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Thomas Babington Macaulay Macaulay.

The Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.44-45 (Jan.-June 1916)) online

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The Bank in the Skyscraper*







5 ;!"S






IIE value of the tall ])ilcs we know as sky-
scra])er.s is no long;er questioned. Bearing
the name of the banks occupying the first
or the first two stories, these inspiring struc-
tures, piercing the very clouds, bring to those
institutions an enviable prestige.

California banking institutions which have
experimented with the combination bank and
office building are unanimous in agreeing that
the investment has proved satisfactory in
every particular. This cannot be said of the
single story, iiighly ornamental liank building,
which receives no inc^)me whatever from its
investment.

It is from the investment standpoint exclu-
sively that the combination bank and office
building is jiroving most attracti\e. An office
building ]jroperly executed and in a desirable
location is bound to pay a splendid return.
This is particularly true in medium sized cities,
like Sacramento, San Jose, Oakland and Stock-
ton. Here ground values have not become
so high as to make the relation between the
value of site and the cost of the structure disproportionate. Xo office
building, where ]jro])er consideration has been given to the manifold details
of the iiro])osition, should pay less than a S'/i return on the investment, and
many of them pay as high as 157< and 20'/< .

The location of the building, the ])lanning and the cost are the all-
important elements. In the planning, both as to the bank interior and the
office rooms above, too much care cannot be given. A poorly jilanncd
office building is foredoomed to failure. .A bank building ma_\- be most
im])ressive in ajipearance, yet i)ossess faults of arrangement which cause
I)ermanent inconvenience to its occupants. .V banking room, too, is ])ri-
marily a place in which to transact business, and secondarily an (ibject
for admiration, so it is evident that the inside layout and arrangement
must be considered first.

The advantage of a high-jjriced. ])rominenl corner lot u])on wiiich to
build a bank is generally a])|)reciated. The cost, howexer, fre(|Uentl\-
places a fixed charge on it for ground rent which i)ractically ])recludes
an individual bank building, owing to the excessive rental that would be
necessary. An office building, income-producing, relieves the bank of the

•In a sulKequenI nunil>er .\rchitect Charles Peter Weeks of San Francisco will write about the one-
story monumental hank building. Some of the more i)retentious structures of this character creeled on
the Pacific Coast in recent years will be shown.



rsl Irust Building,
L. B. Duttoii. .-Ire.



40



The J.vchitccI and Engin




FIRST XATIOX.-IL BAXK BCILDIXC. S.iX FRAXCISCO
UILLIS POLK &■ COMPAXy. ARCHITECTS



The Architect ami F.iii^inccr



41




I'VBLIC LOBBY, MAIS B.i.\KI.\\j ROOM A\n CHECK DESK. FIRST S.ITIOSAL BASK BLUG.
SA\ FRAXCISCO



Tiic .Architect and Ennncer



"^^SSfe







DETAILS OF CORXICE AXD ENTRANCE. FIRST SATIOXAL BAXK BLUG..
SAX FRAXCISCO



The /hchitcct and nm^iiieer



43




\ n \m



^i^^^^



! i '



»i?inn^




; /A.W \.iJ/u.\.IL H.I\K BUILDISG. OAKLASD
L. B. DUTTOX. ARCHITECT




Mil IBI

I.SSI 131;




HUMBOLDT BAXK BU/LDIXG. SAX FRAXCISCO

MEYER &■ OBRIEX. ARCHITECTS

One of the first tall bank and office buildings to

he occufied after the fire



The .Irchi'.cct and Engineer



45




SECURITY BASK BI'IL
FRBDliRICK H. MEYER,



.iRciin Ecr



46



The Architect and Engineer




/NFESTMEMT BUILDIXC. LOS AXGELES
ERNEST McCONNELL, ARCHITECT



The Architect and F.iii^inct



47




L.XiOX TRUST BUILDIXG, LOS AXGELES

PARKINSON & BERGSTROU, ARCHITECTS

■ One of the first tall hank and office huilJings

to be erected in llie Southern California city



48



The .Architect and Ew'tnecr




OAKLAND BANK OF SAVINGS, OAKLAND
DICKEY & REED, ARCHITECTS



The .Irciiiicct and luii^incrr



49





'"'If - ,



Kia f 5!i,,

Hllliilj|lj.|gj|





C.U'II.IL \\l!;:'\_ll. i: l\K N ICKAMENTO
R. A. llliKOLU. ARCHITECT

E.rlerior of granilc gla:cj Iciro lolln />v
Sicigcr Terra Colta ami Pollery (I ,>r/,'.«




/A.sr XAT/0\AI. ll.l\K Bl'ILDIXG. SAX JOSE
L. B. Dull,',,, Architect




MISSlOX SAVIXGS BAXK BUlLDiXG. SAX FRASCISCO
Crim & Scott, Architects



The .h-cinh-ct and Iln^^iiiccr



51




:Jg^



BERKELEY XATIOXAL B.l.\l< BlILDISC. BERKELEY
JOHX GALES HOIIARD. ARCHITECT



52



The Architect and Engineer



Don:
on

D



IDOD

DO

D




iniiiii llllll

ill!"" II








f




POPULAR HEIGHT FOR BANK BUILDIXG l.\ CITIES VXDER
rno.ooD POPULATION



D

oa
Don:



n

no

:non



Tiic Arcliitccl and luii;inccr



53




HOME OF THE FARMERS AND MECHANICS SAVINGS BANK. SACRAMENIU
Charles S. Kaiser, Architcc!



prohibitive rental that would be called fur Ijv an individual structure, and
helps to defray the expense of the rental for the space occupied in the sky-
scraper. Often a bank has trouble in financing an operation of this kind,
and it becomes necessary to form a holding company to carry the prop-
erty. This alternative is generally far from advantageous.

An organization known as the Bankers Lease Company has been
formed recently in the East that is furthering a feasible plan for financing
bank buildings. Through this organization a bank may secure any site it
desires, have a modern building erected to suit its growing requirements
for years to come, and all without putting any of its own cajjital into
the project. Under this lease arrangement the rentals paid during the
term of the lease convey to the bank the title to the property, free and
clear, at the expiration of the lease. In other words, the bank moves into
a building put up to meet its special needs, pays a fair rental for a stipu-
lated term of years and becomes the owner of the property at the end
of that time.



54



The Architect and Ens-ineer




FIRST COXGREGATIOXAL CHURCH. RIVERSIDE
MYROX HUNT. ARCHITECT



Thi- Ajchitcct ami liiii^incrr 55

The First Congregational Church, Riverside, and
Other California Edifices

Tl I 1'^ ;icciini])anyinL;- ])hiit(igr;ipliic plalcs show sdiiic \cry satisl'actrjry
examples of ecclesiastical architecture in Southern California. The
first picture — the I'^irst Coiig-re.^ational Church at Riverside — shows
a truly ])ictures(|ue design, with tower the ])redoniinatins' feature — a tower
that smacks of the New luitijland spirit combined with the traditional Cal-
ifornia mission feelin.i^'. The to]) of the cross on the tower is al)out 125 feet
above the ground. This cross does not show on the detail, as it was an
afterthought on the part of ihe committee of the church.

The design as illustrated, with slight moditications. was submitted in
competition, which resulted in the selection (jf the architects for this
church. There were but three competitors — the firm of .Myron Hunt and
Elmer (lre\ (now dissolved) being one.

I'.etween the time when these drawings were submitted in competition
and the awarding of the commission. Mr. Hunt and Mr. (Irey dissoh'ed
partnershiii, and the committee for the church placed the making of the
working drawings and the erection of the building in the bands of ,Mr.
Hunt.

The ])lan and general scheme of the church, which was Mr. Hunts
conce])tion, have remained substantially unchanged. The problem, which
resulted in the present ]dan, was to build a church and Sunday school
which might at some future time be enlarged into a church solely. .\
cruciform church was decided u])on, making the nave the ])resent church,
and so constructing the Sunday school part that the apse and ])ortions
of the transepts could in the future be added to the church, at which time
it is contemplated the location of the pul])it would be reversed. The
trusses of the roof over the a])se are so located that the regular roof
construction of the nave may be inserted between them.

The present Sunday school arrangements are ])rovide(l by rooms look-
ing into a court or well which occujiies a part of the a])se, and is lighted
from above by skylights in the roof of the apse. It is |)ossible to get
twenty-four separate Sunday school units within the tem|)orary arrange-
ment, as well as an audience room large enough for the entire Sunday
school, while the church and the Sunday school may be |)artly thrown
together. This is done merely by folding wooden doors which form a
j)art of the wainscot beneath the gallery at the back of the present
church.

As will be noted by consulting the i)lan, the scheme is a broad nave
with rudimentary aisles, which is elementary enough. There are. h(jw-
ever, webs from each column of the outer wall, and the si)ace normally
occupied by flying buttresses in a clear story type of constructifin is kept
within the room. The columns themselves are thicker than the web
which connects from them to the outer wall.

A series of reflectors were placed verticall}' in the angle between this
thin web and the thicker column. The light is thrown from the reflector
upon the outer wall, and thence is reflected back into the rooni. The con-
struction is such that neither the congregation nor the minister can see
the source of light. It is i^articularly satisfactory ti> have been able to
light the church adequately without liaving any glare in the eyes of the
congregation, but to have kept all glare from the choir and the minister
is a further advantage.



56



The Architect and Engineer




The .Ircliitccl and I'.iii^inccr



57




ASOTHER I'lEII- OF FIRST COXGREG.-ITIOXAL CIICRCII. RirERSlDE
Myron Hunt. Architect



This using reflected lii^ht on the walls, instead nf on the ceilint;', as
is usual with modern indirect lighting, has made it possible to retain a
limber construction in the roof, and to keep the woodwork of the pews
and wainscot dark without loss in actual effect of light in the room.

The church is located on a carline, and an effort has been made to
make it proof a,gainst outdoor noises. .\s a result of this construction,
on the day of the dedication of the ciuirch a house burned down across
the street, and the audience did not hear the lire engines. The walls



58



The Architect and F.jii^iiiecr




The .lirhitcct and F.iij^inccr



59




TR/\n y CHURL II , f , , ( ,. iKIi.SK.I i.lS'1 EKIOK LOUKIXG E.-IST\
/'. //. FROHMAS & II. II. M.IRTIX. ARCHITECTS



60



Tlic Architect and Engineer




The .hrliitrcl ami l:iii:^i)iccr 61

are twi) feet thick, a double eie^lit-inch wall with an eiffht-inch air space
connected by webs. The piers are of brick. Reinforced concrete con-
tiiuioiis bond stones tie the structure together.

Trinity Church. Santa Barbara, shown in a full paije plate, is an excel-
lent example of Gothic design. The architects are Messrs. i'. II. I-"roh-
nian and H. H. Martin of Los .Angeles.

In planning the I'irst Cluirch of Christ, .Scientist. Los .Angeles. Elmer
Grey has followed a style in tapestry brick that is popular with the Chris-
tian Scientists throughout the country. Edgar .A. Mathews has Ijuilt
two such edifices in San Francisco. .All three designs are reminiscent of
the earlier Christian churches of Italv.



Some Notes on Proper Church Construction

I'.y II. C. WHITEIIOUSE. .\rchitcct*

BUILDING of churches is a subject upon which volumes might be
written, especially if the experiences of church building committees,
ministers, and the raising of funds are chronicled. It seems a stu-
pendous task viewed from the start and so it is if we e.xpect to accomplish
it in a short time; but let us overcome this typical western disease of try-
ing to do something grand in a great hurry, for surely anything well done
is never done in haste.

Where we are to start, or where to end. in the choosing of materials
of the church, would be difficult to decide. The choice of the material is
not the all-important thing; it is rather the handling of the material. I
believe that every material used should show plainly its kind, so far as
possible, and be consistent and true in its use. I believe we should never
incorporate into a church building a feature, either structural or decorative,
that imitates another material. The church does not teach us to deceive
God in our daily life: to be sure, we cannot: therefore it seems inconsist-
ent to build false!}' and at the same time to preach honesty. Why should
we in our most important structure, the church, built and dedicated to
God. seek means to deceive? To build for permanency, that is. with last-
ing materials, is so obviously advantageous, I believe, even to the layman,
that it hardh- seems necessary to argue its many advantages. Permanent
materials, such as stone, hard brick, oak. copper, and other materials, used
in their proper places, are always of the best and everlasting: ex]jensive
in the first cost to be sure, but cheaper in the end and cheaper in the
maintenance of a building'.

Let us recall for an instant some of the churches we have attended.
How often do we see a pointed arch of Gothic built entirely of wood (em-
bellished with countless jig-sawed ornaments) apparently supporting some
balcony, organ or transept w'all : it is plain even to the layman tliat such
a thing in wood has no value structurally, its real strength being in the
network of studding that lies hidden beneath the ])lastering. Therefore,
it is false and meaningless. Suj^pose we remove the arch, take away the
network of studding and allow the whole to rest on a sim])le wood beam
and post — this would be consistent wood constructi<in. and modestlv deco-
rated, would at least be honest, if not Gothic.

I have seen churches of concrete, where the walls are marked off in
imitation of stone joints, and these were painted with some hideous colqr

♦Hutli.n Building. Spokane. Washington.



62



The Architect and Ens^ineer




sc^rrv^-



TOWER, FIRST CONCJiEGATIONAL CHURCH, POMONA
ROBERT H. ORR, ARCHITECT

FERDIXAXD DAVIS, ASSOCIATE



Tlw .trcliitcct ami liiii^inccr 63

to imitate mortar. It seems straiiLje Imw ])e<iiili' can eiijny tliis false archi-
tecture, hilt nevertheless it is hein^;' |)raetice(l e\eii in this day, .and sad tn
say, it flourisiies.

How often we see the inleriMr df tdmrelu's decorated with ])anels. ]iic-
tnrinjj perha|)s a stone arch nr cnlnnnadc (like a theatre cnrlain i in ])er-
sjicctiN'e, with shadows painted in ( I am not eritieisins:;; the spirit of the
wonderful clnirch works of the early Italian masters), then to embellish
it, a I'.iblical inscription is painted in. Mow can such a decoration be
anything but cheaj)?

Lookins;' back on the mediaewil chtirches. thdse Ljrand (iuthic works,
the impression at once is that everythiuL;- strncltiral is so frank, honestly
expressed, it shows itself plainly, e\ery arch is real and is workintj, every
buttress sustaining', and the whole structure seems alive. Many of the
churches were most elaborate in detail. We cannot hope to build as
elaborately toda\'. There are many of the old works that are ]ireservcd
to us that are not elaborate in detail, but their beauty lies almost wholly
in their simplicity. Whether these churches were elaborate in decoration
or not, in all cases the structural elements showed ijredominant .and were
genuine.

Of late years there has been an ever increasing demand among church
organizations, when first they consult an architect, or a carpenter, which
is sometimes the case, to ask for a design which is entirely new and up
to date, in fact, something that is entirely different than anything in the
city. The result is, they usuall}' get it. This hankering for something
picturesque has led to the creation of some remarkably startling designs ;
plans with no practical composition, the exteriors smeared over with mean-
ingless towers, turrets, and gingerbread work, and the interiors equally as
bad. Stonework is imitated by the plasterer's art, yes, even carving is
imitated in plaster and then iierhajis gilded or ])ainted. Such a creation
has no repose, unity, or dignity; it is merely a composition of architect-
ural riot.

How false this sjjirit is. and what a poor substitute to erect as the
earthly habitation of the living (iod! The churches of the Middle Ages
were erected in a true spirit of worship toward the Master, With the lay-
ing of the cornerstone began a spirit of self-denial, devotion, and with it
the hardest kind of labor. Treasures unlimited were lavished with grati-
tude and thanksgiving, in fact, nothing was too precious for the church.

li this s]iirit, in a small measure, could be restored todav, I am sure
men would understand more clearly the error of the modern principles,
and learn that cheapness, imitation, and pretenses could not be tolerated.

If a church is not honest in its design, its construction, and its deco-
ration, it is nothing, and any added richness is only added shame.

One might ask: "Who is to blame for this condition? Why h.asn't
the church found a prevailing architecture that is ex])ressi\e of its teach-
ings?" I believe it rests almost entirely with the men behind the de-
signs, mostly architects, and men wlm pmfess tn be architects; the latter
are the more guilty. These men, whether architects or "would-be"
architects, fail to appreciate the ])ossibilities of design when it comes to
church building. I believe, too, that the man handling a church design
should be wholly in sympathy with its teachings, otherwise he must fail
to express in his work what the church reall}- is.

We cannot hope to equal the work of the old church builders in point
of costly, elaborate decoration, stonework, and marvelous stained .glass,
but we can at least take place with it in point of honor.



64



Tlic Architect and Engineer







Tlic .Ivchitccl ami f:iii;iiiccr



65




MUSIC BVILDISC INTERIOR. rOMUXA COLLEGE. CL.IREMUM
Myron H:inl. Archilect




STUDY FOR A CHURCH. SAN FRANCISCO
Lewis P. Hobarl, Architect



66



Tlic Architect and Engineer







^





The Architect and P.n;^iiiccr



67




■^♦:-#



l-lH.Sl Clll'KCH (!/•■ CHRIS I . SCIENTIST, LOSG BEACH
iihiu-r Crcv, .Irchilcrt

I'lie ])ictiire 1 lia\"c painti-d res])cctin,L;' clnircli huildiuL;' as it exists in
this day may seem tixi dei)l(iral)le. l)Ut it is true, h()\ve\er, in the majority
of cases. The current i)erio(licals on recent architecture, as well as church
magazines, are illustrating from time to time examples of ecclesiastical
art that are extremely fine, but so many more that are not.

Looking at the other side of conditions, it is pretty safe tn say that tlie
day is here where there are great strides being taken toward the l)etterment
of the art of ecclesiastical edifices. This art, like many of the others, is
showing great ))rogress, and after all it is interesting and wonderful to lie
living in such an age of advancement in art, to say nothing of science.

It must not be construed that this improvement has been spontaneous,
for it has not. Take such works as Trinity in .\ew ^drk City, linilt some
years ago, and the works of II. II. Richardson. The works of tlic latter
were almost entirely Romanes(|ue. the style which preceded the (jothic, to
be sure, but it |)ossessed a \igor and \itality that has never been e(|uallcd
by any man working in the same style since. Sad to say, the spirit in the
work of the style he started died with Richardson.

There are many good examples of work scattered here and there
throughout the country, but they seem very few when comjiared witli the
countless numbers of ]ioor examjiles that surround them.



Doors 700 Years Old

Tliere was recently exhil)ited in Xew York City four door jianels carved
m JajJan in the twelfth century, and which are said to ha\e once adorned
a .Shinto shrine. The material of which they were made was Satsuma oak.
The eight compartments were ornamented with llowo birds and cloud
designs in relief, representing the four heavens.



The Architect ami Engineer




SHPIf-IXC THE EFFICACY OF GOOD FIRF. M'ALLS, METAL IIIXDOII-
FRAMES ASD WIRE GLASS



T'nr .l-chi'-rt and liir^iih-rr 69

Factories and Their Fire Protection*

A Tract for the Architect and Builder

V.y I'KAXKLIX li. \\'1-;\T\\( )K 11 1 '

ARC'1UTEL"1"S and builders are sluwly ciiteriny into a new phase of
tiieir accountability. Just as the architect, whose primary impulse is
that of the artist, has been compelled in the interest of his clients
largely to master the technique of the builder, so both the architect and the
builder are now being called upon to protect their clients in the matter of
tire hazard. The enormous aggregate of the .American fire waste, which
contrasts us so unfavorably with European prudence, is beginning to cripple
and impoverish us as the natural resources of the country, once believed
to be ine.xhaustible, are ceasing to respond tt) the demands of our habitual
extravagance. The common notion that the insurance companies pay the
cost of fires is gradually giving way to an intelligent understanding of the
fact that they are merel}- the collectors and distributors of the fire tax. They
must recover from the public the sums they pay out in losses, plus the cost
of conducting their business and a reasonable interest upon their capital.
If they could not do this there would be no business of underwriting, and
sufferers from fire would be relieved only by direct assessment upon their
more fortunate neighbors. It is not certain that a year or two of such direct
assessment would not be an admirable educative experiment. At present
the cost of the fire tax is merged with everything we eat and drink and wear,
and the masses of the people are ignorant of the fact that they bear it.

This is no longer true of the manufacturing ciasse^^, however. The manu-
facturer now realizes that he pays a tax directly related in amount to the
character of the building he occupies and the nature of his manufacturing
processes ; and that in addition to this he pays for the carelessness of all his
neighbors. If he cannot shift this burden by passing it along to the users
of his product, merged quietly in the selling price of his goods, then he
must pay it out of his profits, which cripples him in the competitive struggle

The manufacturer now clearly sees this and expects the architects and
builders he may employ to see it also. If, after his factory is completed,
he finds that points respecting the fire hazard have been ignored and that
in consequence of some structural f|u,'difiration, now Uk> late to alter, he is
doomed to pay a fire tax which forethought, with i)erhaps no additional ex-
pense, might have avoided, he may be considerably disturbed by it.

Oftentimes structural defects (not mechanical, but from the standpoint
of fire hazard) or the unwise location of hazardous factory processes cannot
be overcome by the addition of special fire protection after the completion
of the building. In such cases these delects o])erate as a fixed charge u])on
the property and contents as long as the building stands.

Fire protection engineering is coming to be a profession by itself, but,
after all, its chief distinguishing (piality is common sense. The principal
demand is that the architect and builder should have a consciousness of the
fire hazard, for up to this time very few^ of them ha\e thought much about
it. With the thought of the importance of this item in their minds no griev-
ous blundering is possible, and technical advice on specific features can
generally be had without charge from fire protection engineers in the service
of the various underwriters' inspection departments having jurisdiction.

•Drawings furnished by New England Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies.
tSecrctary National Fire Protection .\ssociation.



70



The Architect and Ens.ineer




A S:<c,-essf:(l F:
in metal window fr
Windows toward ret
ng fell.



'Jed u/' were broke



tardant service of K'l)

' alley was totally Jestrov

?n side -wall of buniing hu



It is the intent of this article to set out certain fundamental principles
which may serve as a basis of approach for those who have as yet given no
thought to the subject.

Experience in fire protection engineering suggests three points to be kept
in mind in planning a factory :

1. There should be as little combustible material as possible used in its
construction and equipment.

2. Each floor should be absolutely cut oft' from every other floor and
each section from every other section, so that fire may not communicate.

3. Every part of the factory should be equipped with fire extinguishing
apparatus.

It is obvious that a factory of reinforced concrete will present certain



Online LibraryThomas Babington Macaulay MacaulayThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.44-45 (Jan.-June 1916)) → online text (page 29 of 58)