company.

Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 16 of 30)