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Thomas A. Smith.

Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) online

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teen in 1903.

There is other interesting data in the table, which will
prove of value to organized labor and the public at large:













LABOR ORGANIZATIONS OF


MARYLAND. i9o3.
























1






n




si






.....
















NAME Ol' ORGANJZATION.




1






III




9




Of.


.9-3.




loirlj;


p.',!.,.


■"""■













'




ajo


t oo




No.


No




No






Goo,l


No.tL«,l qotuer ll.lliiiiotL- anJ Gay slrwla


Lail Sun


dny in moDlb


Ksr&ira'5ri"r"r''>i'' " ""




;:' ";":.'"',' ,.„ r:"'''::'";:"'''"':::;,::;:;:::::::::::;;::::::


'S


I


Upceymn.


y": v''°"m'.*^i r.^


s'°




N°".." "■






I^Zi .


l'r."r',M.| n','"."'''!."'.-,.,.


H,'".';i


Sm?]"';?.:.,,.


S;d;^.r.i"o7.S"':S. :' ' :;,::..:■ . '-




-: . ■ ,,.:;;:=:;::=j S |g|;|„ ::;■::::::::::;:




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S"


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'i',;:;'




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dt™"i,"s.i.,J.„.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION. 65

THE SWEAT-SHOP AND FACTORY
INSPECTION.

In the Eleventh Annual Report of this Bureau a full de-
scription of all sweatshops, with illustrations, was published,
along with the i,8oo inspections made by the officials of this
Department, showing the exact conditions existing in the
clothin'j industry in Maryland.

Under the Act passed by the Legislature at its session in
1902 these inspections were made and the arrest and prose-
cution of the violators of that law are now a matter of record
in the courts and the same were fully set forth in the previous
report of this Bureau. The first case carried to the courts,
under the Act, was that of a man name Ligum, who carried
on a sweat-shop on South High street. The lower court hav-
ing quashed the indictment and the case having been carried
to the Court of Appeals of the State, that body rendered its
decision in the following language:

This being a criminal case and the traverser having been discharged
by reason of the indictment having been quashed, and the cause having
been argued before six judges of this court, who are equally, divided
on some of the questions raised as to the constitutionality of the Act
of 1902, Chapter loi, the judgment quashing the indictment must be
affirmed by a divided court, but without committing this court to
the views and conclusions announced by the learned judge below, and
this court distinctly reserving for further decision the constitutionality
of the aforesaid statute when the question may arise in some other
cause.

It will be thus seen that it was necessary to speedily carry
other cases to the court, so as to get a final decision as to the
constitutionality of the law. This was accomplished by the
indictment of Isaac Plumack and Louis Hyman, both of whom
were indicted and their cases tried before Judge Stockbridge,
who rendered a decision in conformity with the previous de-
cision of Judge Ritchie, and an appeal was therefrom taken
to the highest court in the State, from which, at this w^riting,
we are still awaiting a decision as to the constitutionality of
the law.



66 REPORT OF THE BUREAU OE

It is, therefore, unnecessary to go into a discussion of the
present measure until the decision of the Court of Appeals is
handed down in these later cases, which it is to be hoped will
occur in time for the Legislature to take whatever steps may
be necessary to amend the law, if any such amendments may
be needed.

There is no doubt, however, that the enactment of the Legis-
lature of 1902 has already proven beneficial to a large extent
in the clothing industry. A visit to some of the shops today
which were inspected a year ago will verify this statement.
While many of them are yet unfit to work in, or are too
crowded with workers, and need a strict enforcement of the
law to bring about proper conditions, there are others which
have been changed to a remarkable degree, and the fear of
the law has led many proprietors to make changes in the en-
vironment of their employees. In some cases new shops have
been secured away from the homes, and in a number of others
the large manufacturers have opened big factory buildings,
into which the former sweat-shop owners have moved, and this
changed condition has not only benefited the workers, but has
improved the quality of the clothing, and increased the trade
of Baltimore in this industry. Indeed, it is impossible to fully
convey an idea of the change in the conditions of the clothing
industry of this city in the past two years, notwithstanding the
Department was deterred from fully enforcing the law by
reason of the contest in the courts.

After the Court of Appeals had rendered its decision,
quoted heretofore, it was determined to renew the inspections
and notices, confiining such work to the worst sweat-shops still
in existence, and induce, by persuasion or notice, the pro-
prietors to conform with the law. Some obeyed such notices,
while others availed themselves of the plea that the lower
court had declared the law unconstitutional and they would
wait until the Court of Appeals gave a final decision.

The Department was informed by the law ofificers that it
would only be piling up cases and giving trouble to present
all violators of the law to the Grand Jury, who would find in-
dictments only to have the cases dismissed by the courts, ac-



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION. 67

cording to the late Judge Ritchie's decision. This would have
been a hardship to many persons and would have looked more
like persecution than prosecution ; therefore the Department
made up the test cases and desisted from arresting other vio-
lators of the law.

the; inspection.

As stated in the previous reports, for purposes of inspection,
the city has been divided into seven districts, which we named
alphabetically from A to G. Thus when we speak of A district
in this report we allude to all that territory in Baltimore begin-
ning on the south side of Baltimore street and running south
and southeast to the basin, and bounded on the west by South
street and on the east by the city limits.

B district runs from Baltimore street north to North ave-
nue, and from North street on the west to the city limits.

C district runs from Baltimore street south and southeast
to the basin, and from Fremont street on the west to the basin
on the east.

D district runs from Fremont street west to the city limits
and from North avenue south to the city limits.

E district runs from Baltimore street north to North avenue
and from North street to Fremont street.

F district runs from North avenue to city limits north, and
from Jones' Falls to city limits west.

G district takes in all north of North avenue, east of Jones'
Falls to the eastern city limits.

During the year 221 inspections have been made in the
city, divided in the different districts as follows :

District A 95

District B 80

District C 29

District D 3

District E 14

Total .221

One hundred and eighteen first notices were sent out to
the occupants of the various houses notifying them that they



68



REPORT 0]? THE BUREAU OE



were violating the law, their rooms being dirty or that families
were living in the house, or there was not sufficient air space
for the number of employees working in the rooms.

Fifty notices were sent to Dr. Bosley, Health Commissioner
of Baltimore City, informing him that this number of water
closets needed inspection and cleaning.

PERMITS ISSUED.

During the year 130 permits were issued for shops, which
employed 2,595 people in the various districts. These were
divided in the manufacture of the different articles as follows :



Articles Made.


Number of Permits
Issued.


Number of People
Employed.


Coats


63

46

II

6

3
I


1,580

741

187

66


Pants


Vests

Button Holes


Ladies' Skirts


14


Busheling


7




Total


130


2,595







Of the above number of permits issued by the Department,
54 were issued for A district; 46 for B district; 14 for C dis-
trict; I for D district and 15 for E district.

These numbers show that the largest number of shops are
located south of Baltimore street and east of South street, in
the congested Hebrew district.

Another important fact demonstrated by the figures above
given is that the largest number of hands are employed in the
making of coats, which is the most important part of the cloth-
ing industry and for which the highest prices are paid.

A number of the above establishments, while entitled ta-
permits, are still open to criticism in some respects, but the-
large clothing manufacturing establishments are rapidly con-
gregating their tailors under one roof and adopting the new
system of manufacturing wherein the sub-division of labor
brings about greater efficiency and greater economy in all.
respects.



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



69



It is safe to say that the clothing industry of Baltimore now
stands on as high a plane, if not higher, than that of any other
city in the United States as regards the condition of the
workers, the character of goods manufactured and the general
environment of the industry.

THE GENERAL INSPECTION.

In the detail tables that follow, numbered i, 2, 3, 4 and 5,
we give the inspections that were made by this Department
and are similar to the tables given in the Eleventh Annual
Report.

It will be found by reference to these tables that the places
inspected were classified as follows :

Table a.



Kind of Building.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D E




Tenements


4


4

2

28

41


5

2

II

ID




13
II


Factories


7


Dwellings


11


2
I


2

5


78


Shops


83




Totals '


65


75


28


3


14


185





It will be seen by the above figures that a total of 185 build-
ings were inspected, and that the largest number of buildings
where these shops are located was in B district, and the next
largest number was in A district. Eighty-three are classified
as shops; 78 as dwellings; 13 as tenements and 11 as factories.
The word shop as used in this instance pertains to those places
wherein the law is being complied with and no families live
in the buildings. Strictly speaking, they are dwellings or
warehouses converted into shops. It is only within the past
year that any number of buildings have been^ either erected
or converted into regular factories in this city. It is also
to be noted that the largest number of dwellings used as sweat-
shops and where the law is being violated is in A district.



70



REPORT OF the; bureau OF



These 221 establishments inspected are owned by 188 per-
sons, the larger number of whom are Russians and the small-
est number are Austrians. There are 177 Russians, 3 Ameri-
cans, 6 Germans and 2 Austrians engaged in the business.

In the following table will be found an enumeration of the
places where the different articles are manufactured, according
to districts, showing the largest number to be coats, the second
pants and the smallest number being hats and caps :

Table B.



Articles Made.




District.






Total




A


B


C


D


E




Pants


38
22


21
20
34


4


3


4

I

9
I
I


70


Vests


35

QO


Coats


25




Busheling


I


Skirts










I


Ladies' Coats


I
2


I

3
I
I






2


Button Holes


I






6


Suits






I


Hats and Caps










I














Totals


11


81


30


3


16


207



These various shops are located in buildings according to
the following table:

Table C.



Front, Back
or Rear
Building.


District.


Total






A


B


C


D


E




Front


86
12


95

23

6


43
10


3


19
2


246


Back




77


Rear




18
















Totals


140


124


53


3


21


341









STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



71



By reference to the figures given above it will be seen that
246 of these shops are located in the front part of these build-
ings, 77 in the back part of the front building and 18 in the
rear of the buildings. It is shown by the table that the great-
est number of workrooms are located in the front part of the
building, and the reason why the front of a building is selected
wherever possible is not to be found in the fact that the rooms
are better located or larger, but only because, as a rule, there
are more windows in the front of the buildings, thus giving
more light to the workers and thereby enabling the proprietors
to economize in this respect.

There are 1,235 rooms in the houses visited, divided as fol-
lows :

District A 466

District B 442

District C 253

District D 15

District E 59

The various rooms inspected in these buildings are located
as follows in the buildings:

Table D.



Location of Workroom.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D


E




Front


85

49

2


94
27

3


34
18

I


3


15
6


211


Back


100


Middle


6










Totals


136


124


53


3


21


337



These rooms are located on the different floors of the build-
ings as shown in Table E. By this table it will be seen that the
largest number are on the second and third floors, thus being
above ground and more difficult of access. In most of these



72



REPORT o]p the; bureau of



houses the first floor is occupied by the family and are used
for cooking, eating and sleeping purposes, from which the
foul air must necessarily ascend, increasing the unhealthy
coiiditions of the workrooms above.

Table E. — Floor on Which Workroom is Located.



Floor.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D


E




First


12
56

65

5


II
58
50

5


8

23
16

4






31

145

T/|/t


Second


3


5

13
2

I


Third


Fourth


16


Fifth


I














Totals


138


124


51


3


21


'^'V?







ROOMS WITH l^tSS THAN 4OO CUBIC FEiET PE:r PERSON.

In the 221 inspections made, 48 rooms were found where
there was less than 400 cubic feet of space for each person
working therein, divided in the different districts as follows:
District A, 24; Districts, 21; District C, 2, and District D, i.
While this number is considerably less than the number
found last year, still there is ample room for improvement in
this respect, showing that about twenty per cent, of the rooms
inspected come under the penalty of the law.

In the 221 buildings inspected there was a total of 152 fam-
ilies living therein, with 724 persons comprising these families.

It must be remembered that these 1,235 rooms in the houses
inspected are utilized for living and sleeping purposes by these
152 families of 724 persons, and in addition to these persons,
2,959 people not of the family are employed therein. In other
words the whole number of persons employed and living in
these rooms is 3,211.

In the following tables will be found briefly summarized
the details from the numbered tables that follow:



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



73



Table F. — Whol,ic Numbicr oi' Pivrsons Employed.



Sex.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D


E




Male


635
373


834

555


358
117


16
7


176
140


2,010


Female


1,192






Totals


1,008


1,389


475


23


316


3,211



Table G. — Number of Persons Employed Under 16 Years of Age.



Sex.


District.


Total






A


B


C


D




Male ....


30
29


41
61


8
16


I


79


Female


107




« '




Totals


59


102


24


I


186



Table H. — Number of Persons Employed Under 12 Years of Age.



Sex.


District.


Total




A


B


C




Male


2
3


I


I


3


Female


4






Totals


5


I


I


7







74



REPORT OF the; bureau of



TabIvE I.— Children Employed Under i6 Years of Age Who Can
Neither Read or Write.



Sex.


District.


Total








A


B




Male . . .


9

5


10

4


19
9


Female






Totals .




14


14


28









Table K. — Number oe Persons Employed Not op Family.



Sex.


District.


Total


Male


A

553
357


B

744
524


C

343
118


D

II

4


E

165
140


1,816


Female


1,143




• Totals


910


1,268


461


15


305


2,959





It will be seen by the above tables that 176 children are
employed in these establishments who are less than sixteen
years of age. These figures, however, do not convey the
whole truth, as the statements made by the employers of the
ages of the children employed in these sweat-shops and fac-
tories must be taken with a great degree of allowance. Not one
of them show certificates from their parents or teachers, as
provided by the Compulsory Education Law. Twenty-eight
are shown in Table I to be able neither to read or write, and
there is plenty of work for the Truant Officers of this city.

These various shops work all the way from forty-five hours
to sixty-six hours per week, mostly fifty hours per week ; those
who do not work on Saturday often working on Sunday to
make up for lost time.

Table L shows the number of hours worked by the shops
in the various districts:



STATISTICS AND INFORMATION.



75



TabIvE L. — Number of Hours of Labor Per Week.



Number of Hours.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D


E




46




I








I


AQlA




2

1






2


qo


22


64


I


I


88


eji


I


ZA




I
3

lO

I






I


cc










3
53

I


9*'

6o


2


26


2


13


66














Totals


24


8o


29


3


14


ISO





CONDITION OP THE WORKROOMS.

Of the 241 rooms used as workrooms 155 are reported clean
and 86 dirty.

Table M shows that the largest number of dirty rooms pre-
vailed in District B. These conditions in the workrooms
speak well for the results of the inspections of last year, but
leaves room for improvement.

Table M. — Condition of Workroom.



Clean or Dirty.


District.


Total




A


B


C


D


E




Clean


24
16


64
60


43
10


3


21 TCC


Dirty , . .




86








Totals


40


124


53


3


21 -ZAT









76



REPORT o]? the; bureau of



All of the buildings seem to have sufficient means of egress
in case of fire, unless an accident of some kind should occur.

Only three establishments are shown in the tables to have
provided separate washrooms for females, and only 282 water
closets are provided for this large number of 3,683 persons to
utilize.

Only 25 establishments report having separate water closets
for sexes. This condition certainly ought to be remedied.

The use of gasoline seems not to diminish, as the following
figures show that 28 of these establishments still use it, mostly
in the poorer district and by people who know the least about
the use of that dangerous fluid.

Table N. — Kind op Fuel Used.



Fuel.




District.






Total






A


B


C


D


E




Gas


28
21

14


58

5

15


7
2

19


I


10


104


Gasoline




28


Coal






4


52








Totals


63


78


28


I


14


184









Of the water closets attached to these 221 buildings, 47 of
them were reported full; 8 of them in bad condition and loi
O. K., and the sanitary conditions generally of the buildings
inspected are reported as follows: O. K., 96; bad, 40; fair,
13; and good, 6.

Taken altogether the general conditions are an improvement
on those shown in the Eleventh Annual Report of this Bureau,
with which comparisons can easily be made in the following
detail tables.



TABLE 1.— District A.




TABLE I. — District A. — Continued.



., __ tables, 12 chairs

machine, 2 tables, J rack




the Workroom.





J;;^- -;■[


Dwelling


Aug. 24,


Dwelling


Aug. 24 .


Dwelling


.... Aug. 21.


Tcncmcn












Dwell In 8
Dwellintr


.... Aug. 21 ,


■'■■ "\"p' ]i'


Tcnumun


AiLu. jS.


Dwell ing


'"" s"p^|' ',1'


















S!io|> . . .
















Shop ...


.... Sept. g.






Dwelling


.... Sept. 9.


Shop . . .


Sept. 9.


Dwcl ng






Sept. 10.




.... Sept. 10.






Dwelling


.... Sept. 9.


Dwelling


.... Sept. 9.


Dwelling


.... Sept. 9.






Shop . . .


.... Sept. 10.



machines


6 tables, 15 chairs




3 chairs and stock












I table, 4 chairs








3 chairs, 2 racks, i table




12 chairs and loose work




chairs










machines


5 tables. 12 chairs




loose work




chairs and loose work .






machines


4 chairs, i table, 2 racks



achines, 6 chairs, 2 tables

machines, 3 tables, s chairs

table and loose work

machines, 6 tables, 20 chairs

tables and loose work

machine, i chair, i table and loose work.

machines, 6 tables, 15 chairs

tables and machinery

machines, 4 tables, 15 chairs

machines, 10 tables, 22 chairs

machines, 6 tables, 12 chairs

machines, 8 tables, 18 chairs

machine, '4 tables, 3 chairs, i gasoline stoi

machines, 4 tables, 8 chairs

machines. 8 tables, 10 chairs

machines. 6 tables, 12 chairs, 5 racks ..

machines, 2 tables, 4 chairs

machines, 8 chairs, 2 racks

tables. 2 racks and loose work

machines] 7 tables] 8 chairs

tables, 2 chairs and loose work

machines, 7 chairs, 2 tables ,

machines. 6 chairs, 2 tables

table, I gasoline stove, t chair, 2 racks

machines, 28 chairs, 20 racks

chairs, 8 1 acks, 9 tables

machines. 7 chairs, 2 tables

machines. 4 tables, 10 chairs, 5 racks . .
maeliincs, 1 table, 5 chairs, 2 racks ....
machines, 5 tables, 10 chairs, 4 racks ..

machines, i table, 4 chairs

machine, 3 tables, i chair, 2 racks

machines, 4 tables, 8 chairs

tables, 2 chairs

machines, 3 tables, s chairs

machines, i table, 2 chairs



of Persons
Employed.



Number

Employed





Gas




Gasoline. . .




Gas








Gasoline. . .




Coal




Coal




Coal








Gasolinj. . .



TABLE 2.— District B.



=




.2

1


— "




Articles Made


1

jii




1
1^


1.3


Furniture or Other Articles


K


,1


^1

9


ol




Whole

Number

of Persons

Employed.


Employed Employed

Years of Age or
Age. Under.


Unldreu
Under i6
Who Could
Not Read
or Write.


iN umber
Employed
Not of
Family.


1


1


iguiH-t


1"






■6

3


1

•s


1






1








i


^
t


S


Street and Number.


Si


or Partially
Made.


"1




Tl.ird




■f


P




1


■a
i


1


i


i


s


1


1 li


■3
g


1^


V


i^M






^1


i


ll


s








N. E. Cor. Balto. & Frederick.


Russia...


Ijadies' Coats


Front


1

Back 1 12


J tables and wood


13X16X 8


1,664


1,664





1 1














......




so


Dirty

Clean....


Yes...


No...


2


No...




O.IC...


O.K.








N. E. Cor. Balto. & Frederick.










Third

Fourth....





































Clean....












O.K....






B


Shop

Shop

Dwelling

Dwelling


aSs 3'


N. E. Cor. Balto. & Frederick.
404 E. Baltimore


Ku53ia...




Front


Front....


4


10 machines, 27 Ubles, 30 chairs


1 bOX25XI3 1




882







21


16


'


3











19


16


so




Yes...


No...


'


No...


Cas






B
B


Aug 3


1208 E. Baltimore


Russia. . .


Coats


Front


Front


12


Third


7 machines, 12 tables, 14 chairs




6,8 13


425


'




10


'




'











'


'


50




Yes...


No...


'


No...


Gas


O.K....


O.K.




Aug. 3-
Aug. 3.


1208 E. Baltimore

1208 E. Baltimore


Russia. . .
Russia. . .


Coats

Pants

Button Holes
Vests


Back.

Back.


Back.".'.'.'.

Middle...
Back


\l


Third

Third


2 tables, 10 chairs

3 tables, I chair, i rack

4 machines, 3 chairs, i table, 6 boxes


15X14X 8
13X18X 9


5;E


s6o


\


10


......


'




'.'.'.•.'.'.








::::::


"i"


I





Clean:::;

Dirty


Yes...
Yes...
Yes...


No...

nS::;


I


No...
No...
No...


Gas

Gas


O.K....
O.K....


0. K.
0. K.




B


Shop


Aug. 3.
Aug. 3-




Russia. . .
Russia...
Russia...


Front....


14


Third


1 gasoline stove, i table, i box

5 machines, 7 chairs, 3 tables, 3 boxes






433


......


......


I


...^..












::::::


3


""3"


ta


Clean...:


Yes:::


No...
No...


3


No...


Gasoline...


Bad


Bad.




B


Dwelling




lis N. High


Front: : : :


rvom....


12


Third


6 machines, 10 chairs, 5 tables


J 20X13X 8 1
1 I4X.4X 8 f




364








*














'


■*


50


Dirty


Yes...


No...





No...



Online LibraryThomas A. SmithTwelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information of Maryland. 1903. Thomas A. Smith, Chief. (Volume 1904) → online text (page 6 of 30)