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326 ST. LUKE. [chap. XXI.

This is a quotation from Psalm ex. 1, whence our Sa-
viour quotes the verse, upon which he raises the question
contained in the verse following. — Edit.

44. David therefore callelh him Lord, how is he then his son ?

Christ ivas David's son, according to the flesh ; but re-
vealed to him in a higher capacity, as his Lord ; even the
Lord God, and as such the Saviour of mankind. Christ,
therefore, here asserts his divinity. He was David's Lord
for salvation ; and Thomas said no more than he did, when
he called him " My Lord, and my God."" Even so, Lord
Jesus, grant that we may know thee now by faith, obey
thee as our Lord, and after this life have the fruition of thy
glorious Godhead.

45. Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his
disciples,

46. Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes,
and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the
synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts :

47. Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long
prayers : the same shall receive greater damnation.

He here shows them in what respects, particularly, the
multitude was to beware of them. They were not humble,
they loved pre-eminence and distinction ; they were covet-
ous and guilty of abominable acts of oppression, under a
cloke of religion. And does not this teach us all to beware
of such tempers in ourselves, and to lay the axe to the
root of our pride, and worldly hearts, if we would be
Christ's disciples ?

Chap. xxi. 1. And he looked up, and saw the rich men casting
their gifts into the treasuiy.

2. And he saw also a certain poor widow casting in thither
two mites.

3. And he said. Of a truth I say unto you. That this poor
widow hath cast in more than they all.

God looks at the largeness of the heart, and not of the
gift. Though it was but a very little that the poor widow



VER. 5—24.] ST. LUKE. 327

gave, it is certain she secreted nothing. The rich may
give a great deal, applaud themselves, and be highly
applauded by others, and yet, with astonishing guilt, keep
back a great deal more that they should have given. There
is a different book of charities kept in heaven, from what
is kept on earth. The intention, the affection, the ability,
the occasion, must be taken into the account. Happy is
the man, whose beneficence is a continued act of adoration,
gratitude, and obedience to God, as well as pity and libe-
rality to the poor.

4. For all these have of tlieir abundance oast in unto the offer-
ings of God : but she of her penury hath cast in all tlie living
that she bad.

This is not said for our imitation, at all events : but
partly to upbraid the rich for not doing more ; partly to
show what true charity will do, though to the ])inching of
a man's self; and what it is which makes our gifts accept-
able to God.



SECTION LXX.

Chap. x\i. ver. 5 — 24.



CHRIST FORETELLETH THE UESTKUCTION OE THE TEMl'LE,
THE CITY, AND THE NATION.

5. And as some spake of the temple, bow it was adorned witli
goodly stones and gifts, be said,

6. As for these things wbicli ye behold, the days will come, in
tlic which there shall not be left one stone upon another, ibat shall
not be thrown down.

The Jews beheld the sacred buildings with wonder and
deliglit, not doubting of their durableness. But though
they were goodly in their eyes, they w'ere abominable in
God's siglit for the wickedness of the people, antl the
decree was gone out against theuj. T'here is no speaking



328 ST. LUKE. [chat. XXI.

peace to ourselves, so much as for one moment, in the most
flourisliing condition of health, strength, and riches, when
we have made God our enemy.

7. And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these
things be ? and what sign will there be when these tilings shall
come to pass ?

8. And he said. Take heed that ye be not deceived : for many
shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ ; and the time drawetli
near : go ye not therefore after them.

They would be deceived, by going after false Christs,
and deserting the true one. Men may, indeed, do this at
any time, by setting up an image of their own making,
instead of Christ. What, for instance, are those, wlio
look for salvation from him without holiness ; or those, on
the other hand, who trust as much, or more, in themselves,
than in his merits ? We know from history that this, and
all the other particulars here mentioned, which were to
take place, before and at the destruction of Jerusalem,
came to pass exactly as they were foretold. And I observe,
that we may take Christ's word for the certainty of his
last coming ; this is to be noted, in order that what is said
of it may make the deeper impression upon us.

9. But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not
terrified : for these things must first come to })ass ; but the end is
not by and by.

The end here spoken of is the destruction of Jerusalem.

10. Then said he unto them. Nation shall rise against nation,
and kingdom against kingdom :

1 1 . And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines,
and pestilences ; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be
from heaven.

These expressions are to be understood according to the
language of prophecy. — Edit.

12. But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and
])crsecule you, delivering you u]) to the synagogues, and into
j)risons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's
sake.



VER. 5—24.] ST. LUKE. 329

This was fulfilled in the persecution of tiie apostles ami
others, beginning immediately after the resurrection of
Christ.

13. And it sliull turn to you for a testimony.

It should be to them for a testimony to the goodness of
tlieir cause, and the power of God enabling them to suffer
for it. And it is also signified, that their testimony should
be prevailing. Many, no doubt, would be wrought upon
by their constancy in suffering; which is always of great
force to open men's eyes, and to bring them to the acknow-
ledgment of the truth.

14. Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before
what ye shall answer :

15. For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your
adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist.

This promise will infallibly be made good to all who
trust in it. Their adversaries might indeed stop their
mouths, together with their breath ; and this is, too often,
man's way of arguing. But it is no answer to the wisdom
of God,^ who speaks by his servants : as their day is, so
will their help be.

]G. And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren,
and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to
be put to death.

Natural affection must give way to the love of Christ ;
and well migl.t he rec[uire this of us, when hatred of him
and his ways can so easily get the better of it.

17. And ye shall be haled of all men for my name's sake.

Christ's faithful followers, in order to do good to the few
who are capable of it, must incur the hatred of the rest.
It would be a new world, if even the better sort were not
too forward to despise and vilify tlieni, as fanatics and
enthubiasts.

18. But there shall not un hair of your head perish.

It may mean that they should have a particular provi-



330 ST. LUKE. [chap. XXI.

dence watching over them, and that before God's time
nothing should hurt them. But I suppose that it relates
chiefly to their eternal interests. If we are unhurt in that,
M'e are safe, whatever befals us.

19. In your patience possess ye your souls.

That patience which shall be given you ; neither fretting
against God, nor quarrelling with men. O that we all
had this safeguard and armour of defence, in all troubles !

20. And vvLen ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies,
then know that the desolation thereof is nigh.

21. Then let them which are in Judsea flee to the mountains;
and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let nut
them that are in the countries enter thereinto.

The Christians remembered this warning, and saved
themselves by flight. Eusebius says, they were saved by
a divine admonition at the time, and that they were directed
where to go. — (Ecc. Plist. B. iii. c. 5.)

22. For these he the days of vengeance, that all things which
are written may he fulfilled.

All things which God has before spoken, will be fulfilled
to the end of the world, one as well as another ; the gi'eat
day of vengeance on the wicked, yet to come, as sure as
those which are past. The things which are written, are the
word and truth of God, and cannot fail, and there is no
safety for us, but in having them written upon our hearts.

23. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that
give suck, in those days ! for there shall be great distress in the
land, and wrath upon this people.

24. And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be
led away captive into all nations : and Jerusalem shall be trodden
down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

Jerusalem should be possessed by other nations ; as it
has been ever since, and will be till God's appointed time
for the restoration of the Jews, and a more general conver-
sion of the Gentiles than has yet taken phicc.



VER. 25— 38.] ST. LUKE. 331



SECTION LXXI.

Chap. xxi. ver. 25—38.

SIGNS OF CIIUISt's COMING.

25. Aiul llieie shall be signs in the sun, and hi the moon, and
in the stars ; and upon the earth distress of nations, with ])er-
plexity ; the sea and the waves roaring ;

26. Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after
those things which arc coming on the earth : for the powers of
heaven shall be shaken.

Those men's hearts will fail who have not the fear of
God in them. To those who have that fear, it will be
both a terrible and a joyful day.

27. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud
with power and great glory.

28. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up,
and lift up your heads ; for your redemption draweth nigh.

The things which begin to come to pass are mentioned in
verse the twenty-fifth, and the following, which relate to
the destruction of Jerusalem. " Your redemption draweth
nigh ;" here Christ speaks of their deliverance from their
troubles and persecutions, which the Jews would no longer
be able to inflict upon them.

29. And he spake to them a parable. Behold the fig tree, and
all tlie trees ;

30. When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own
selves that summer is now nigh at hand.

31. So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to j)ass,
know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand.

The time when the Jewish economy would cease, to;e-
tlier with the destruction of their city and temple : wlicn
God's kingdom under Christ would be his only kingdom
upon earth, and be greatly enlarged by a more plentiful
accession of the Gentiles.



332 ST. LUKE. [chap. XXI.

32. Verilv I say umo you. This generation shall not pass away,
till all be fulfilled.

This caine to pass thirty-nine years after.

33. Heaven and earth shall pass away : but my words shall not
pass away.

They did not with respect to the destruction of Jeru-
salem.

34. And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be
overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life,
and so that day come upon you unawares.

This was a warning to the disciples ; and it is intended
to be a caution to us, " That day," or the day which
oives us up to it. Observe, that our hearts may not only
be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness, but with
the cares of life, to the loss of our souls. For whatever
we neglect them, if they are neglected, we perish.

35. For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the
ace of the whole earth.

Suddenly, like the springing of a snare. Men will no
more look for it before-hand then, than they do now ; and
the circumstance that men do not think of it, is no proof
that it is far off.

36. Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be
accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass,
and to stand before the Son of man.

We see the way to escape, at Christ's final coming to
judgment, as they did then ; but let none think that they
shall be able to stand before him without watchfulness and
prayer. To expect and prepare for his coming is the work
of every Christian, and these are some of the chief purposes
for which he is a Christian, if he knows why he is so ; and
this work will not prosper in our hands without continual
prayer. How many in that day will be found who never
were in a state of watchfulness; how many who never put
up one true prayer in their whole lives, for their souls'
salvation !



CHAP. XXII.] ST. LUKE. 333

37. And in the day-tinic he was teaching in the temple : and at
niu:ht he went out, and abode in the mount that is called the mount
of Olives.

This relates to the time past, for after this lie went no
more to the temple.

38. And all the people came early in the morning to him in the
temple, for to hear him.

Whatever they meant, or however they profited, it is
our business to attend duly upon Christ, hearing him in
his word, and by it receiving him into our hearts.*



SECTION LXXTI.

Chap. xxii. ver. 1 — 18.

CHRIST EATS THE PASSOVER.

1. Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called
the passover.

2. And the chief ])riests and scribes sought how they might kill
him ; for they feared the people.

Christ was now fully prepared to enter upon that scene
of his sufferings which terminated, as he foretold, in his
death for the redemption of mankind. — Edit.

3. Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of
the number of the twelve.

4. And he went his way, and comnnuied with the chief ]>riests
and caj)tains, how they might betray him unto tliem.

5. And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.

6. And he ])romised, and sought opportunity to betray him inito
them in the absence of the nmltilude.

Judas is a memorable and fatal instance of the power of
covetousness. Let us not deceive ourselves. A covetous,
or, which is the same thing, a worldly heart, which does
not seek the kingdom of God, in the first place, always sells

* Vide, OI)servations on the chapter at the end of tlie Gospel.



334 ST. LUKE. [chap. XXII.

Christ. The world is preferred to him, by a free clioice,
though not by as deliberate a bargain and sale, as Judas
made.

7. Then came the flay of unleavened bi'ead, when the passover
must be killed.

8. And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and jn-epare us the
passover, that we may eat.

9. And they said unto him. Where wilt thou that we prepare ?

10. And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into
the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water;
follow him into the house where he entereth in.

1 1. And ye shall say to the goodman of the house. The Master
saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the
passover with my disciples ?

12. And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished : there
make ready.

Christ either knew the man's heart, or framed it for his
purpose at the instant of speaking this. May we be as
ready to entertain him.

13. And they went, and found as he said unto them : and they
made ready the passover.

And shall we find him less than his word in anything he
has said to us, or promised on our behalf.'' They went at
his bidding. They believed that it would be as he had
told them. Here is our pattern.

14. And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve
apostles with him.

15. And he said unto them. With desire I have desired to eat
this passover with you before I suffer :

Christ had earnestly desired it, though he knew it would
be the last time of his eating and drinking with them. His
great, burning desire, his joy, was to put the finishing hand
to his work, by suffering a cruel death. Let this inflame
our desires after him. Think how dear thy soul is to
him ; and know what the loss of it would be, by Christ's
concern for it, and also the price he paid to redeem it from
death and hell. If ever we know what a passing from deatii



VER. 19—38.] ST. LUKE. 335

unto life is, there will be a looking to, and longing for
Jesus, as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of
the world.

16. For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until
it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

The meaning is not that he would eat of it after; but
that what was signified by the Paschal Lamb was now
about to be fulfilled in the sacrifice of himself; and that
the universal kingdom of God, founded in his death, would
immediately take place,

17. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said. Take this,
and divide it among yourselves :

18. For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine,
imtil the kinj^dom of God shall come.



SECTION LXXIIL

Chap. xxii. ver. 19 — 38.

THK SACRAMENT OF THE SUPPER OF THE LORD
INSTITUTED.

19. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave
unto them, saying. This is my body* which is given for you : this
do in remembrance of mc.

Thou who slightest this plain, positive, dying command
of the Saviour, what art thou ? Call not thyself a Chris-
tian. Thy sin is written on thy forehead. Again, " Do
this," is, never neglect it, when thou canst, and hast oppor-
tunity. When a person does it but seldom, it is a plain
proof thai the heart is not to Christ, and his benefits ; and
that all is cold and dead within such a Christian.

20. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying. This cup is the
new testament in my blood, which is slicd for you.

This expression explains the foregoing, " This is my

* Vide Note at the end of the Gospel.



336 ST. LUKE. [chap. xxir.

body," the cup itself was not the New Testam?nt, but the
sign, or token of it, and a speaking image of Christ's blood-
shedding, by which we are intitled to the benefits of the
new testament, or covenant. Let us think again, what
those benefits are, — a new state of adoption, and a right to
the kingdom of heaven, by the remission of our sins, and
the purification of our hearts ; and then we shall gladly do
this in remembrance of him — of what he must do for us,
and what he is to us, both as a sacrifice of atonement, and
the restorer of a new life in us.

21. But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me
on the table.

22. And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined ; but
woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed !

Every false-hearted Christian is this traitor in his de-
gree ; and the woe here pronounced belongs to all, who
neglect his salvation, and make ungrateful returns for his
benefits.

23. And they began to inquire among themselves, which of
them it was that should do this thing.

In this inquiry, there was probably a mixture of curio-
sitv; and too little self-loathing. We shall do well to
limit our inquiries into futurity, to the ends of practice,
watchfulness, and prayer — JEdii.

24. And thei'e was also a strife among them, which of them
should be accounted the greatest.

It is truly admirable that the failings of the apostles
should be recorded by themselves, and this account of them
may be of great use to us. It proves them to be sincere
men, and worthy of regard in their testimony ; and it is
also an encouragement to all sinners to come to Christ,
and shows them what advantage they will derive from
coming to him.

25. And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise
lordship over them ; and they that exercise autliority upon them
are called benefactors.



VEU. 3I_4G.] ST. LUKE. 337

They are deservedly called benefactors, if they govern
well. But the apostles were to have no such ambition.
They were to help men in a different way, and conduct
them to greatness by the road of humility.

2G. But ye shall not be so : but' he that is greatest among you,
let him be as the younger ; and he that is chief, as he that dolh
serve.

27. For wliether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that
serveth P is not he that sitteth at meat ? but I am among you as
he that serveth.

O shame to all the pride of man. And yet it is the last
thing that dies in us.

28. Ye are they which have continued with me in my tempta-
tions.

They betrayed their ignorance and weakness on many
occasions. But here is a great word spoken on their be-
half; they continued with him in all his trials and troubles ;
and Jesus would soon advance them to very high degrees
of knowledge and perfection in his kingdom upon the earth ;
and afterwards to the highest place in his kingdom in
heaven.

29. And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath
appointed unto me ;

30. That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom,
and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

These are figurative expressions, and they point out the
apostles as the chief rulers of the gospel kingdom during
their lives. — Edit.



SECTION LXXIV.

Chap. xxii. ver. 31 — 46.
Peter's denial; and chkist's agonv.

31. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan halli de-
sired to have you, that lie may sift vou as wheat :

vol. II. z



338 ST. LUKE. [CIIAI'. XXII.

32. But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not ; and wlien
thou art converted, strengthen tliy brethren,

Satan had them, to sift and shake, with all his malice.
But they were safe by Christ's prayer; as we are, when
we belong to him. Christ prayed for all such, John xvii.
And all our prayers for ourselves are available, only as
offered in his name, and presented to God by him. Note
the word sift. Satan carries on the work of God in the
saints, and winnows out all their chaff, though he designs
it not. Simon Peter was sorely shaken by his fall, but he
would be more upon his guard for it ever after : he would
learn to distrust himself, and be better able to help others.
If our faith fails, all fails ; as Peter soon found to his cost.
" And when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren ;"
as all do who are converted.

33. And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee,
botli into prison, and to death.

He was greatly mistaken as to his own strength, as we
are too apt to be.

.34. And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this
day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.

35. And he said unto them. When I sent you without purse,
and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye anything ? and they said. No-
thing.

36. Then said he unto them. But now, he that hath a purse, let
him take it, and likewise his scrip : and he that hath no sword, let
him sell his garment and buy one.

This was a signification of their danger ; and not a di-
rection to go and buy swords, to use in his defence.

37. For I say unto you, that this that is written must 3'et be
accomplished in me. And he was reckoned among the transgres-
sors : for the things concerning me have an end.

38. And they said, l-ord, behold, here are two swords. And
he said unto them, It is enough.

Perhaps they meant, that they had only two swords; or,
that two with his help would be enough. Tlicy do not



VER. 31— 4G.] ST. LUKE. 339

seem to have understood him. He did not explain himself
further. They wanted none. He would preserve them
without any, and he did not need to be delivered, except
by himself.

39. And he came ont, and went, as he was wont, to the mount
of Olives ; and his disciples also followed him.

40. And when he was at the place, he said imto them. Pray
that ye enter not into temptation.

Here Christ's conflict began, and was all presented to
him. O my soul, be thou with him in this place, and
follow him with deep humiliation through the scene of his
sufferings. " Pray that ye enter not into temptation," lest
ye fall by it. There is no other way to avoid falling.
Pray, and you will not fall.

41. And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and
kneeled down, and prayed,

41. Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from
me ; nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.

The load of our sins was so heavy upon Jesus, that he
knew not how to stand under it. How shall we be ever
able to bear the weight of them ourselves "^ We here see
them put into God's balance. Is not this an opening of
hell to us? Christ prayed tliat his Father's will might be
done, though what he suffered was inexpressible.

43. And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven,
strengthening him.

Consider again, what sin is, little as it may seem to thee,
and what Jesus endured for it, when he needed this appari-



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