Thomas Babington Macaulay Macaulay.

The Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.43 (Oct.-Dec. 1915)) online

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the expert advice of an architect out of consideration m a building under-
taking shows as poor economy as leaving out the expert advice of a
physician in case of illness. ^

* *

Longfellow's Home, a Fine Example of Colonial

Longfellow's home, Craigie House, in Cambridge, is to be preserved
for the public. Several months ago, says the Boston "Transcript," it is
learned from the filing of the will of Mrs. Richard Henry Dana (Edith
Longfellow Dana), daughter of the poet, the surviving heirs agreed to
entrust the house to three trustees, together with a sum of money for
upkeep, for a triple purpose: (1) "As a specimen of the best Colonial archi-
tecture of the eighteenth century" ; (2) "As a historical monument of the
occupation of the house by George Washington during the siege of Boston
in the Revolutionary War"; (3) "As a memorial to Henry Wadsworth

Longfellow heirs may live in the house by paying rent. When the time
comes that no surviving heir wishes to do that the mansion is to be
managed solely as a memorial "for the benefit of the public." Thus,
definitely and without further action, Craigie House is placed forever among
the state's public monuments to art and patriotism, and to celebrate equally
one who pleaded for justice, humanity, and. particularly, the beautiful.

* *

What City Planning Can Do

To show what city |)lanning commissions can do, the California Confer-
ence on City Planning has prepared a bulletin under the above title. The
bulletin states briefly the reasons or need for city planning, what city plan-
ning commissions can do — how collect their data, maps and preliminary
information, how prepare a city plan — and also contains a copy of the new
law for the creation of planning commissions, a model ordinance for the
establishment of the commission, a list of the city planning commissions
in the United States and also a list of recommended books, reports and
l)eriodicals on citv i)lanning. Copies may be had by sending fifty cents to
the Secretary of the Conference, 1120 Crocker building, San Francisco.

The Architect and Engineer



Unique Design for a Municipal Park

By UJLP.L'R DAVID COOK, JR., Landscape Architect*

T] I E writer was called in a short time ago by the city of Fullerton,
California, to prepare plans for its city park. The site is unique in
many ways.

It was formerly occupied by the Fullerton high school and com-
prised about four acres of nearly level ground. The building was
destroyed by fire, leaving only a front terrace of cement, the entrance
arch, the foundations and cellar. It was a question whether to remove
what was left or to try and incorporate it into a park scheme.

At my suggestion the structure was retained, and a pergola will be
built over the terrace, and the cellar will be made into an amphitheatre
which will seat 1500 people. This feature really determined whether
the park should be treated in a formal or informal manner. It naturally
called for a formality of treatment and the park has been developed along
these lines. The problem was further complicated by some existing cement
walks which the park Imard wanted to keep. These were retained and a
circuit walk was planned about a large central lawn. This left two areas
at the south end of the park, one of which was reserved for a work yard,
tool shed, etc., together with a small playground of turf for little children
from three to five years of age. Sand boxes, swing-teeter boards and
seats were provided and this little area will accommodate about 80 children.

The other area was reserved for older children, and a wading pool was
provided, together with cups, swings, parallel bars, merry-go-rounds, tether
ball, poles, etc. — this area accommodating 180 children. Both playgrounds
will be concealed from the rest of the park by woven wire fences covered
with roses. Between the two playgrounds a shelter is shown containing
rest rooms and toilet accommodations for mothers with young children.
This shelter will be rustic in character to conform to the arbor in front of it.

♦Mr. Cook h;
ting the .\m.
the oth<

en appointed one of a committee of three to serve (
of Landscape .\rchitects at the P. P. I. Exposition,
two members.


The Architect and Eng_incer

Jf^T-^T- (^Ar,^7Cy/^

..^ ' \-'"—L \\\\^^\\^ ^ M

^ 7- ^ ^ /^ ^^ .^^ -ev.

The Ardiitcct and Riii;iuccr


i7/-;ir OF ;■/>■/;>/: \/ sih'tc'icia-. from xoRrHiiEST. fcllhrtox c/i r r irk

rciuil lines indicate roof to profosed amphitheatre

Two more rustic pergolas, provided with seats and covercii with
vines, will afford shady restin,g places overlooking the large central lawn.

Two small rustic shelters are also shown near the amphitheatre. A
stage, dressing rooms and toilet accommodations are also provideil for
in the main structure. The amphitheatre will be enclosed by a semi-
circular rose-arbored lattice, backed with Italian Cypress for formality of
effect. \'ery little work will be required to put this park into s])lendid
shape. Fortunately, Fullerton has a board that is progressive and they
are all enthusiastic about their park. It was a pleasure to work with
them. The plans havu been apjjrovfd ami work will be started at mice.

Wilbur Daxid Cook, L...


The Architect and Engineer


ISlsidlnce- for, Mr.5. Alanson Wllics


tiKHK fti_Da

JVNC 1915.


Tlic .Irchitcct and Eni^inccr 55

An Office Building for Dentists

I'.y C. W. I)ICK1-:V. Architc-ct*

IT is witli .s;ieat i)leasiire ami satisfaction that I have accepted your invita-
tion to present this paper on the subject of "An Office Building for
Dentists." As an architect. I a])preciate the need for better cn-ii])cration
between your profession and mine in order to better serve your needs and
thereby better serve the interests of our clients.

It is my business to desig'n buildings that will pay dividends. Such
buildings must be kept full, which means the occupants must I)e kept

Dentists as a class are the most expensive tenants we ha\c to pi'ovide
for, but I shall attemi)t to ])rove that they can be made profitable to the
owner. They form a very large percentage of the office building tenants in
any city, particularly in the smaller cities and cannot be overlooked.
Both dentists and physicians are unpopular with owners in general. The
reasons for this lack of popularity were well expressed by William F.
Bensing in the .September, 1914, number of Building Management, as
follows :

"(1) That the initial expense of equipping offices for this class nf ten-
ants is larger than for the average commercial tenant.

(2) That in buildings where electricity is furnished gratis, the CdSt of
supplying physicians and dentists with this commodity is very nuuh in-
creased on account of electrical equipment in their offices.

(3) That this class of tenants are very hard to please ; that they are
very teiuperamental and do not have any idea of business.

(4) That the cost of janitor service is increased about one-third l)v the
occupancy of dentists and physicians.

(5) That elevator traffic is considerably hea\'ier l)y reason of their
tenanc}' in a building.

(6) That unless a building is strictly specialized for dentists anil
physicians, the fact that they occupy space in the structure is detrimental
to renting of the balance of the space."

In spite of all these more or less real objections, this class of tenants must be
accommodated and the object of this paper is to discuss how best this can
be done to the satisfaction of both owner and tenant.

Office space is generally rented at a certain price per square foot. Often
a dentist has to pay for much space that he does not require, because the
plan of the building does not readily lend itself to subdivision for his needs.
This is a disadvantage both to the tenant and the owner ; the former has
too much space to carpet and furnish, the latter has too much sjjace to
heat and light and keep clean. A properly and compactly planned office
with ample room but no waste space gives much more the impression of
efficiency than an awkward, ill-arranged and overgrown office. In this
fact lies the solution of the problem. A properly planned building which
lends itself readily to compact dental suites can demand a higher rental
per square foot and yet the lump sum rental to the tenant will be less than
in other buildings. The dentist requires certain things and is willing to
pay a certain monthly rental to secure what he requires. It makes very
little dift'erence what the price is per square foot if he gets what he want-s
for a certain lump sum. This theory works out in practice. The special-
ized buildings catering to dentists and doctors get a higher rental than their

•Paper read before the Pan.imaP.niific nental Congress, S,iii Krancisco, California, anil revised by the
author for this magazine.


The Architect and En;^iuccr

OrncL OT Dr FrankI5haw
CobbEwldjnc Swttlc Wash

HoWELLS f5T0Kt.s Architects


The .Ircbitcct and Engineer 57

neii^liburs aiul yot arc always well tilled. This is especially true of such
buildinijs as the .Michigan iiniilevard huiUliiiij, the Reliance hiiildin.L;, and
the Marshall l'"ield Annex hnildini;- of Chicago; the Cobb building of
Seattle, and the Elkan (iunst building of San Francisco.

The (|uestion now arises as to wherein the ordinary uftice building fails
to meet the requirements of the dental profession, in the first ])lace,
the windows are not spaced so as to jierniit a series of small rooms
with windows at or near the center of each; in the second place the
pul)lic corridor is ordinarily placed too close to the outside wall to
permit of an economical use of the space. These conditions cannot be
overcome after a building is erected. The utilities such as electricity,
gas, compressed air. supply and waste fnr fountain cuspidors, etc.. are
usually inadequate or badly placed, Init this of course can be o\ercome
at considerable trouble and expense.

We now come to the crux of the whole matter : what shoulil be the
plan and e(|uipment of an ideal building for dentists? Are their wants
sufficiently standardized to permit an architect to satisfy all the members
of the profession? These are the (|uestions I have been diligently study-
ing for some months past with the kind assistance of a number of dentists,
dental supply houses and architects. Although opinions dififer on many
important matters, all seem to agree that the essential requirements for
the average dentist consist of a waiting room, two or more operating
rooms, a laboratory, a ladies' retiring room, a small store room or cab-
inet, a business office or a suitable space for a desk where the dentist can
talk business privately with the patient, a private exit to the public
corridor and a vestibule or hall connecting all these rooms so the office
girl can see the patients after they are through in the operating rooms
or dressing room. Some dentists require considerably more than this
and others require less but this seems to be a good average. I shall
take up these various items in their order.

The waiting room need not be large as most patients come by appoint-
ment and no patient is required to stay long in the waiting room. This
room should be well ventilated and well lighted either by natural light
or artificially as this permits the most economical arrangement of the
office suite. Those demanding natural li.ght for the waiting room will
have to secure it at the sacrifice of valuable space. A small waiting
room furnished in good taste is more in\iting than a large room, and
a warm light from attractive electric fixtures of the semi-indirect- type
is more attractive than the natural light on a dark day. If electric lights
are turned on in a room having an outside window, the effect is not as
inviting as in the room with no outside light. \"entilation can be obtained
by the use of transoms and fans.

C)perating rooms should open upon a vestibule, should have a window
at or near the center of one side and should be large enough to receive
the operating chair, cabinet, basin, etc.. and leave sufficient room for
the operator and his assistant. This requires a room about eight feet
wide anfl nine or ten feet deep. If a laboratory bench is to be placed in the room,
it should be ten feet wide or twelve feet deep. The window should be placed so as
to leave at least eighteen inches for a switchboard on one side and an
engine on the other and should extend as close as possible to the ceiling.
The basin should have pedal on knee supply valves. Many dentists
are placing the switchboard back of the cabinet supported on an angle
frame and set at an angle of 45 degrees with the wall and are remov-
ing all apparatus from in front of the patient by using an operating table


The Architect and En§!^ineer

Plan No. i

Getting the most of a space I6'-8"x23'-0" with izvo
wittdozvs. Mote the two operating rooms and the
laboratory bench instead of laboratory room.
Rental at 16 cents— ^61.28 per month. The fol-
lowing pla7is are all i/i a building with zvindows
averaging 8'-4" center to center, and with a dis-
tance of J3'-0" from corridor to outer 7vall.

Same space as plan Number 1 but with only one
operating rootn and zvith a laboratory room.
Note the large reception room and operating
room. Rental at 16 cents— ^6l.2S per month.

Office suite
ing rooms o
Note the la
per month.

upying three zt
a laboratory with outside
nnj. Rental at I6cents

The Architect and Engineer 59

which supports the enijine, etc.. and is phiced back of the chair, and a little
to one side. I shall not attempt to discuss the merits of this scheme but
as it has not yet been generally adopted, it is still necessary that pro-
vision should be made m the building for placing these utilities at the
right and left of the window. If desirable for architectural effect, a
mullion window or pair of windows may be used in place of a single
window. The mullion or pier if not over two feet wide will cast no
shadow. In case of a pier between the windows, the switchboard can
well be located on its face.

It is highly desirable that the patient should be able to enter the chair
without interfering with the operator or his instruments. This means
that there must be space to get around the chair and cuspidor on the
side opposite the cabinet. Allowing eighteen inches for the cabinet,
eighteen inches for the operator, thirty-six inches for the chair and fountain
cuspidor and twenty-four inches for a passage for the patient, we have
a width of eight feet which should be adopted as the minimum width for
operating rooms. This means that the windows, allowing for partitions,
should be placed eight feet four inches center to center in order to obtain
the greatest economy of space for dental offices. This spacing would
not be economical for a commercial office building as it would mean the
alternative of sixteen foot offices, which are too wide or eight foot offices
which are too narrow.

The laboratory can be placed between two operating rooms with its
own outside window and as this room need not be more than four or five feet
wide the extra space can be thrown into one or both adjoining rooms.
Or the laboratory can be placed back of an operating room, receiving its
light through a glass partition.

The ladies" retiring room need not be more than five feet by six feet,
six inches, as the only furniture it need contain is a dressing table, a chair
and a couch. This room can be placed at any convenient point opening
onto the private hall. A lavatory and toilet are useful adjuncts to this
room if there is sufficient space.

A small store room is useful but can be dispensed with if a good
sized cabinet is provided with space for coats and hats and a separate
space for storage.

The business otfice, whether a part of an operating room, a hall alcove,
or an independent room, should be so placed that each patient must
pass the desk before leaving the office. It is preferable to have a small
separate office for privacy in discussing business with patients.

The general exit can be direct from the private hall or through the
business office, but should not be through the retiring room.

In examining the plans of a great many office suites I find that the
most economical schemes require from twenty-two feet to twenty-six
feet depth from corridor to outer wall. In the Marshall Field Annex in
Chicago and the Cobb building in Seattle, this width is twenty-six feet.
I find that a width of twenty-three feet from corridor to street front
works out well. If we assume these dimensions and a window spacing
of eight feet center to center, with windows four feet to five feet wide
so as to leave the necessary space for apparatus, our problem is half
solved. The column spacing or "bays'" can be sixteen feet, eight inches
with two windows to a bav or twenty-five feet, four inches with three
W'indows to a bay. These dimensions of course being modified to fit the
size of the lot. I have prepared a number of plans of various sized office
suites in a building with these dimensions from w-hich }-ou will observe
that the space subdivides verj' advantageously in most cases.

60 The Architect and Rna^inccr

In the early part of this paper, dentists and doctors were mentioned
jointly. This was done purposely as it has been found advisable to have
both professions in one building. The dentists need a north or east light
vvhile the doctors can use a south or west exposure. This is an imixirtant
point as most buildings have offices with both exposures. In some cases
it, is found advantageous for a dentist and a doctor to share one reception
room. It is also a good thing to have both professions in the building as
the patients of the one often need the services of the other.

Having arrived at the proper width of bays and depths of offices, it
is a simple matter for the experienced architect to plan the building with
adequate elevator service, stairways, corridors, etc. Two public toilet
rooms, one for each sex. should be placed on every floor. The utilities,
such as electricity, compressed air, gas, water and waste pipes, should
be brought up next to the columns in the outer walls. The office floor
should be of wood laid on sleepers embedded in concrete. This permits
each tenant to use the kind of floor he prefers, be it hardwood, carpet
or tile. In case the latter floor is decided upon, the wood floor and sleepers
are removed and tile substituted. The space occupied by the sleepers and
the concrete sleeper-fill can be used for running pltimbing pipes and
electric conduits to fixtures located where each tenant may elect. Having
thus planned and equipped the office space, it should be left without par-
titions until rented so as to be subdivided to suit the tenants. The work
done this way costs more but it pays in satisfied tenants.

The woodwork should be plain and sanitary with no nioiddings to
catch dust and should be given a hard, sanitary finish. In operating rooms.
the space for alxiut eighteen inches each side of the window should be of
plain wood backed up with plank to recei\'e switchboard, engine, etc.
Ventilators should be placed in the bottom of these windows so the lower
sash can be raised without causing a draught on the patient. All plaster-
ing should have a smooth finish.

The corridors should be wide and of sanitary appearance with floor
and wall of marble, tile or white glass. These corridors should be given
a warm, genial light by a system of indirect lighting. This avoids glass
in the walls which spoils the appearance of the reception rooms and gives
too commercial an aspect to the building.

The elevators should be ample in number and size and one at least,
should be large enough to receive a stretcher and attendants. The speed
should not exceed 350 feet per minute as a large proportion of the passen-
gers will be women and children. The elevator car should be given
somewhat of a domestic character by the use of hardwood panelling finished
natural or enameled with a judicious use of gold. Here, too, a warm, cheerful
light should lie obtained by indirect lighting from a painted or gilded

The entrance lobby should be treated a little different fmni the lolihy
of an ordinary office building so as not to look too commercial. ,\ judicious
use of ornamental trees in boxes would be effective.

The tenants of the basement, first and second floors should as far
as possible, be of those professions or businesses that respond to the needs
of dentists, physicians and surgeons, such as pharmacies, dental and medical
supply stations, hydrotherapeutic baths, dental and medical laboratories.
X-ray establishments, etc.

I shall not attempt to discuss the best varieties of wood for finishing
the various rooms, nor the kind of electric lighting fixtures, etc. These matters,
like the furnishings, are subject to the personal taste and caprice of
each dentist, but I would venture to suggest that most dentists would do

The Architect ami Eiii^iiiecr 61

well to lea\c these matters to the jiulKnieiit of an expcricneed architect.
The office should he huilt with a definite L'lan from the layout of the rooms
to the smallest detail of hangins;; a picture. Only in this way can perfect
harmony, which impresses the class of people whom the dentist desires
for patients, he ohtained. The effect sout^ht should he one of simple refine-
ment: the office shnuld limk i)usiness-like, Init not tuo commercial; and the
o])eratini;' rooms, allluniL;h sanitary in appearance should hold no sus^-
ijestion of a hosjiital. .\ properh- planned, decorated, lighted and furnished
suite of rooms will help to ])ut the jjatient in a calm state of mind and will
greatly aid the efficiency of the dentist.

In conclusion, let me say that the experience of managers of special-
ized hui'ldings of the kind discussed in this paper has proved that they are
most satisfactory. The sjiecialized huilding facilitates renting after head-
way has heen gained, gives a greater ability to retain tenants, promotes
good relations between one tenant and another as their interests are largely
in common, and offers inducements for tenants to enter into leases and to
renew leases. W ith these advantages before them, and with the success
of other owners for encouragement, it should not be hard to induce owners
to erect specialized buildings for dentists and doctors wherever there is
a real demand for such buildings.

Biggest Shade Tree Is Also Best

TH.\T the largest shade tree in the United States, as brought to light by the
prize contest held by the .American Genetic As.sociation, should turn out to
be the Eastern sycamore is not surprising, say Government foresters. Tlie
sycamore has long been regarded as the largest deciduous tree in North
.America and its range of growth is hardly second to that of any other broad-
leaf tree; for it can be found from Maine to Florida, and as far west as Kansas.

The bestowal of the prize on a sycamore at Worthington, Indiana, which is
42 feet 3 inches in circumference and 1.^0 feet tall, draws attention to the fact
that foresters are nowadays reconnnending the species especially for city plant-
ing. They say that long experience w^ith sycamores planted in city streets has
shown that the species is peculiarly able to withstand the smoke, dust and gases
which are usually an unavoidable complement of urban life. In addition, the
sycamore is as resistant to attacks of insects and fungi as almost any species,
and is a quick grower ; at ten years of age, a healthy sycamore usually is already
large enough for shade as well as for decorative purposes. .\s for the latter,
there is hardly any Eastern species which is generally held so picturesque as the
sycamore. \\'ith its strikingly mottled bark and magnificent stature and con-
formation, the sycamore has a marked individualitv and can not be mistaken for
any other species, either in the summer when the foliage conceals its structural
form, or in the winter when the leaves are absent.

A common objection to the sycamore as a lawn tree is its habit of dropping
its leaves before autumn. From this characteristic it is sometimes called a
"dirt}' tree." Recently the Forest Service received a letter from a suburban
resident who has a svcamore on his lawn. "My sycamore tree is very beautiful,"

Online LibraryThomas Babington Macaulay MacaulayThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.43 (Oct.-Dec. 1915)) → online text (page 5 of 44)