Copyright
Thomas B. (Thomas Brackett) Reed.

Modern eloquence; (Volume 5) online

. (page 1 of 38)
Online LibraryThomas B. (Thomas Brackett) ReedModern eloquence; (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


I





t

I / <.




THE LffiRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

IRVINE




MODERN ELOQUENCE

LIBRARY OF

AFTER-DINNER SPEECHES, LECTURES
OCCASIONAL ADDRESSES



Si




REPRODUCTIONS OF MURAI, DECORATIONS
FROM THE UBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON



"RELIGION"

Photo-engraving in colors after the original painting by
Charles S. Pearce

Mr. Pearce's decorations in the north corridor deal with The Family,
Religion, L,abor, Study, Recreation, and Rest. The series illustrates the
main phases of a pleasant and well-ordered life a kind of idyllic existence
so often imagined by the poets showing a people living in an Arcadian
country in a state of primitive simplicity, but partaking of the refine-
ments of civilization. "Religion" is quiet in conception, but strong in
its appeal. It represents a youth and maiden kneeling before a blazing
altar made of two rough stones.



ODtiRN



ELOQUENCE



HOMAS BREED



JUSTIN M C CARTHY- ROSSITER.JOHNSON
LBERT ELLERY BEROH



ASSOC ATI EDITORS



VOL.V

LECTURES

F-M



JOHN D. MORRIS AND COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA




Copyright, 1900

By
THE UNIVERvSITY SOCIETY



COMMITTEE OF SELECTION

EDWARD EVERETT HALE, Author of " The Man Without a
Country."

JOHN B. GORDON, Former United States Senator.

NATHAN HASKELL DOLE, Associate Editor " International
Library of Famous Literature."

JAMES B. POND, Manager Lecture Bureau ; Author of " Eccen-
tricities of Genius.'

GEORGE MCLEAN HARPER, Professor of English Literature,
Princeton University.

LORENZO SEARS, Professor of English Literature, Brown Uni-
versity.

EDWIN M. BACON, Former Editor " Boston Advertiser " and
" Boston Post."

J. WALKER MCSPADDEN, Managing Editor " Edition Royale "
of Balzac's Works.

F. CUNLIFFE OWEN, Member Editorial Staff " New York
Tribune."

TRUMAN A. DEWEESE, Member Editorial Staff " Chicago
Times-Herald."

CHAMP CLARK, Member of Congress from Missouri.

MARCUS BENJAMIN, Editor, National Museum, Washington,
D. C.

CLARK HOWELL, Editor " Atlanta Constitution."

INTRODUCTIONS AND SPECIAL ARTICLES BY

THOMAS B. REED, HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE,

LORENZO SEARS, JONATHAN P. DOLLIVER,

CHAMP CLARK, EDWARD EVERETT HALE,

ALBERT ELLERY BERGH.

NOTE. A large number of the most distinguished speakers of this
country and Great Britain have selected their own best speeches for
this Library. These speakers include Whitelaw Reid, William Jennings
Bryan, Henry van Dyke, Henry M. Stanley, Newell Dwight Hillis,
Joseph Jefferson, Sir Henry Irving, Arthur T. Hadley, John D. Long,
David Starr Jordan, and many others of equal note.



CONTENTS
VOLUME V

PAGE

FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM

Farewell Thoughts on America .... 395

FIELDS, JAMES THOMAS

Masters of the Situation 423

FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY

The Science of History 443

GORDON, JOHN BROWN

Last Days of the Confederacy .... 471

GOUGH, JOHN BARTHOLOMEW

Social Responsibilities 495

HARRISON, FREDERIC

The Choice of Books 523

HAZLITT, WILLIAM

The Living Poets 541

HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH

Literature in a Republic 565

HILLIS, NEWELL DWIGHT

John Ruskin 579

HOWE, JULIA WARD

The Salon in America 591

HUXLEY, THOMAS HENRY

On a Piece of Chalk 603

INGERSOLL, ROBERT GREEN

Shakespeare 627

KING, THOMAS STARR

Substance and Show 669



CONTENTS



KINGSLEY, CHARLES


PAGE

601


LANG, ANDREW
How to Fail in Literature ....

LIVERMORE, MARY ASHTON
The Battle of Life

LOCKE, DAVID Ross ("Petroleum V. Nasby")
In Search of the Man of Sin . . .

LORD, JOHN


713
739

759
787


MORLEY, JOHN
Aphorisms ...... s


. 809



ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME V FACING

PAGE

" RELIGION " Frontispiece

Photo-engraving in colors after the original
painting by Charles S. Pearce

JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE 443

Photogravure after a photograph from life

JOHN B. GORDON . 471

Photogravure after an engraving

JOHN BARTHOLOMEW GOUGH 495

Photogravure after a photograph from life

NEWELL DWIGHT HILLIS 579

Photogravure after a photograph from life

JULIA WARD HOWE 591

Photogravure after a photograph from life

THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY 603

Photogravure after a photograph from life

ANDREW LANG 713

Photogravure after a photograph from life

JOHN MORLEY ..- 809

Photogravure after a photograph from life



Tii



FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR



FAREWELL THOUGHTS ON AMERICA

[Lecture by Canon Farrar, Archdeacon of Westminster (bora in

Bombay, August 7, 1831; ), delivered as the last of his series

of lectures in America during his visit to this country in 1885. It was
given in Boston, Philadelphia, and finally New York City. Upon the
occasion of its delivery in the latter city, at the Academy of Music,
December 3, 1885, the platform was occupied by William M. Evarts,
Major-General Hancock, David Dudley Field, Cyrus W. Field, Charles
E. Olney, Chauncey M. Depew, and other citizens of prominence, while
the audience was large and representative. Cyrus W. Field introduced
the lecturer.]

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: Among the commonest
questions addressed to the stranger who visits your hos-
pitable shores are, '' What do you think of our country? "
"' What do you think of our institutions ? " The frequency
of the questions proves, I suppose, a real desire to know
the general impressions formed by those from the old
home, whom you welcome here. May one who has been
received among you with an overflowing kindness far be-
yond his deserts, and with a warmth of recognition to
which he has no claim ; who, though a stranger, has been
treated as a friend in every city he has entered; who has
received words of cordial welcome and appreciation from
the members of every religious community among you,
from Roman Catholic Archbishops to Shaker Elders;
who has spoken at nine or ten of your colleges and uni-
versities ; who has been again and again invited to preach
in your churches, and to address many assemblages of
the clergy or of theological students; may such a
stranger, whom you have encouraged to regard himself

From Dean Farrar's " Sermons and Addresses Delivered in America," by
permission of E. P. Dutton & Co.



39^



FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR



as a friend, endeavor to give, or perhaps I should rather
say, to indicate, some shadow of an answer to the familiar
question ?

Such an answer might be given perhaps has been
sometimes given in a tone of vanity and arrogance.
Your brilliant representative, Mr. Lowell, who, in spite
of the fact that he has spoken some sharp words to Eng-
land and the English, was honored and beloved in Eng-
land as few of your many popular ministers have been,
has written a paper on " A Certain Condescension in For-
eigners." The humbleness of my position, the smallness
of any claims of mine on your attention, exempt me from
all temptations to vanity and arrogance. Others again
have offended you by flattery, and others have vexed you
by sarcasm and censure. I hope that I shall not be so
unfortunate as to fall either into the Scylla of flattery a
whirlpool of which I have always tried to steer clear or
into the Charybdis of criticism, which, on my part, would
be purely presumptuous. Thus much, however, I may
say. I have stood in simple astonishment before the
growth, the power, the irresistible advance, the Niagara-
rush of sweeping energy, the magnificent apparent des-
tiny of this nation, wondering whereunto it would grow.
I have been touched by the large generosity, the un-
grudging hospitality of friends in America whom I had
never known before. I should consider myself privileged
beyond anything which I can express, if any poor word
which I have been asked to speak in America might
prove to be an influence for good ; if it could be one more
link, even microscopically small, in the golden chain of
mutual amity which now happily unites the two nations
which yet are, and ought to be one nation ; or if it could
add anything to the feeling of essential unity between re-
ligious bodies which, in spite of their differences, have
yet one great end in view. I should indeed rejoice if I
could thus repay some small part of the debt of my grati-
tude and contribute my infinitesimal quota to the efforts
of those who feeling the inherent grandeur of this
mighty people, and impressed with the eternal truth that
righteousness is the sole palladium of the nations are
devoting heart and soul to the purest effort of patriotism,
the effort which shall enable their fellow-countrymen to



FAREWELL THOUGHTS ON AMERICA



397



rise to the height of this great argument, and by their
means to elevate the moral condition of the world. And
why should this hope of mine be condemned as entirely
presumptuous ? Anything which I can do or say must be
in itself of trivial value; but still it may serve its own
small purpose even as it is the despised mica-flake which
helps to build the bases of the mountains, and the tiny
coral insect which lays the foundations of the mighty
continent, and the grain of sand which is, " taken up by
the wings of the wind, to be a barrier against the raging
of the sea."

Surely, your history, so brief yet so memorable, has
been too plainly marked by the interpositions of God to
leave any American unimpressed by the responsibilities
which God has made to rest upon the Atlantean shoul-
ders of this His people. There are some who are fond of
looking at the apparently trifling incidents of history,
and of showing how the stream of the centuries has been
diverted in one or other direction by events the most in-
significant. General Garfield told his pupils at Hiram
that the roof of a certain court-house was so absolute a
water-shed that the flutter of a bird's wing would be
sufficient to decide whether a particular rain-drop should
make its way into the Gulf of St. Lawrence or into the
Gulf of Mexico. The flutter of a bird's wing may have
affected all history. Some students may see an immeas-
urable significance in the flight of parrots, which served
to alter the course of Columbus, and guided him to the
discovery of North and not of South America. There is
no need for us to touch on such curiosities. Suffice it for
me to quote a testimony which you will all reverence
the testimony of Washington : " When I contemplate,"
he says in his letter to the governors of the States, in
1783, "the interposition of Providence, as it was visibly
manifest in guiding us through the Revolution . . .
I feel myself oppressed and almost overwhelmed with a
sense of Divine munificence. . . . No people can
be bound to acknowledge and adore an Invisible hand
which conducts the affairs of men more than the people
of the United States. Every step by which they have ad-
vanced to the character of an independent nation seems
to have been distinguished by some token of Providential



398 FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR

agency. ... Of all the dispositions and habits
which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality
are indispensable supports. In vain would that man
claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to sub-
vert these great pillars of human happiness, these firm-
est proofs of the duties of men and of citizens." So wrote
Washington, the Father of his Country. Such was his
conviction, and such the inference to which it led him.

In truth, this lesson the Providence of God in the
affairs of nations seems to be stamped upon your his-
tory from the first. When Columbus ceased to speak
before the courtiers at Barcelona, and told them the dis-
covery of the Western world,

" The king and queen

Sank from their thrones and melted into tears,
And knelt, and lifted hand and heart and voice
In praise of God who led him through the waste,
And then the great ' Laudamus ' rose to heaven."

When William Penn founded, among the forest trees
from which its streets are yet named, the City of Broth-
erly Love, " It is," he said, " a holy experiment, which it
depends upon themselves to accomplish or ruin ; " and he
intended Pennsylvania to be an endeavor " to improve an
innocent course of life on a virgin Elysian shore." " Let
us," said the great Edmund Burke " let us auspicate all
our proceedings in America with the old Church cry,
" Sursum corda." George Herbert wrote :

" Religion stands on tiptoe in our land,
Ready to pass to the American strand."

May I try to show that every fact of your early history
emphasizes the religious prophecies which thus attended
its early dawn?

I. Who were your fathers? Look to the rock whence
you were hewn, and the hole of the pit whence you were
digged. The stream of life in some colonies has been
tainted by the blood of criminals. Some of you may have
read Walter Savage Lander's fine address to Mrs.
Chisholm :



FAREWELL THOUGHTS ON AMERICA 399

" Chisholm ! of all the ages that have rolled
Around this rolling world, what age hath seen
Such arduous, such heaven-guided enterprise
As thine? Crime flies before thee, and the shores
Of Australasia, lustrated by thee,
Collect no longer the putrescent weed
Of Europe, flung by senates to infect
The only unpolluted continent."

But, gentlemen, the line you draw from is the line of men
brave and free, and the blood in your veins is the blood of
heroes. " A Syrian ready to perish was thy father," says
the Hebrew prophet to his people. A few Englishmen
ready to perish were your ancestors ; but they were true,
brave, godfearing men, and therefore the irresistible
might of their weakness shook the world. Sicut Patribus,
sit Deus nobis! [The motto of Boston.]

There were Recusants in Maryland, there were Cava-
liers in Virginia, but the type of your manhood was de-
rived from the awful virtue of the Pilgrim Fathers. If
" the feet of a few outcasts pressed Plymouth Rock, and
it became famous," it was because those outcasts were
men of fixed determination, of indomitable courage, of
deep faith, of earnest prayer. The hundred who in their
frail little bark braved the fury of the elements, were
frowned upon alike by kings and priests, but, animated
by a passion for Liberty, they carried to America, as Mr.
Gladstone has said, " all that was Democratic in the policy
of England, and all that was Protestant in her religion."
Well might your orator exclaim, " Victims of persecution!
how wide an empire acknowledges the sway of your prin-
ciples ! Apostles of Liberty ! what millions attest the au-
thenticity of your mission." But what was their safe-
guard? The power of faith, the passion for freedom.
"We do verily believe and trust," wrote Robinson and
Brewster to Sir E. Sandys, in 1617, "that the Lord is
with us unto whom and whose service we have given our-
selves in many trials, and that He will graciously prosper
our endeavors according to the simplicity of our hearts."

There is scarcely a man whose name is connected with
the early colonization of North America that is not noble
and memorable. There was the brilliant and unhappy
Raleigh brightest star in the galaxy of stars which clus-



400



FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR



tered round the Virgin Queen who gave her name to Vir-
ginia. There was Captain John Smith, a man with the
soul of a Crusader, whose favorite book was " Marcus
Aurelius," who "in all his proceedings made justice his
first guide and experience his second, combating base-
ness, sloth, pride, and iniquity more than any other dan-
gers." There was William Penn, ever acting in the spirit
of his own conviction that the weak, the just, the pious,
the devout are all of one religion. There was Bradford,
the stern governor. There was Oglethorpe, with his
" strong benevolence of soul." There was the hero of
the Indian wars, Miles Standish. There was Roger Will-
iams, the founder of Providence. There were Winthrop
and Endicott, the worthy founders of worthy lines.

And how clearly is the will of Heaven marked in your
history. It is but " God's unseen Providence " which
men nicknamed chance. Least of all nations can America
prepare a table for chance or furnish a drink-offering for
destiny.*

It was not Chance which made the history of mankind
hang on the fortunes of handfuls of strugglers in the for-
ests of Canada. It was not Chance which gave the New
World to the industry of Puritans, the individualism of
busy traders. At one time, as Mr. Parkman has so finely
shown, it seemed certain that America would have be-
come the appanage of France. That would have meant
the predominance of the principles of Richelieu and Lo-
yola. It would have meant the sway of the despot, the
noble, and the Jesuit in the continent of freedom. " Popu-
lations formed in the habits of a feudal monarchy and
controlled by a hierarchy profoundly hostile to liberty
would have been a hindrance and n stumbling-block in
the way of that majestic experiment of which America is
the field." But the hopes of the Jesuits, in spite of all
their noble labors and heroic martyrdoms, were, in the
Providence of God, shattered to pieces by the fierce tom-
ahawks of the Iroquois. The gigantic ambition of France
was foiled by the " little, sickly, red-haired hero " at Que-
bec; and the weak and broken line of English colonies
along the shores of the Atlantic, the descendants of an
oppressed and fugitive people, dashed down the iron hand
of monarchy in the flush of its triumphant power.
* See Isaiah Ixiv., 12.



FAREWELL THOUGHTS ON AMERICA 401

At another time it seemed as if the New World were
to belong to the proud, sickly blood of decaying Spain.
St. Augustine, in Florida, founded in 1565, was the first
town built by whites in the United States. That would
have meant the horrible despotism of Alvas and Philips ;
it would have meant the narrow and crushing tyranny of
the bigot and the monk; it would have meant the Mass-
book, the thumb-screw, and the bloodhound; it would
have meant the inert and execrable rule of men like
Menendez, the outcome of an infernal ignorance ani-
mated by an infernal religious zeal. But Spain was foiled
by De Gourges, who justly hanged, "not as Spaniards,
but as traitors, robbers, and murderers," the Spaniards
who had hanged Huguenots, " not as Frenchmen, but as
Lutherans ; " and again by General Oglethorpe, who
with eight hundred men attacked and drove from Fred-
erica their fleet with five thousand men on board.

And so it has been written in God's Book of Destiny
that over America should wave neither the golden lilies
of France, nor the lion and tower, " pale emblems of Cas-
tilian pride ; " but first the stainless semper cadem of Eng-
land, and then we do not grudge them to you the
Stars and Stripes which you borrowed from the English
tomb of the Washingtons.

America was God's destined heritage, not for tyranny,
not for aristocracy, not for privilege not for Spanish
bigotry or French ambition but for England, and for
the Reformation, and for progress, and for liberty, and
for the development if you fall not short of the vast ob-
ligations which rest upon you of a great and noble type
of righteous, fearless, and independent manhood.

II. The voices of prophetic insight, from Seneca
downward, point to such a destiny.

Alluding to King James and the foundation of James-
town, Shakespeare, in the prophecy which he puts into
the mouth of Cranmer, says :

" His honor and the greatftess of his name
Shall make new nations."

" Westward," wrote Bishop Berkeley in the four mem-
orable lines, now engraved over the portal of the Uni-
versity of San Francisco



402 FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR

" Westward the course of empire takes its way,

The first four acts already past,
The fifth shall close the drama with the day,
Time's noblest offspring is the last."

Those lines seem to have been written in a flash of
prophetic insight ; and years later Emerson wrote :

" Lo ! I uncover the land,

Which I hid of old time in the West,
As the sculptor uncovers his statue,
When he has wrought his best"

But it is for America, not to repeat these prophecies with
complacency, but rather to register in heaven the vow
that they shall be fulfilled. When the sword of Cornwal-
lis was surrendered to Washington at Yorktown, some
of the Americans, with a want of consideration which at
such a moment was perhaps venial, began to cheer. But,
turning to them, the noble Virginian said, with a fine
rebuke : " Let posterity cheer for us." Gentlemen, you,
as the youngest of the nations, may put your sickle into
the ripened harvest of the world's experience, and if you
learn the lessons which that revelation has to teach, Pos-
terity will raise for you such a cheer as shall ring through
all the ages. But the lessons of History are full of warn-
ing. " I will overturn, overturn, overturn," saith the
Lord, " till he come whose right it is." When the rep-
resentatives of many nations met Alexander at Babylon,
the Roman ambassadors were, it is said, the obscurest
among them ; yet Greece was overturned, and Rome
snatched the sceptre from her palsying hands. Babylon,
Assyria, Carthage, Greece, Rome, have passed away.
" Since the first dominion of men was asserted over the
ocean," says Mr. Ruskin, " three empires, of mark beyond
all others, have been set upon its sands: the thrones of
Tyre, of Venice, of England. Of the First of these great
powers only the memory remains; of the Second, the
ruin ; the Third, which inherits their greatness, if it forget
their example, may be led through prouder eminence to
less pitied destruction." Is not the warning thus given
to England as needful for the United States ?

III. I have touched on your fathers, but yet another



FAREWELL THOUGHTS ON AMERICA



403



mighty impulse for good comes to you from the early
visitors to your shores. With what interest do we re-
member Robert Hunt, Vicar of Reculver, in Kent, who
on June 21, 1607, celebrated the first English communion
ever held in the New World with the unruly crew of
Captain John Smith. Was it no boon to you that Charles
Wesley, the sweet poet of the Methodist movement, was
the secretary of General Oglethorpe, and accompanied
him to Georgia with his brother John Wesley? In St.
Simon's Island you can still point to Wesley's oak, and
in Newburyport Church to the grave of George White-
field. It was he who suggested the motto, Nil despcran-
dum Christo ducc,

" That day when sunburned Pepperell,
His shotted salvos fired so well ;
The Fleur de Lys trailed sulky down,
And Louisburg was George's town."

Thus to you also was communicated, by strange inter-
positions of Providence, the electric thrill of that awaken-
ment which startled the eighteenth century from its tor-
por of indolence and death.

Besides these, there came to you two great visitors of
whose interest and affection any country might be proud.
One was the gallant, the chivalrous, the stainless Lafay-
ette, burning with the passion for freedom and the en-
thusiasm of humanity; the other was that whitest of hu-
man souls, Bishop Berkeley, whose wooden house still
stands at Newport. It is something that you can point
to the sea-cave in which was written the " Minute Philos-
opher ; " something that the early streams of your history
are commingled with the purest glories of the French
Revolution, and the serene dawn of modern Philosophy;
with the influence of one who added to the holiness of a
saint the keenness of a philosopher, and to whom one of
the most cynical of poets could ascribe " every virtue un-
der heaven." Lafayette hung the key of the Bastile in
Mount Vernon ; Berkeley left his library to Yale.

Then, still keeping to the earlier stages of American
history, how distinctive and how beautiful are the char-
acteristics of your great men in Church and State: In



404 FREDERIC WILLIAM FARRAR

the Church, or, if you prefer it, in the churches but to
me there is but one great flock of God, however many
may be the folds you may look back with pride to the
holy enthusiasm and boundless self-sacrifice of David
Brainerd; to the lion-hearted courage of John Eliot; to
those four students at Williamstown who gave the first
impulse to the mighty work of missions; to the heroic
endurance of Adoniram Judson; to Johnson of Yale, who
in 1717 was the first to teach the Copernican system in
America; to the faith and determination of Bishop Sea-
bury; to the large-hearted theology and far-seeing wis-
dom of Bishop White ; to the intense if Cimmerian theol-
ogy of Jonathan Edwards ; to the fiery courage of Theo-
dore Parker; to the conquering sweetness and charity of
William Ellery Channing, " whose word went forth like
morning over the Continents." In the State, time would
fail me to tell of Jefferson, who wrote your immortal
Declaration of Independence ; of Otis, with his tongue of



Online LibraryThomas B. (Thomas Brackett) ReedModern eloquence; (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 38)