Thomas A. Smith.

Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) online

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Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 22 of 30)
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Printing and Publishing — Ellicott City Dcmc^crat, Progress, Times
Publishing Company, Ellicott City.

Saddlery and Harness — John W. Bell, Lisbon.

Shirts — Oppcnheim, Obcrndorf & Company, Ellicott City; Browning
& Company, Jessups.

Silk and Silk Goods — Thistle Mills Company, Ilchestcr.

Wholesale Slaughtering— Mrs. D. Craft, Ellicott City.

Tinsmithing, Coppcrsmithing and Sheet Iron Working — J. C. Fisher,
Ellicott City.


Kent County occupies an area of 315 square miles, of which about
sixty-five miles are water surface, which include excellent mill creeks
and small streams. It is located in the northern portion of the Eastern
Shore of Maryland, and named after the English shire from whence
came many of its early settlers. Many claim it is the oldest county on
the Eastern Shore. The first settlement within the present limits of
Maryland was made on Kent Island in 1628 by Protestants from Vir-
ginia, under the leadership of William Clayborne. Calvert claimed
the island as part of his grant, and the contention was not ended until
1647, when Clayborne was dispossessed. The Maryland Proprietary,
having established his authority over the island, in 1650 organized Kent
Counter, it then embracing the upper Eastern Shore. In the Assembly
of 1649 Robert Vauglian was the only one who resided in Kent. He
was one of the six privy councilors. In 1648 the county was supposed
to have 135 persons. It now has a population of 19,000. The county
town, Chestertown, was laid out in 1706 by Act of Maryland, and named
"New Town." Its charter was revised in 1780, and the name Chester-
town given to it.

During the anti-Revolutionary period, Kent was active in opposition
to the oppressive measures of Parliament. Chestertown, then a port
of entry, had a "tea party." A vessel, the "Geddes," brought a cargo
of tea into the Chester river for the neighboring counties, and was
seized and the cargo thrown overboard by the indignant citizens.

In the war of 1812 the British, under Sir Peter Parker, landed a
force in Kent for an important operation. They were nobly met by
the local militia, under Col. Philip Reed, and driven back to their
ships with heavy loss, Parker being among the killed.

The county tax rate for 1903 is $i,3S.

The only incorporated towns of Kent County are Chestertown, with
three thousand inhabitants ; Galena, with five hundred, and Millington,
with seven hundred. Other towns (not incorporated) are Rock
Hall, Still Pond, Kennedyville, Chesterville, Batterton, Lankford,
Pomona, Worton Station, Lynch, Massey, Fairlee, Melitota, Edesville
and Golts.



Kent County occupies an area of beautiful farming country, located
in the northern portion of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The
count}' is separated from Delaware on the east by a line run by Mason
and Dixon, and marked by mile posts set in the latter half of the
eighteenth century. The western boundary of the county is formed by
the upper portion of the Chesapeake Bay, while the Sassafras river sepa-
rates it from Cecil County, and the Chester river divides it from
Queen x\nne's County.

The county is located between the parallels of 39 degrees and 39
degrees 22 minutes north latitude, and between the meridians of 75
degrees 45 miuutes and 76 degrees 16 minutes west longitude.


While wheat and corn are the staple crops, the county is well set in
peach and pear trees, and nearly every farmer has five or more acres
in tomatoes. Asparagus beds are found on many farms, while dairying,
stock raising and sheep raising enter largely into the industries of the

The natural advantages of the county consist in lands that answer
promptly to CA^ery effort, of a situation more than eligible, of waters
that teem with fish, oysters, crabs, terrapin and turtle, and of transpor-
tation facilities equal to every demand.

The number of farms in Kent County is estimated to be 956, of an
average acreage of 179 acres. The value of these farms is from
$25 to $60 per acre. The number of hands will average four to a farm.


The crab, fish and oyster industry supply a means of livelihood
for many persons. There are no oyster or fish packing factories in the
county. There are over a thousand persons engaged in this industry,
besides 160 persons employed on transporting vessels, of which there
are forty-eight. The oyster catch is estimated at 800,000 bushels.

The cull law has been of great benefit to the oyster beds, and if
strictly enforced will be the solution, in part, of the perpetuation of the


The county's greatest needs are better labor and improved roads.
Many of Kent's farmers have been driven to quit the business because
of inferior and unreliable labor. The negroes are the principal labor,
and they demand high wages and give in return poor service. Some
are trying foreign labor, but owing to their isolation from their fellow-
countrymen these hesitate to make their homes in the country.


The county's roads need a master hand, but until these are divorce;d
from politics there is little hope of improvement. The roads in Kent
cost about $60 per mile every year.


Kent County is well situated with respect to transportation facilities,
both for internal communication and for egress to the centres of com-
merce and trade along the Atlantic seaboard. The county is bounded
by over eighty miles of coast line. The head of navigation on both
the Sassafras and Chester rivers is not reached until near the Delaware
line, and the entire western limit of the county is formed by the
Chesapeake Bay.

Five or six steamboat lines carry freight and passengers to Baltimore
and Philadelphia, and during the grain and fruit seasons, extra freight
steamers are provided. Ice only interferes with navigation during
periods of excessive cold. In addition to the opportunities for navi-
gation, two railroads cross the county, one having its terminals at
Chestertown and at Townsend, while the other connects Centreville,
Queen Anne's County, with the trunk lines farther north, entering
Kent County at Millington, and crossing the Delaware line at Golts.
The railroads cross each other at Massey, and together furnish rail
communication with trunk lines.


The manufactures of Kent County are numerous, if not exceptionally
large, and are of diversified character. Of course the canning of
fruits and vegetables is the main industry of the county, but there
are several large establishments manufacturing crates and baskets,
straw boards, etc., the latter being one of the largest establishments of
its kind in the State.

The following list and attached figures give some idea of these
industries, and give evidence of promise of growth on these lines in
Kent, otherwise a most prosperous and enterprising county:

Canned Goods — Canning & Mercantile Company, Still Pond, Hebron
and Chestertown; Geo. Nunisen, Chestertown; C. S. Hurlock, Massey;
H. H. Baldwin & Company, Kennedyville ; Ivins & Carr, Lynch's and
Worton's Station ; W. S. Armstrong & Brother, Millington ; Swing &
Company, Black's Station — Number of employees, 785 ; total value of
product, $180,500; capital invested, $35,Soo; amount paid annually
in wages, $48,250.

Boots and Shoes — Wm. Robinson, Wm. A. Burke, Chestertown —
Number of employees, 3; value of total product, $8,000; capital invested,
$3,000; amount paid annually in wages, $2,500.


Fertilizers — Beck, Walker & Brown, W. N. Hubbard, Chestertown —
Number of employees, 9; value of total product, $50,000; capital
invested, $30,500; amount paid annually in wages, $6,000.

Bread — Geo. Haberlander, Chas. S. Smith, Chestertown — Number of
emplo3'ees, 3; value of total product, $7,000; capital invested, $4,500;
amount paid annually in wages, $2,250.

Clothing — H. Kaplan, J. I. Evans, Chestertown — Number of em-
ployees, 5 ; capital invested, $450 ; amount paid annually in wages,

Ice Cream — W. H. Haddaway, Edesville ; J. C. Loud, Chestertown —
Number of employees, 10; value of total product, $3,500; capital
invested, $1,500; amount paid annually in wages, $450.

Carriages and Wagons — Adam H. Huey, Massey; Chapman &
Lambert, Henry S. Deford, Chestertown — Number of employees, 15 ;
value of total product, $75,000; capital invested, $20,000; amount paid
annually in wages, $9,000.

Baskets, Crates, etc. — Crane, Hynson & Valliant, Chestertown; Elmer
E. Leary, Rock Hall — Number of employees, 84; value of total product,
$90,000; capital invested, $30,000; amount paid annually in wages,

Butter — Middletown Creamery Company, Massey ; T. Shafer, Ken-
nedyville; Still Pond Creamery Company, Still Pond — Number of
employees, 5 ; value of total product, $8,000 ; capital invested, $4,000 ;
amount paid annually in wages, $2,500.

Flour and Meal — Thomas H. Topping, Chestertown; Harry Moore,
Edesville; Perry Price, Melitota; J. E. Spear, Millington — Number
of employees, 9; value of total product, $48,500; capital invested,
$15,000; amount paid annually in wages, $6,500.

Harness — Wm. Parr, Still Pond; J. H. Howard, Chestertown —
Number of employees, 2 ; value of total product, $5,500 ; capital invested,
$1,000; amount paid annually in wages, |i,5oo.

Among other industries may be grouped : The A. J. Hynson Marble
Company, tombstones, Chestertown; W. K. Judefind, brooms, Edesville;
American Strawboard Company, strawboard, Chestertown; S. Hicks,
wheelwrighting, Chestertown; R. S. Nicholson, ice, Chestertown;
Wm. Green, laundry, Chestertown; H. S. Barnett, bricks, Chestertown;
W. S. & A. M. Culp, doors and frames, Chestertown; J. K. Aldridge,
tin cans, etc., Chestertown — Number of employees, 85 ; value of total
product, $195,200; capital invested, $137,500; amount paid annually in
wages, $31,825.

Butter, etc. — Keyser & Staats, Fairlee ; Shafer, Tilghman & Company,
Kennedyville ; George N. Cooper, Worton ; S. J. & A. Johnson, Massey ;
Middletown Creamery Company, Galena.


Cotton Goods — Geo. II. Todd & Company, Millington.

Flour and Grist Mill Products — Sparks Grist Mill, Galena; Henry
Trinks, Galena ; W. W. McKnatt, Kennedyville ; Edwin W. Spear,
Millington; L. H. Dreka, Sassafras; Benj. C. Plummer, Still Pond.

Boxes — Crane & Trenchard Brothers, Chestertown.

Bread and Other Bakery Products — Gold Medal Bakery, Chestertown.

Brick and Tile— H. S. Barnett.

Carriages and Wagons — S. Hicks, Galena; Galena Machine Shop,
Galena ; John Meddcrs, Kennedyville ; Wm. H. Kelley, Locust Grove ;

A. J. Hackett, Still Pond.

Lumber and Timber Products — Wm. E. Jarrell, Chestertown ; Wm.

B. Usilton's Sons, Tolchester; J. R. Wilson, Galena; Geo. V. Pever-
ley, Massey; Phillip Trimble, Millington; Ploward Johnson, Wharton;
Walter Sparks, Fairlee.

Monuments and Tombstones — Chestertown Marble and Granite
Works, Chestertown.

Photography — John M. South, Chestertown.

Printing and Publishing — Chestertown Transcript, Kent News, Enter-
prise Publishing Company, Chestertown.

Saddlery and Harness — E. Razewski, Millington; Henry Hardesty,
Rock Hall.

Tinsmithing, Coppersmithing and Sheet Iron Working — Medders &
Company, Still Pond.


Montgomery is one of the five counties of Western Maryland that
form the Sixth Congressional District. It was named in honor of
Gen. Richard Montgomery, American patriot and hero, who fell while
leading an attack on Quebec, December 31, 1775. It has an area of
508 square miles. It is bounded on the southwest by the State of
Virginia, from which it is separated by the Potomac; on the north-
west by Frederick County, the line between the two counties running
from the mouth of the Monocacy to Parr's Spring; on the northeast
by Howard County, from which it is separated by the Patuxent, and
on the southeast and south by Prince George's County and the District
of Columbia.

As the jurisdiction of Maryland extends to high water mark on
the Virginia side of the Potomac, the main water surface of Mont-
gomery County is that portion of the Potomac from the mouth of the
Monocacy to Little Falls.

The population of the county, according to the Federal Census of
1900, was 30,451, and the tax rate for 1903 is 86 cents. Montgomery


was erected into an independent county in 1776. Prince George's
County in 1748 embraced all the territory lying between the northern
boundary of Charles County and thei Patuxent on the east, and the
Potomac on the west; in that year the county was divided, and the
land lying west of a line drawn from the mouth of Rock Creek through
a portion of the District of Columbia to the Patuxent became Fred-
erick County. In 1776 the population of Frederick County had so in-
creased that it was determined to divide the county into three distinct
districts, viz., the upper, the middle and the lower. Thus were formed
three distinct municipalities, Washington County constituting the upper,
Frederick County the middle and Montgomery County the lower.

The ordinance for the division of Frederick County into these three
distinct districts was introduced in the State Convention of that year
by Dr. Thomas Sprigg Wootton, a representative from Montgomery,
in that convention. On the sixth of September, 1776, the ordinance
was passed; and thus the lower district was erected into the new
County of Montgomery.


The present site of Rockville was selected as the county seat, and
at that time consisted of Hungerford's Tavern and a few other houses.
The old court house was built shortly thereafter, and the first court
was held therein in the year 1779. About 1784 the land around the
court house was laid off into town lots and streets, and named
Williamsburg. In 1801, by Act of the General Assembly of the State,
a town was erected and called Rockville.

In 1798 an Act was passed to divide the county into five election
districts ; and in 1799 commissioners were appointed who marked out
the divisions forming the five original districts, viz. : Berry, Cracklin,
Rockville, Medley and Clarksburg. In 1878 the county was divided
into eight districts; Darnestown, Bethesda and Mechanicsville were the
new districts thus formed.

The county now has the following thirteen districts : Laytonsville,
Clarksburg, Poolesville, Rockville, Colesville, Darnestown, Bethesda,
Onley, Gaithersburg, Potomac, Barnesville, Damascus, Wheaton.


Rockville, Gaithersburg, Kensington, Poolesville, Laytonsville, Gar-
rett Park, Brookeville, Damascus, Hyattstown and Takoma Park are
incorporated and growing towns.

The following towns are not incorporated, and all except Clagetts-
ville are post offices : Ashton, Aspen, Avenel, Avery, Barnesville,
Beallsville, Beane, Bethesda, Boyds, Brighton, Brink, Brinklow, Buck
Lodge, Burdette, Burnt Mills, Cabin John, Cedar Grove, Chevy Chase,


Clarksburg, Cloppers, Clovcrly, Coles villc, Comus, Croplcy, Darnes-
town, Dawsonvillc, Derwood, Dickcrson, Eflnor, Edwards' Kerry, Elmer,
Etchison, Fairland, Forest Glen, Gcrmantown, Glen Echo, Goshen, Great
Falls, Grifton, Hunting Iliil, Kingsley, Kings Valley, Lay Hill, Linden,
Martinsburg, Middlcbrook, Monocacy, Montrose, MuUinix, Northbeck,
Norwood, Oakdale, Onlcy, Plyer, Potomac, Purdum, Quince Orciiard,
Randolph, Rcdland, Sandy Spring, Sellman, Seneca, Silver Spring,
Slidell, Sligo, Spencerville, Sugarland, Travilah, Unity, Washington
Grove, Watkins, Wheaton, White's Ferry, Woodficld, Woodside and


For some years subsequent to the erection of Montgomery County
schools were sparse and only the rudiments were taught in the common
schools then existing. Soon, however, private tutors were employed in
a few families ; and thus, instruction in the higher branches of educa-
tion was secured. But the county was not indifferent to the educa-
tional interests of her youth. Rockville Academy was chartered in
1809, and Brookville Academy in 1814, each being liberally endowed
by the State. At present the public school system has been so improved
and perfected that every neighborhood has excellent educational advan-
tages. Among the principal educational institutions are the following:
Rockville High School, Rockville Academy, Brookeville Academy,
Rockville Institution for Young Ladies, Rockville Kindergarten;
Briarly Hall for Young Ladies, Poolesville ; Andrew Small Academy,
Darnestown; Fair View Seminary, Oakmont.


In 1790 there were but few roads in Montgomery County; the first
public roads were the road from Frederick to Georgetown, and that
from the mouth of Watt's branch to Georgetown. There was also
a road from Georgetown to the mouth of Monocacy, and one from
mouth of Monocacy to "Montgomery Court House," the original name
of Rockville. After this period, however, roads multiplied rapidly.

A paved road from Rockville to Georgetown was chartered in 1806,
although not completed until 1818. The Union Turnpike, from Wash-
ington to Brookville, was chartered in 1849, and since that time several
branch roads have been constructed. In 1870 the Washington, Coles-
ville and Ashton Turnpike was chartered. In 1875 the conduit road,
from Great Falls of the Potomac to Georgetown, was completed ; it
follows the line of the Washington Aqueduct, and crosses Cabin John
branch on "Cabin John Bridge," a single arch of the longest span in
the world, excepting one. In 1784 the old Potomac Canal Company


was chartered, the object being to render the upper Potomac navigable
by means of locks, dams and short canals. The project failed, though
Washington was its first president and assisted in the survey.


The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which succeeded the old Potomac
Canal, was projected in 1823 by the States of Virginia, Maryland and
Pennsylvania and the National Government. It was chartered by
Virginia in 1824, but its organization was not completed until 1828.
In 1827 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the pioneer of all the
great railroad systems of the world, was chartered.

In 1865 the Metropolitan branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
was chartered ; in 1873 it was completed. This branch passes diagon-
ally through Montgomery County, from northwest to southeast. Over
this branch now passes all fast passenger trains of the Baltimore and

Electric roads extend into the county from Washington to Cabin
John Bridge, Great Falls of the Potomac, Rockville, Kensington, Sligo
and Forest Glen.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, along the entire western border
of the county, furnishes transportation for the products of that prosper-
ous section.


Corn and tobacco constituted for many years the staple products of
Montgomery. As a result of continued cultivation and the consequent
exhaustion of the soil, the land became impoverished. For this cause
many of the enterprising citizens moved West and Northwest in
quest of new lands. The introduction of Peruvian guano about 1845
furnished a fertilizer whose effects were magical, and the lands pro-
duced large crops of grass and grain. Within the past three decades
lime and bone phosphates have brought the worn-out lands to the
highest productive state.

Corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, cloverseed, grass seed,
hay, tobacco, potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, miscellaneous vegetables,
orchard fruits, small fruits, grapes, flowers and plants and nursery
products are the principal farm products of the county. Besides these
Montgomery furnishes in large quantities milk, butter, eggs, poultry,
slaughtered animals and live animals.

Montgomery County embraces a strictly agricultural section, having
2,085 farms, containing 283,469 acres, valued at $9,491,930, exclusive of
buildings, worth $3,525,170.



Sandstone, marble and slate are quarried in upper Montgomery;
chrome is found in several localities, and gold mines along the Potomac
have been successfully worked.


The Great Falls of the Potomac, the "Niagara" of Montgomery, is
one of the largest available water-powers in the world. The develop-
ment and utilization of this mighty agency for manufacturing purposes,
already undertaken by an organization of business men with large
capital, must promote, and vastly, too, the material prosperity of the
whole county.

A climate as favorable as that of any other State, a generous soil
responding bountifully to careful cultivation, educational advantages
unsurpassed by any other section, transportation facilities of unusual
excellence, a citizenship industrious, energetic and patriotic, and a
position in close proximity to the capital of the greatest and mightiest
government upon the globe, combine to offer to the home-seeker a most
attractive and inviting place of settlement.

With nature's blessings so lavishly dispensed, and with the hardy
husbandman's labors so remunerative, the county still has some great

Manufacturers will find here a profitable opening !

Smaller farms and more thorough and intelligent cultivation will
return far larger profits to the skillful toiler !

A better system of roads will create an amelioration as marvelous as
it will be real and permanent !


There are five banks and saving institutions in the county, with a
combined capital of $225,000, and the savings institution at Sandy
Spring has deposits of $690,000, the combined deposits of all of them
being $1,709,000. They are the Montgomery County National Bank,
at Rockville ; First National Bank of Gaithersburg; Farmers' Banking
and Trust Company of Rockville ; First National Bank of Sandy Spring,
and Savings Institution of Sandy Spring.

The Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Montgomery County, with
office at Sandy Spring, Maryland, was chartered and commenced opera-
tions in the year 1848. During these fifty-five years it has had four
presidents: Edward Stabler (1848-1853), Richard T. Bentley (1853-
1889), Joseph T. Moore (1889-1895), and Edward P. Thomas (1895).
Two persons have held the office of secretary and treasurer — Robert
R. Moore (1848 - 1894), and Allan Farquhar (1895).


Among the manufacturing industries of Montgomery the following
can be enumerated :

Cheese, Butter and Milk — Broad Run Creamery, Poolesville ; Tarlton
B. Stabler, Sandy Spring; Walter Dorsey, Brookeville — Number of
emploj^ees, 12; value of total product, $11,000; capital invested, $4,500;
amount paid annually in wages, $2,400.

Flour and Grist Mill Products — Bowman Brothers, Germantown;
James W. Darby, Buck Lodge ; Gaithersburg Milling and Manufactur-
ing Company, Gaithersburg; Gaithersburg Manufacturing Company,
Derwood; M. M. Haviland, Ashton; Luther G. King, King's Valley;
William E. Mannakee, Burnt Mills ; Lucy J. Pumphrey, Potomac ;
Charles H. Shaw, Brookeville ; Wilson B. Tschiffely, Seneca ; George
E. White, Norbeck; Levi L. Watkins, Middlebrook; James T. Hender-
son, Sandy Spring; Geo. A. Darby, Hyattsville — Number of employees,
55; value of total product, $503,000; capital invested, $170,250; amount
paid annually in wages, $13,125.

Distilled Liquors — Luther G. King, King's Valley ; Levi Price, Hyatts-
town — Number of employees, 8; value of total product, $30,000; capital
invested, $36,500; amount paid annually in wages, $1,750.

Newspapers, etc. — Montgomery Advocate, Montgomery Sentinel,
Rockville; Temperance Sentinel, Gaithersburg; Montgomery Press,
Kensington — Number of employees, 17; value of total product, $26,500;
capital invested, $18,500; amount paid annually in wages, $4,000.

Saddlery and Harness — Edwin D. Cruitt & Son, Poolesville ; John
H. Nicholls, Gaithersburg; John W.Whiteside, Brookeville — Number of
employees, 4; value of total product, $6,800; capital invested, $5,200;
amount paid annually in wages, $950.

Tin and Sheet Iron — Gustav Buliver, Ashton; Richard W. Murphy,
Gaithersburg; Chas. V. Morrison, Poolesville; Albert Viett, Kensing-
ton; C. H. Viett, Rockville — Number of employees, 10; value of total
product, $28,500; capital invested, $15,700; amount paid annually in

Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 22 of 30)