Thomas Babington Macaulay Macaulay.

The Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.39 (Nov.-Dec. 1914)) online

. (page 27 of 31)
Online LibraryThomas Babington Macaulay MacaulayThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.39 (Nov.-Dec. 1914)) → online text (page 27 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

stress on the importance of the use of pure iron.
Investigations carried out under the direction of
the Department of .\griculture about ten years ago
established the fact that the principal cause of
rusting in iron and steel is the impurities which
it contains. It has been frequently shown that
the iron of a hundred years ago, which was so
remarkably resistant to rust, was of a high degree
of purity; and it is now quite generally acknowl-
edged that iron is valuable for use in exposed
situations in proportion to the success attained
in the processes of manufacture in getting rid of
foreign substances. i

Cast iron pipe makes an excellent culvert, and
the thickness of its walls generally protects it
for long periods from destruction by rust. The
difficulties in the w-ay of its use are its generally
high cost and the fact that its great weight makes
it cumbersome to handle and install. ^^any of
these pijics are giving very good service, but a
lighter and more convenient form is appropriate
to country roads.

Whatever form of pipe is selected, its installa-
tion should be given intelligent care. A smooth
bed, of even slope, should be prepared, and this
should be free from stones, either loose or em-
bedded. The filling should be thoroughly tamped,
up to nearly the top of the pipe, and large stones
should not form a portion of the fill. In places
where much water is to be cared for, and par-
ticularly if the slope is rather high, it is well to
provide the culvert with wing walls of some sort
to prevent damage to the fill at the inlet or outlet
end. These bulkheads may be made of stone, of
concrete, or of corrugated iron; but one of wood
is far preferable to none, as its presence may,
in time of freshet, save the whole roadway at that
point from destruction.

Concrete Road Construction

THE national conference on concrete
roads, which met in Chicago recently,
adopted the following principles, or ten
commandments, for concrete road work:

1. The aggregates should !)c clean and

2. 'i'lu- sand shoubi be coarse and well

3. .\ rich mixture should be used.

4. The materials sluuild be correctly

5. The materials should lie thoroughly

6. The inspection should be intelligent
and ihtirough.

The Architect and Engineer


7. When in doubt, reinforce tlic pave-

8. The subgradc slionUl be of uniform
density, thorouglily compacted and
drenched with water immediately before
placing concrete.

9. The concrete should be of a viscous,
plastic consistency.

10. After placing, the concrete should
be covered immediatel}', kept, moist, and
not opened to traffic for four weeks.

Intelligent and honest inspection is
needed in all public work, whether it is
municipal, county, or federal. Both cor-
])orations and private interests have
elal)orate systems of inspection for all
their work, whether done outside or in-
side of the plant.

Thoroughness of inspection, particu-
larly in large cities, necessarily must be
limited by the class and experience of the
ins])ectors appointed. An engineer with
much experience in dealing with con-
tractors gave a definition of an ideal in-
spector as a ''man who could read Eng-
lish, who was reasonably honest, and
who could count up to ten." When the
millenium arrives inspectors perhaps will
be both honest and intelligent and also
will possess a good working knowledge
of the practical and technical points of
the job they are inspecting.

Men inspecting pavements will not
then be drawn from other departments
and put on work which they know noth-
ing about. It is said that one of the
causes of the scandal in the New York
state road department is directly trace-
able to the inspectors, many of whom
were drawn from subway and aqueduct
work to supervise road building.

Upon all road construction, and par-
ticularly in concrete, there should be two
inspectors constantly "on the job." If it
is necessary for both of them to leave the
work, all construction should be sus-
pended until their return. This might
cost the taxpayer some money, but would
be true economy in the long run.

The average citizen realizes the neces-
sity for inspection is complex, when, as a
matter of fact, it is comparatively simple
and the chances of fraud can be elimi-
nated. The citizen should know what he,
as a taxpayer — and what the inspector,
who is his representative — should look
after to get his money's worth.

The first step in rond building is a
preparation of the foundation. Adequate
drainage should be provided, all soft
spots in the road should be filled, and
preliminary grading should be done.
Then the road should be rolled with a
five or ten ton road roller.

For a concrete road the subgrade
usually is rolled flat and not crowned, as
for other road materials. The foundation
having been prepared, the material, which
is sand, gravel, and cement, is hauled on.
The taxpayer vi'ould do well to examine
material. If a standard grade of cement

has been specified, he need not worry
further about it. The cement is no magic
material, however, and the road or con-
crete will be no stronger than the sand
and gravel which is mixed with the
cement. The taxpayer will do well to
examine the sand and gravel.

The sand should be dean, coarse, and
well graded, or varying in size from fine
beach sand to little pebbles about one-
quarter inch in diameter. Coarse ma-
terial should predominate and the sand
■as well as the gravel should be free from
dirt, clay, vegetable matter, or any other
foreign substance, because these sub-
stances will prevent the cement mortar
from "bonding," or completely surround-
ing every particle of sand and gravel.

The gravel or hard crushed stone
should range in size from one-quarter of
an inch to an inch and a half in diameter.
Soft limestone should not be used, al-
though hard limestone can be used suc-
cessfully. Many engineers do not per-
mit the use of limestone in any form as
a wearing surface, so that if one-course
work has been decided upon gravel or
hard crushed stone must be used.

Assuming that the materials are all
right, that the foundation has been prop-
erly prepared and good drainage pro-
vided — all of which should be a matter
of careful attention by the citizens living
on the street — the next step is the mov-
ing to the scene of a large concrete

When the concrete is being mixed, or
manufactured, one inspector should be
standing in front of the loading "skip,"
or carrier, at the back of the machine.
The other inspector should be in front
of the machine to see that the concrete
when coming out is of the proper con-
sistency, that it is handled properly by
the man who strikes ofif the concrete and
by those who come afterwards and float
or finish the surface.

The inspector at the back of the
machine should see, first, that the speci-
fications regarding the mixture are car-
ried out. The standard mixture used on
concrete road work is 1:2:3, which may
be construed as one sack of cement
(ninety-four pounds net), two parts, or
two cubic feet, of coarse, clean sand up
to one-fourth of an inch in size; and
three parts, or three cubic feet, of clean,
hard gravel or hard crushed stone from
one-fourth inch to one inch in size.

Brick Apartments

George N. Hillwig 524 .South Dittman
street, Los Angeles, has purchasecl a lot
50x142 feet on East First street, near
Cummings street, and contemplates the
construction thereon of a three story
brick apartment building to contain
about eighty rooms. The plans will be
prepared by .Architect O. M. Warner,
220 Stimson building.


Tlic Architect and Eiii^inccr

The Brick Road and Its Construction*


ALTHOUGH I am supposed to dis-
cuss ouly brick roads, 1 shall digress
to the exteut of expressing some opin-
ions on that phase of our movement
which has been termed the literary and
oratorical side of road building.

The question of road building has been
uppermost in the minds of the American
people for several years. It has been
discussed from every view point by the
public and the press, until people in the
remotest sections are familiar with the
possibilities of improved roads. For
arousing public interest, the literary and
oratorical forces should receive com-
mendation. They would be subject to
less criticism if they rested with this ac-
complishment. But. having convinced
fhe public of the need of improved roads
they have "wished on themselves" the
further function of telling Mr. Taxpayer
what kind of roads to build.

There enters at this point the subtle
press agent for certain material con-
cerns. Under his guidance, good road
leaders have rushed into print with
astonishing statements. Certain types of
road, they declare, should be relegated
to the ash heap, owing to the advent of
the automobile and kindred road destroy-
ers. The knell of gravel and water
bound macadam has thus been loudly
sounded, according to the notion of the
sounders and they proceed to attack the
more modern types of road on the score
of cost. Then they jjolitely lead you
to the main tent and show you the
patented article, equal in quality and at
a less expense.

The simpler types of improvement arc
not ready for the ash heap. Their place
remains. In Ohio, for example, there are
88.000 miles of road, yet the most
ambitious plan of county and inter-
county market roads only contemplates
the improvement of 9,000 miles. How
are the remaining 79,00() miles of high-
way to be improved if not by inexpensive
methods suited to their light travel?

With regard to cost for the more
traveled roads. l"'rank R. Lander the dean
of road I)uildcrs in Ohio says: "cheap
first cost in road building mcins nothing
more than one of two things, ultimate
high cost or Complete loss." Cheapness
most often stands for wasteful extrav-
agance in the end and the adage that
"whatever is worth doing is worth doing
well" has a striking application to the
subject of road building. W{ this false
notion of chcai)ncss has dominated to
such an extent that engineers and road
builders in Ohio can cite instances where
money aggregating millions has been as
gnf)d as thrown away in road improve-

* Paper read before tlie Northwestern Koail
Congress, Milwaukee, 'Wis., October J8-3I, r)14.


meats without producing anj- lasting re-
sults, unless to educate the public by
experience that ultimate results are more
to be desired than cheapness of con-

All these remarks lead up to the
question, "what is a good road?" Perhaps
from egotism — perhaps from zeal — I
wish to leave my criterion of a good road
strongly entrenched in your mind,
namely; a good road can be identified,
not by its first cost, but by the amount
expended upon it for repairs, proportion-
ed to the traflfic.

In entering into tlie main discussion
of road building methods, I may be
guiltj'^ of a somewhat negative treat-
ment of the subject. Good specifications
are obtainable and I have no adequate
reason for making this paper a minute
treatise of what to do. I may help you
more by warning you what not to do,
for a majority of the common errors are
not of omission so much as commission.

In the matter of grading. I can pass
the question of cuts, but a word about
fills will not be amiss. Do not place too
much trust in a fill which was partially
made a generation or two ago. The
older portion may be the more treacher-
ous. Perhaps trees and brush were used
in making the original fill. If they have
decayed, the fill is in a honey-combed
condition and likely to give way. The
best method of locating voids is l>y

Enclose your suli-grade with tempor-
ary earth dikes two feet higher than the
sub grade and divide it into compart-
ments by similar cross dikes. Fill the
compartments with water, one at a time,
and weakness, if anj'. will shortly appear.
The usual method of relying on a roller
for compacting a fill is not nearly so
efficacious. In my experience, not more
than ten per cent of the fills could be
properly compacted with a roller alone.

Don't fall into the error of thinking
that the province of a roller is to pro-
duce a smooth even surface on the fill.
Rolling, like puddling, ought to help in
developing hidden weakness where more
or different material is needed.

Don't undervalue the necessity of
drainage. My rule has been to use it
as a precaution in dry places and as a
necessity in wet places.

Tile drainage is much better than ditch
drainage, but' don't place your longi-
tudinal drain beneath the i);iveinent
where it is less efficacious in removing
the water which the i)avement sheds and
where, also, it offers a source of l)ack
seepage in wet times which may keep
the pavement moist and be responsible
for shifting in the sand filler. The place
for the longitudinal drain is below the
gutter. Cross drains should be propor-

The Architect and Ens^ineer


tioned in frequency to the nature of the
soil and the character of the natural
drainage. In some muddy places it maj'
be necessary to lay them every ten or
fifteen feet. In other places they will be
unnecessar\' for a considerable interval.
The essentials of my practice in under
drainage have been; first, open tile;
second, position below the frost line;
third, the use of gravel or cinders in
filling the trench.

One advantage of under drainage as
compared with a longitudinal ditch, is the.
lessening of danger to traffic and the
more level shoulder of earth that can
be graded above an underground drain.
Such a slioulder can be kept free from
tall grass and weed by means of a mow-
ing machine.

{Concluded ill the January number.)

article, descriptive of Mr. Howard's work,
has been written by Mr. William C. Hayes.

Los Angeles Chapter December Meeting

The Southern California Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects held its
December meeting at the Hollenbeck
Cafe. President Albert C. Martin, pre-
siding. .\ telegram sent by Octavius
Morgan, director of the American Insti-
tute, from the convention at \\'ashington,
D. C. was read announcing the election
of Mr. Fernand Parmentier to Fellowship
in the Institute. Mr. Parmentier's name
was presented to the convention for rati-
fication by Mr. John Parkinson of Los
Angeles, who attended the convention as
a delegate of the Southern California
Chapter. The telegram also stated that
a special convention of the Institute
would probably- be held in Los Angeles
some time during 1915 to consider ques-
tions of considerable importance to Coast

The president announced that Charles
Gordon and Richard C. Farrell had been
elected to membership. Several other ap-
plications for membership have been re-

The committee on contracts and speci-
fications recommended that the chapter
co-operate with the Electrical Contrac-
tors and Dealers' Association in their en-
deavor to improve conditions in the elec-
trical field and to raise the standard in
this work. The proposition of the latter
organization is to be placed before the
Chapter in writing at the next meeting
for final action.

The remainder of the evening was de-
voted to a discussion of the legislation
which the Chapter should undertake to
secure at the next session of the Legis-
lature. The Act of 1901 governing the
practice of architecture and the Law of
1872. pertaining to the selection of archi-
tects for public school buildings, were
di.-cussed at length.

Engineer's Part in Lighting a Building

A study of the requirements entering
into the designing of the illumination,
electrical wiring, plumbing, heating and
ventilation of a modern building will show
that the architect is reljing more and
more each day upon the services of the
engineer. Owing to the vast amount of
mechanical and electrical apparatus and
systems now on the market, and to the
rapid changes that are taking place, the
engineer takes a very important place in
the architectural world.

As proof of the above it may be men-
tioned that a number of important struc-
tures were erected during the last year,
on which tiie services of Charles T.
Phillips, consulting engineer, have been
used by the architect. The new Masonic
Hall, San Francisco, several theaters for
the Pantages circuit, the two-million-dol-
lar Oakland hotel, the Jacob Stern resi-
dence, Atherton. California, St. Ignatius'
church. Wigwam theater, Branch Public
Library, Y. M. I. building, Potrero hos-
pital. Atlas hotel, and the remodeling of
the Call building. San Francisco, the
Knights of Columbus hall. San Mateo,
and a large number of schools, apartment
houses, hotels, private residences, etc.

The January 1915 number of the Archi-
tect and Engineer will show the work of
John Galen Howard. F. A. I. A. .\ special

Mr. Pratt Buys Golden Gate Brick Com-
pany's Stock

The Pratt Building Material Company,
Hearst building. San Francisco, has pur-
chased the stock of enamel brick, pressed
brick and sandstone brick of the Golden
Gate Brick Compan)- and is offering some
real bargains. C. F. Pratt was formerly
manager of the brick company, which is
now retiring from business. The Pratt
Building Material Company is carrying
on a splendid business, filling large orders
for sand, gravel and other building ma-
terials in San Francisco and interior

Prospective Warehouse

The Jackson Furniture Co.. 14th and
Clay Streets. Oakland, have bought a lot
at 21st. Union and Poplar streets. Oak-
land, as a site for a new warehouse.
The lot is 162x230 feet. The company's
lease of its present warehouse near the
16th Street depot expires in 1916. and a
new warehouse will be built for the use
of the firm upon the expiration of the

^teel and Concrete Contracts Awarded

Architect Houghton Sawyer has let
the structural steel contract for the Mors-
head .\partments at California and Mason
streets. San Francisco, to the Judson
Iron Works, at $55 a ton. There will
be 275 tons of steel used. Contract for
the concrete work has been let to George


Tlic Aichitcct and Eui^inccr

Prosperity Ahead!

"You can tell your readers that the worst
of the business depression has passed and
that San Francisco is going to have a dandy
jear in 1915.''

This encouraging information was vol-
unteered a representative of this magazine
by a well-known banker whose institution
is closely allied with the building interests
of the state and has made more large loans
for building purposes since the iire than
any two banks on the Coast.

And we want to add that from other
sources — most reliable ones, too — assur-
ances of unprecedented prosperity have
been given.

This talk about San Francisco being over-
built is pure buncomb. Look around yon
and behold the vacant lots, then look again
and see the crowded apartment houses.
You can't get a decent apartment in San
Francisco today, except you pay a fabulous
rental. The city needs a lot of moderate
priced apartments.

The railroads estimate that 11.000,000
people will come to the fair next year. Ten
millions is a conservative estimate. Statis-
tics show that from one to three per cent
of visitors to a world's fair remain in the
city permanently. In Chicago the record
was 2 per cent. Say San Francisco will
only get one per cent. That means a hun-
dred thousand people that must be provided
for. It means that we shall have to build
more hotels, more apartment houses, more

And besides this there is the Twin Peaks
tunnel that is going to give employment to
a lot of men and is going to require much
material. Then there is the $1,000,000
municipal library, plans for which will be
completed by Architect Kelham early in
the year. The Tubercular hospital group
will be erected next year at a cost of
$500,000, and the new University hospital
at the .\fifiliated Colleges, now being de-
signed by Architect Hobart, is positively
going ahead in 1915.

And the architects, building material con-
cerns and contractors who have weathered
the storm that is now fast dispelling, are
the ones that will be doing business in San
Francisco in years to come. The weak ones
jiave been swallowed up by the tide of ad-

Paper Mill for Los Angeles

The Givan Paper Mills Company, with
offices in 237 Union Oil building Los
.•\ngcles, contemplates the establishment
of a paper manufacturing plant. It is
the intention of the newly organized
company to construct a factory building,
which, with e(|ui|)ment, is estimated to
cost $175.f)(K). .Among the jjrojectors are:
Dr. I'ockney {•"rench. Ben H. Smitii.
I'rank G. Hickox, and Frank G. Tyrcll.

The Judson Manu-
facturing Company

announces to the trade
that it IS NOW

Open - Hea rth Furnace

and is in a position to fur-

in the sanie range of
sizes as it has hereto-
fore supplied in double
refined Iron.


Open Hearth Steel
Ingots. B.\BS.I'i^TKSAM« Small SHAitiS


U. S. Metal Products Company of the
Pacific Coast Independent Concern

Because of a similarity of names the
United States Metal Products Company
of the Pacific Coast, a prosperous Cali-
fornia corporation, with factories at San
i'Vancisco and Los .\ngeles. and agencies
in all the prominent cities of the seven
far Western States, has suffered con-
siderable inconvenience through publica-
tion of the voluntary bankruptcy petition
of the United States Metal Products
Company of New York City, a Massa-
chusetts corporation. The New York
concern has no financial connection what-
ever with the C:i!ifornia companj', al-
though it has handled some of the
products of the United States Metal
Products Company of New York under
an agenc}' arrangement.

Tenement Housing

Charles H. Clicney. of llobart &
Cheney, architects, San Francisco, and
associate editor of the .Architect and Fn-
gineer, is in the Fast studying the tene-
ment and housing problems for the Com-
mission of Immigration and i lousing of
California, lie will confer with tlie lead-
ing experts, architects and engineers aiul
study the result of their work in tene-
ment improvement, cheap workingmen's
houses and garden cities, for the ])urpose
of a])p1yinu what has been acc()ini)lislio(I
in the Fast to the contrested tcnenunt
districts of Californi;i cities.

The ArcJiitcct and Engineer 125

FOULKES & HOGUE, Architects





Contractors on

Oregon State Building
Indiana State Building
Canadian-Pac. R.R. Bldg.



When writing to Advertisers please mention this magazine.


The Architect and Eui^ineer


The Youngstown Plant of the Trussed Concrete

Steel Company

THE extensive plant of the Trussed
Concrete Steel Company at Youngs-
town, Ohio, is devoted exclusively to the
manufacture of steel products, sucli as
United Sash, Kahn trussed hars, Hy-Ril),
Rib Latli. reinforcing steel and other build-
ing specialties. The waterproofing and
finishing products of this company are
manufactured in a separate plant in De-
troit, while tile plants and warehouses
are located in various cities of the coun-
try. The general and sales offices for
steel products are in Youngstown, with
representatives in all principal cities.

Six years ago only a few small build-
ings made up this entire plant. Today
the factorj' and yards cover the greater
part of twenty-five acres of land. The
plant consists of an administration build-
ing, power plant. sliipi)ing yards, and a
large number of individual buildings in
which tlie various products are manu-
factured. In order to more clearly un-
derstand the development of this plant
and its manufacturing divisions, it is
well to review tlie products of the Trussed
Concrete Steel Company and their de-

Originally the Kahn Trussed Bar was
the princip'il product of the company.
The Kahn Trussed Bar is a patented re-
inforcement for use in concrete girders,
beams, joists and floors, and consists of
a main horizontal bar with rigidly con-

nected diagonal shear members, formed
from the same section of steel. Other
reinforcing products were introduced
sliortly afterwards. These included the
Rib Bar with a specially rolled section, so

Online LibraryThomas Babington Macaulay MacaulayThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.39 (Nov.-Dec. 1914)) → online text (page 27 of 31)