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Thomas A. Smith.

Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) online

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PREVAILING RATE OP WAGES PER DAY.



OCCUPATION.

fakers

Barbers

Blacksmiths

Boilermakers

Bookbinders

Brewers

Bricklayers

Carpenters

Cigartnakers

Coatniakers

Conductors, rail-
way

Coopers

Engineers, locomo-
tive

Engineers, station-
ary

Hodcarriers

Horseshoers

Ironworkers

Jewelers

Laborers

Lathers.

Longshoremen

Machinists

Miners

Molders

Painters

Patternmakers

Plasterers

Plumbers

Printers

Quarrymen

Shoemakers

Stair builders

Stevedores

Street car men

Teamsters

Upholsterers

Wagonmakers

"Woolen mill work-
ers (male)

Woolen mill work-
ers (female)



1884.
$2 50-4 00



50-4 00
00-3 GO
00-4 00

50-3 50

00-5 00

00-4 00

25-3 00
25



3 50

2 50-3 50

4 50



00-5 00
50-3 00
50-4 00
50-3 50
50
75-2 00
50-3 00
00-4 00

50-3 50
00-4 00
3 00-4 50

3 00-4 00

2 25-4 00

4 00-5 00

3 00-4 00
50-4 50
00-2 50
00-4 00
50-5 00
00-4 00
00

oo-i 50
00-5 00
75-3 75



2 00-3 00
I 50-1 75



1896.

$2 50

2 50

4 00



2 75
2 50



3 75

4 30



3 00

2 70

3 00
3 25
3 00
3 00



2 75
2 50



1900.
2 ooa

2 00

3 25
3 50

00
80
00
50

25
00



3 75

3 00

4 30



50
00

75

75

50

00-2

00

60

25
00

25
50
50
00
00
00
50

75
00
70
40
50
00

75



I 25



50



1902.

$2 75
2 50



25
25
00
00
00
50
50
00



3 75
2 75

4 50



50

50

25

50

00

75-2 50

00



25
00

25
50
50
00
00
50
00
50
00
60
50
00
25
75



I 50



a Including board.



20



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF



CONNECTICUT.

(From the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

1902, page 114.)
Average Earnings of Factory Operatives.

1896

1897

189S

1S99

1900

1901

1902

Note. — No statement is made in the Report as to the manner in which
the number of emplo3'ees in each year has been calculated.



Yearly.


Daily.


P451 75


$1 50.


421 88


I 41


437 18


I 55


420 06


I 40


452 04


I 52


441 53


I 51


458 52


I 54



ILLINOIS.

(From the Eleventh Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

1900.)

Statistics Compiled from Reports of 627 Identical Manufacturing
Establishments.





Average number of
wage-workers employed.


Aggregate

wages.

$9,800,033

10,335,919
13,876,259


Average

annual

earnings.

I436 22
438 58

475 77


In-
crease


Year.

1895

1897

1899


Male.
20,056
21,059
25,804


Female.
2,410
2,508
3,362


Total.
22,466

23,567
29,166


cent.

0-5
8.5



IOWA.

(From the Tenth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,

1901-2, page 449.)





Establish-
ments.

.. 1,752
.. 1,625
.. 1,285
.. 1,627


Average number of employes




Aggregate
wages.
117,369,662
19,623,892
21,145,961
26,654,504


Nominal
annual
averag'e.

I352 71
354 03
413 20
434 80c


Year.
1896

1898

1900....
1902


Men.
40,854
45,006
41,893
47,857


Women.

7,732
9,800
9,281

11,812


Child'n.
687
623

2,630


Total.

49,273
55,429
51,175
62,2996



a Not separately reported.

b No age account reported for 996 of this number; hence 996 is to
be deducted in calculating average income.

c The nominal annual average earnings of adult males in 1901 were
$501.91; of adult females, $241.40; of children under 16 years, $122.85..



STA'JiS'l'JCS AND INI'ORM A'I'IfJX.



MARYLAND.

Eleventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics anrl Infonnation,
1902, pages 6-7.)

DaiivY Rate of Wages in —

OCCUPATIONi

Biti/d'g- Trades: 1S90. 1893. 1S95. 1891 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902.

Bricklayers... $^ 00 I3 60 I3 00 $3 00 fo 25 $3 25 I3 60 |4 00

Carpenters... 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50

Hodcarriers.. 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 25 2 00 2 25 2 25 2 50

Laborers i 25 i 25 i 25 1 25 i 25 i 25 i 25 i 25

Painters

(house) 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50

Plasterers 3 00 3 00 3 50 3 50 3 50 3 50 3 50 3 50

Plumbers 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50

Roofers I 75 I 75 I 75 I 75 I 75 r 75 i 75 i 75

Railway Shop

ll'oikers:
Blacksmiths. 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 20
Boilermak'rs 2 00 2 00 2 00 2 30 2 30 2 30 2 30 2 30
Cabinetmak-
ers I 80 T 85 I 85 2 00 2 GO 2 00 2 GO 2 00

Carpenters... i 80 i 80 i 80 i 95 i 95 i 95 . i 95 i 95

Copp'rsmiths i 85 i 85 i 85 2 og 2 00 2 go 2 og 2 og

Laborers i 20 i 20 i 20 i 20 i 20 i 20 i 25 i 25

Machinists... i 95 2 05 2 05 2 30 2 30 2 30 2 30 2 30

Holders i 90 i 90 i 90 2 ig 2 10 2 10 2 10 2 10

Painters I 85 i 85 i 85 2 00 2 og 2 00 2 gg 2 00

Pattern m a -

kers 2 25 2 25 2 25 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50 2 50

Tinners i 85 i 85 i 85 2 go 2 go 2 go 2 go 2 00

Irontuoi keis:*
Architectural

ironwork'rs i 66 i 60 i 60 i 60 i 66 i 66 i 66 i 66

Steamfitters.. i 75 i 75 i 85 i 75 i 75 i 75 i 85 i 85



*In this establishment blacksmiths received $2 each year ; carpeiiters,
$2; laborers, $1.25; machinists, $2; iron molders. $2.75; molders' helpers,
$1.25; painters, $2.50; pattern makers, $2.75; sheet ii-on workers, $2;
and stove mounters, $1.75.



22



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF



MASSACHUSETTS.

(From the Annual Reports of the Bureau of vStatistics of Lal)or on
Statistics of Manufactures.)

Note. — In order to preserve an accurate basis for comparisons the
Bureau each year omits establishments that did not report in the pre-
ceding 3'ear. To illustrate: In 1901 the Bureau reported the average
earnings of all employees in factories that made comparative returns
in igoo and 1901 to be $449.63, as stated in the first column. But in
the 1902 report, the factories reporting were not precisely the same as
those included in the preceding year and a new average income was
computed for 1901 — namely $449.69, as stated in the second column —
which, compared with 1902 average, revealed a gain of $10.29 in the
last mentioned year. As a general rule, little variation is to be noticed
in the two averages for any one year.



Year.
1886....
1887....



1888.
1889..
1890.



1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.,
1898..
1899..
1900.,
1901.,
1902.,



Year.

1899..,

1900..,

I901..,

1902...



AVERAGE ANNUAL

EARNINGS AS

STATED IN THE

REPORT OF THE —



Current
year.



I396 14
402 45
419 17

433 56
441 90
452 21

434 17
421 81
421 59
425 16
421 69
421 48
427 71
439 57
449 63
459 98



Next

.succeeding:

year.

I395 89
394 79
413 19
426 82

437 93

445 49

450 59

436 13

412 56

425 39

426 66
422 26
419 91

427 60
441 61
449 69



INCREASE OR DECREA.SE IN AVER.AGE
YEARLY EARNINGS.



Percentasre.



Gain.

$0 25
7 66

5 98

6 74

3 97
6 72



9 03



7 80
II 97

8 02
10 29



I,oss.



Gain.

0.06

I.Q4
1-45
1.58
0.91



I<o.ss.



Average
number
of days
worked.



$16 42
14 32

23

4 97

78



296.78

I-5I 297.14

3-64 277.36

3-28 275.63

2.19 291.42

0.05 279.43

1. 16 283.33

0.18 286.28

1.86 294.14

2.80 290.43

1.82 292.78

2.29 296.09



Estimated Average Yearly Earnings of —

Minors

Adult Adult (under 21

males. females. years of age.)

I523 34 I324 72 $219 34

530 82 334 70 228 33

542 23 342 68 231 85

552 66 353 36 244 24



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



23



NEW YORK.

Explanatory Note. — The following table gives the results of two
separate investigations which are not strictly comparable. The first
investigation, made in 1896, shows that after the middle of 1892 wages
declined. The second investigation, covering 3,553 identical establish-
ments, reveals a slight fall in wages between 1895-96 and 1896-97.
After the middle of 1897, employment and wages increased in a strik-
ing manner, and this very increase renders it difficult to calculate an
average annual wage. The statistics indicate that the total amount
paid out in wages by the 3,553 manufacturers between July i, 1897,
and July i, 1898, was $151,279,010; but at the beginning of the period
they were paying wages to 304.376 workers and at the end to 326,090.
It is therefore obviously incorrect to call either $464 ($151,279,010
divided by 326,090) or $497 (the same amount divided by 304,376)
the average yearly earnings. The fact is no satisfactory method has
yet been discovered of computing the average income, when the number
of employees fluctuate in this way; the least objectionable method of
calculation on the basis of these figures is to divide the total wages by
mean number of employees, 315,233 (one-half the sum of 304,376 and
326,090), which yields an average wage of $480. Similar calculations
■ for 1897 and 1899 yield the averages $459 and $477, as expressed in
brackets.

Annual Wages of Persons Employed in Manufacturing Industries.

(From Fourteenth and Seventeenth Annual Reports of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1896 and 1899.)

Crude average
Persons wage of persons
employed employed at
Total amount paid in Firms on June 1 end of each

wages in year ended — concerned. (or June 30). annual period.

May 31, 189I $93,257,541 1. 721 200,333 I466

May 31, 1892 100,616,011 1,824 215,830 466

May 31, 1893 109.073,849 1,986 236,908 460

May 31, 1894 99,052,129 2,154 225,137 440

May 31, 1895 110,427,159 2,290 253,139 436

June 30, 1896 141,184,845 3,553 299,957 471

June 30, 1897 138,577,878 3,553 304,376 455 [*459]

June 30, 1898 151,279,010 3,553 326,090 464 [f48o]

June 30, 1899 162,645,649 3,553 356,278 457 [U77]

Since 1897 the New York Bureau has collected statistics of actual
earnings of wage workers through the officers of workingmen's organ-
izations, reaching in this way 150 wage earners where one could have
been reached by means of individual schedules. As a large proportion
of the members of trade unions are well-paid artizans and mechanics
of the building trades, their earnings of course average much higher
than those of factory employees already given. The New York statistics
are based on quarterly reports collected twice a year, and thus cove
one-half of each year.

^$138,577,878 divided by 302,166, the mean of 299,957 and 304,376.
f$i5i, 279,010 divided by 315,233, the mean of 304,376 and 326,090.
:}:$i62, 645,649 divided by 341,184, the mean of 326,090 and 356,278,



24



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF



Average Earnings of Organized Workingmen, 1897-1903.



Year.

1S97

1S98

i^'^qg

1900

1901

1902

1903



Januar.N-


July-


March.


Scptemb


$145


I174


164


175


172


197


176


182


183


194


184


197


186


190



191

188



Estimated
Average for average for
three months, one vear.

$163
169
187
179
iSq



678

747
716

756
765

753



Estimated

number of

day.s of

employment

in year.

254

.255

I 273

265

274
278
278



PENNSYLVANIA.

(From the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Annual Reports of the Bureau

of Industrial Statistics, 1901 and 1902, pages 258 and 392,

respectively.)



Year.
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900..
1901..
1902..



RETURNS FROM
5S4 ESTABLISHMENTS.



RETURNS FROM
771 ESTABLISHMENTS.



Employes.
136,882
122,278

109,383
127,361
118,092
121,281

137,985
154.422
136,814
156,424



Avera.c:e

yearly

earnings.

J49I 90
464 66
413 15
445 78
441 29
429 90

454 52
506 27

509 43
544 80



Yearly
gain (-)-) .
or loss ( — ) .

$27 24—
51 51 —
32 63+
4 49—
II 39-
24 62+

51 75+

3 16+

35 37+



Average Yearly
yearly gain (+). Per cent.
Employes, earnings, or loss ( — ). increa.se.



129,240 $382 47



134,918
150,990
173.302
184,623

191. 153
203,927



384 14
401 89

437 37
439 97
450 44
482 68



|i 67+
17 75+
35 48+
2 60+
10 47+
32 24+



.4
4.6
88

.6

2.4
7.2



RHODE ISLAND.

(From the Annual Reports of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics.)
, Wages in the Textile Industries, 1893-1901.



1893..
1894..

1895-
1896..
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900..
1901..



AVERAGE ANNUAL

EARNINGS AS

STATED IN THE

REPORT OF THE —

Current Follovi^ing
year. year.



INCREASE OR DECREASE.



Percentage.



Gain.



Loss.



$327 33
363 73
313 69
337 22

'■"329 23
347 07
376 57
384 89



$364 62

324 41 I37 29

339 97 l39 32

319 20 26 28

*336 13 18 02



329 75
348 71
378 II



17 32

27 86

6 78



90



Gain.



5 65

5 25
7 99
I 79



Loss.

10 23

7 73
2 05



Number

N of reports

tabulated.



121
123
135
135
151
175
186
188



Note. — The average number of employees in the 188 factories con-
sidered in 1900-1901 was 47,600 in 1900 and 48,600 in 1901 ; and their
aggregate wages were $17,998,136 and $18,707,183, respectively.

^Corrected figures.



STATISTICS AND INI-'ORM A'I'ION.



25



WISCONSIN.

"(From Ninth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial

Statistics, 1899- 1900, pages 235-238.)

AviiKAGiv Annuat, Earnings in Factokiks, 1883-97.



Year.

1883...

1885..

1887..,

1888..,

1889..,

1890..,

189I..,

1892..,

1893...

1894...

1895...

1896...

1897...



Avfiage

number

employes.

39.3^0
3«.797
62,935
71,218
80,504
80,880
94,089
90,936
96,540
83,642

85,767
80,051

87,534



Total
watce.s
114,268,213
13,710,417
23,710,866
28,416,694
32,575,944
33,125,213
38,023,247
38,295,878
37,327,810
31,409,244

32,993,707
31,749,822
36,583,044



Average
yearly
earnings,
$363
354
377
399
405
410
404
426
381
376
384
397
418



Yearly

gain (+)

or loss ( — ).



23+
22-j-

6+

5+
6—

22-f-

45—

5—

8+

13+
21+



(From the Tenth Biennial Report, 1900-igoi.)



Year.
1899...
1900...
1900...
1901...



Average

number

employes.

79,871
80,159
78,632
82,775



Total

wages.

^31,515,194

32,983,769

32,378,588

34,863,674



Average

yearly

earnings.

I394 58 )

411 48 \

412 00 I
422 00 J



Yearly
gain (-|-)
or loss (^)

$16 90+
10 00+



Percentage Of Factory Employees Whose Daiev Wages Were-

51.50 or over.



Year.
1888....
189I....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....



IvCSS than $1.
17.06
15-32
16.00
18.67
18.33
18.55
19. 77



4925
5456
52.67
4389
4340
45.07
43-40



26 RKl'URT OF THE BUREAU OF



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.



As is always the case in years of general prosperity, with
the growth of labor organizations, increase in rents, coal and
food, come strenuous efforts on the part of the various organ-
izations to better the condition of their members by securing
increased wages, less hours of work, etc. These efforts and
demands on employers sometimes result in concessions, and in
other cases in contests, which are often protracted and costly.
The upward trend of prices in the past five years having
already had its effect on the cost of living, the workers felt that
there should be a corresponding increase in their wages. That
this has only been partly so need not be repeated here.

The industrial activity of 1897 to 1902 had culminated and
the reaction natural thereto set in before the workers had
secured the full fruition of organization. It is to be hoped that
the reaction will not cause such reductions in wages in 1904
as to bring about more industrial conflicts.

The strikes in Maryland in 1903 were not only as numerous
as in 1902, but they affected more people, involved more loss
in w^ages and brought about greater results altogether to the
work people. The per capita loss in wages was about $300
as against $205 in 1902. There was 6,310 persons employed
in the industries where the troubles occurred in 1903, as against
3,984 in 1902, and the number of employees for whom the
strikes were undertaken was 4,117 in 1903 as against 3,016 in
1902. The number of employees on strike in 1902 was 2,511,
while 2,972 were on strike in 1903, and 3,047 were thrown out
of work in 1902 as against 2,992 in 1903. Altogether the
strikes of 1903 increased in benefits to the workers in some
respects, but decreased in others.

There is no doubt that the strike of the carpenters involved
the largest number of men, and brought about greater and more
radical results than that of any strike of the year, as it cemented



STATISTICS AND INI^ORMATION. 27

the carpenters* organizations, increased their membership and
brought about a solidification of the builders and contractors.

In the table that follows it will be found that twenty-nine
strikes or lockouts are reported for 1903, as against twenty-
nine in 1902. Of these, twenty-six were strikes and three
were lockouts by the employers. Twenty-three of these took
place in Baltimore city and six in the counties of the State,
Most of these strikes were in manufacturing industries, and
only one or two in the building trades, thus showing where
labor is well organized and have annual agreements with
employers few strikes obtain and better conditions exist both
for the employed and the employer.

Fifteen of these strikes were for increased pay or reduced
hours of labor.

Six thousand three hundred and ten people were employed
by the concerns in which these strikes occurred and 4,117
persons were to be benefited by the strike of 2,972 persons.

The table shows ^at 2,972 persons went on strike, and that
305 were brought from other places to this State to take the
place of the strikers, and 299 of the new hands were retained
after the strikes were settled.

It is almost impossible to ascertain fully the loss in wages
and the loss to the employers consequent upon the strikes.
The employees keep no data of what money is paid out, or at
least they often refuse to give these figures, and the employers
rarely, if ever, consent to furnish the information desired on
this point. However, we estimate the loss in wages consequent
upon the twenty-nine strikes and lockouts as $189,178,

Of these twenty-nine strikes, twenty-three were ordered by
organizations, six were not and three were lockouts. Of these,
fifteen were successful or partly so. Of those ordered by
organized labor, twenty-three in number, thirteen were suc-
cessful or partly successful, six were unsuccessful and four are
pending.

The advantages gained were varied : in five cases there were
reductions in the hours of labor consequent upon the strike,
and in eight of the strikes the establishments were closed in
consequence and five partly closed. Twelve of these strikes



28 RIvPORT OF THE BUREAU OF

were settled by agreement, two by concessions on the part
of the. employer, one was called off by the organization, and
the balance were not settled at all. [See Strike Table ]

STRIKE OF CLOAK MAKERS.

Fifteen men, employed as cloak makers by Nassanowitz &
Schiff. went on strike in November, 1902, and the strike was
carried along until January 27, 1903. The cause of the strike
was a demand for an increase of fifteen per cent, in wages.
The strike was ordered by the Cloak Makers' Union No. 4.
It was finally settled successfully by agreement and by an
increase of wages.

TAILORS' STRIKE.

Thirty members of Garment Workers' LTnion No. 7, em-
ployed by Louis Richter, went on strike January 25, because
one of their number was discharged. After being out four
weeks a settlement was effected by Mr. Richter agreeing to
pay $300 and signing a contract for si^ months, providing-
that he would not discharge any member of the union until
the cause for such discharge had been passed on by the
union. He also agreed to abide by union rules governing
the shop.

STRIKE OF THE LAUNDRY WORKERS.
On January 21 the shirt-ironers employed by E. Rosenfeld
& Co. made a demand for one cent increase per shirt for iron-
ing. The firm positively refused to pay the same, claiming that
the ironers were earning from $15 to $16 per week the year
round. About seventy-six of them struck, and after being
out of work for about two weeks, returned on their own
accord. The strike was unsuccessful and the table shows the
loss by same.

BOILERMAKERS' STRIKE.
The employees of the Spedden Ship Building Company, on
February 13^ went on strike for fifty cents increase per day
for work on old boats. The strike was largely due to a mis-
understanding, and after being out three days, the men returned
to work at old prices. The loss to the firm was about $40
a day, seventy-five men being out.



STIBIICES .A.iT33 LOdCOTT'TS,









2,sa p






STATISTICS AND INFCjRMATION. 29

MILK DRIVERvS' STRIKE.

The drivers for the Filston I'arm Dairy. U) the number of
thirty-five, w^ent on strike February 16, because the manager
wanted one of their number to teach his route and business
to a new man. The man refused to do this, and all of the
drivers sustained him in his refusal, with the result that the
strike took place. About a week later most of the men were
replaced by new hands. The men belonj:^ed to no organization.

STRIKE OF HAT AND CAP MAKERS.

Ten men employed by Messrs. Robinson, \'allenstein & Co.
went on strike March 15 for an increase of wag'es and union
scale in the shop. The strike was settled on March 22 suc-
cessfully for the men, resulting in an increase of five cents per
dozen in the making of hats and caps. The union was recog-
nized and an agreement therewith made by the firm. There
were about $150 dollars loss in wages to the men.

A strike also took place in this shop in the middle of last
March, which lasted one week. It was settled by agreement,
the shop being closed during that time.

Another difficulty occurred here on June 26 and lasted until
June 30, but it also was settled satisfactorily.

STRIKE OF CARPENTERS.
In the year 1902^ when the Building Trades' Section of the
Federation of Labor, particularly the carpenters, made an effort
to secure a reduction of hours of labor and an increase of
wages, a settlement was effected with the understanding that
in the year 1903 the demand would be made for eight hours
and $3.00 a day. With this object in view the Business Agent
of the carpenters, Mr. George G. Griffin, bent every energy
toward the complete organization of the carpenters in Balti-
more city, and where there had been only three organizations
of carpenters prior to this year, through his well-directed ef-
forts four more unions were organized in that trade, and the
District Council of Carpenters was a unit in 1903, with its
membership of upwards of 2,000, in demanding a minimum
wage of $3.00 per day for eight hours.



30 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF '

Another unique feature resulting from the demand of the
carpenters was the adoption of a card system by the Master
Builders' Association, which card was inscribed with the
name and trade of the employee and the dail}- wages he
received and stamped with the seal of the Association. The
particular object of this card system being to inform the con-
tractors and members of the Association just what was paid
to the mechanics by those employing them.

One of the first steps taken early in the year to make this
strike of the building trades successful was the formation of
the building Trades' Section of the Federation of Labor, with a
constitution to operate the card system. Included in this sec-
tion were the following organizations : Machinists, Architectu-
ral Iron Workers, Bricklayers, Carpenters. Electrical Workers,
Granite Cutters, Marble Cutters, Plasterers, Steam Engineers,
Tile Layers, Tin and Sheet Iron Workers, Painters, Decora-
tors and Paper Hangers, Plumbers and Steam Fitters. This
very strong combination, it was hoped, would be strong enough
to combat the Master Builders' Association and the contractors
generally, but the refusal of several of the organizations to
obey the order to strike or to agree upon a plan of action before
the strike was ordered, resulted largely in its disruption.

On March 24, a meeting of the Master Builders' Association
was held and the new constitution read. The important clauses
to the employee being, first, an apprentice clause, requiring
four years' service and a clause requiring that each employee
shall procure a certificate from his last employer before being
employed by a member of the association, and resulting from
this latter clause came the Master Builders' card system. The
following resolutions were also adopted at this meeting and
included as part of the by-laws of the Association :

WhKrEas, Owing to the general demands in this and other large
cities of the country, among the mechanics engaged in the building
trades, we, the master builders of Baltimore city, desire to harmonize,
as far as possible, all differences of opinion in reference to hours of
labor among workmen; and whereas the journeymen house carpenters
have adopted eight hours as a legal day's work, and as the sense of the



Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 2 of 30)