Thomas Barclay.

The sands of fate; dramatised study of an imperial conscience, a phantasy online

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tional Volunteers and it may precipitate a forward
step in Ulster. Nobody here will be surprised if the
Provisional Government now asserts itself in a man-
ner which must bring matters to a head. The posi-
tion in Ireland has become so critical that it must
rapidly get either better or worse."
July 25. Kaiser leaves Balestrand, 6.30 p.m.

Chancellor arrives at night from Hohen Finow.

At 6.30 P.M. Austrian Minister leaves Belgrade.

Russian Charge d 'Affaires at Vienna wires St.
Petersburg that Count Berchtold is at Ischl. _

Serbia hands in reply to Austro-Hungarian ulti-
matum within the forty-eight hours.

Austn-Hungarian demands? Serbian reply.

(i) That the Serbian Government give a
solemn assurance concerning Serbian
propaganda against the Dual Monarchy. Accepted.

(2) That a Declaration to this effect be pub-
lished on the front page of the Serbian

OfRcial Journal of following Sunday. Accepted.

(3) That the Declaration also express regret
that Serbian officers and officials took
part in the anti-Austro-Hungarian
propaganda. Accepted.

(4) That the Serbian Government promise
to proceed with the utmost rigour against

all guilty persons. Accepted.

(5) That this Declaration be simultane-
ously communicated by the King of
Serbia to his Army and be pubhshed in

the Army Official Bulletin. Accepted.

(6) That all Serbian publications inciting to
hatred and contempt of Austria-Hun-
gary be suppressed. Accepted.

(7) That the Society known as the Narodna
Obrana (National Union) be dissolved
and its means of propaganda confis-
cated. Accepted.

(8) That teachers and teaching ,in Serbia
which tend to foment ill-feeling against
Austria-Hungary be eliminated. Accepted.

(9) That all officers and officials guilty of
propaganda against Austria-Hungary be

, * This table is based on that published in the Times of July 27, 1914.

Chronology 243

dismissed from the public service, the Accepted
Austro-Hungarian Government to subject to
communicate to Serbia the names and result of
doings of such officials and officers. evidence.

(10) That representatives of Austria-Hun-
gary shall assist Serbia in suppressing in
Serbia the movement directed against
the territorial integrity of the Dual Mon-
archy and take part in the judicial pro- Rejected
ceedings on Serbian territory against condition-
persons accessory to the Serajevo crime. ally.

(11) Serbia to give Austro-Hungarian Govern-
ment explanations as to the utterances

of high Serbian officials in Serbia and Not ac- •
abroad who had spoken disparagingly of cepted
the Austro-Hungarian Government after ^Uel
the Serajevo crime. quel."

July 15. Sazonoff issues note stating that he feels sure that
England "ne tardera pas de se ranger du cote de la
Russie et de la France en vue de maintenir I'equilibre
europeen." (Russian Red Book, p. 19.)

Germany denies by note verbale having had any knovi^l-
edge of the "text of the Austrian note" "avant qu'elle
ait ete remise," and alleges that"ellen'a exerce aucune
influence sur son contenu."
July 26. Kaiser expected "to-night" at Berlin.

Von Moltke arrives at Berlin from Carlsbad.

Czar has not abandoned cruise in Finnish skerries.

Berlin crowd manifest in front of Austrian Em-
bassy; hostile cries in front of Russian Embassy.

Austrian mobilisation decreed, (Russian Consul at
Prague, to St. Petersburg.)
July 27. Kaiser reaches Potsdam from Kiel, by special train,
at three in the afternoon. Drives to Neues-Palais.
Receives Chancellor immediately.

Kreuz-Zeitung of the 28th announces Kaiser in-
tended to go from Potsdam to Wilhelmshohe as usual.

Von Schoen requests France to act with Germany
in a moderating sense at St. Petersburg.

Czar announced to have left for his cruise.

Buchanan wires Grey that Sazonoff proposes direct
conversation with Vienna.

Goschen wires Grey that Sazonoff intends exchang-
ing views with Berchtold direct.

244 Chronology

July 27. Bunsen wires Grey that Sazonoff had practically
reached an understanding with Austro-Hungarian
July 28. Chancellor visits Kaiser at Potsdam in morning.

Chancellor and Minister of War visit him in after-

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

Sazonoff telegraphs to Russian Ambassador at Ber-
lin: "In consequence of Austro-Hungarian declara-
tion of war against Serbia, mobilisation to-morrow in
military districts of Odessa, Kief, Moscow, and Kasan."
Assures mobilisation not aimed against Germany.

Direct negotiations between St. Petersburg and
Vienna broken off.

Chancellor sends for Goschen about Russian mobili-
sation of fourteen army corps. Points out that Ser-
bian question is a purely Austrian concern.

Bunsen wires Grey that Berchtold declares Austria-
Hungary cannot delay war measures against Serbia
and declines negotiations on basis of Serbian reply.

Grey telegraphs Goschen and Buchanan that Sazon-
off has proposed friendly exchange of views to Austrian

Serbian Charge d 'Affaires at Rome informs Minis-
ter for Austria-Hungary that Serbia might still, sub-
ject to some explanation as to proposed intervention
of Austrian agents, accept whole Austro-Hungarian

Bunsen telegraphs Grey that Russian Ambassador
had informed him Austro-Hungarian Government
did not accept direct discussion between Sazonoff and
Austrian Ambassador at St. Petersburg.

Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Berlin tells Go-
schen that Russia is not in a position to make war.

(N.B. No German paper publishes Serbian reply
in extenso.)

At 10.45 P.M. Kaiser sends first telegram to Czar,
which was as follows: —

I have heard with the greatest anxiety of the impression
which is caused by the action of Austria-Hungary against
Serbia. The unscrupulous agitation which has been going
on for years in Serbia has led to the revolting crime of
which Archduke Franz Ferdinand has become a victim.

Chronology 245

The spirit which made the Serbians'murder their own King
and his consort still dominates that country. Doubtless,
you will agree with me that both of us, you as well as I,
and all other sovereigns, have a common interest to insist
that all those who are responsible for this horrible murder
shall suffer their deserved punishment. On the other hand,
I by no means overlook the difficulty encountered by you
and your Government to stem the tide of public opinion.
In view of the cordial friendship which has joined us both
for a long time with firm ties, I shall use my entire influence
to induce Austria-Hungary to obtain a frank and satisfac-
tory understanding with Russia. I hope confidently that
you will support me in my efforts to overcome all diffi-
culties which may yet arise.

Your most sincere and devoted friend and cousin,


July 28. SazonoflF wires impression that Germany "plutot
favorable a I'intransigeance de I'Autriche; attitude
j • allemande particulierement alarmante."

July 29. Prince Henry arrives from England.

Military and Naval Council at Potsdam.

I P.M. Czar telegraphs to Kaiser.

Chancellor sends for Goschen; says it is too late to
discuss on basis of Serbian reply. Assurances of desire
for peace.

Buchanan wires Grey that SazonoflF says direct nego-
tiation with Vienna has been proposed by German

Goschen wires Grey that Von Jagow thinks sug-
gestion of making Serbia's reply basis of negotiations
might have precipitated the declaration of war.

Crown Prince arrives at Potsdam in the morning.
Passes an hour with Kaiser and Kaiserin. Then re-
turns to Marmor-Palais. Kaiser takes a short walk in
, Park of Sans-Souci.

Bunsen wires Grey of mobilisation of Russian corps,
ordered to operate on Austrian frontier.

Buchanan telegraphs Grey that SazonoflF says order
for mobilisation against Austria will be issued day
Austria crosses Serbian frontier.

Chancellor wires Lichnowsky to tell Grey that he
is endeavouring to mediate between Vienna and St.

Kaiser telegraphs to Czar, 6.30 p.m.



July 29. Chancellor sends for Goschen (night). He had just
returned from Potsdam. Makes bid for British neu-
trality. Declares Germany bound to assist Austria-
Hungary if attacked by Russia.
Sazonoff to Iswolsky: —

The German Ambassador to-day informed me of the
decision of his Government to mobilise if Russia does not
stop her military preparations. Now, in point of fact, we
only began these preparations in consequence of the mobil-
isation already undertaken by Austria, and owing to her
evident unwillingness to accept any means of arriving at
a peaceful settlement of her dispute with Serbia. As we
cannot comply with the wishes of Germany, we have no
alternative but to hasten on our own military preparations
and to assume that war is probably inevitable. Please in-
form the French Government of this and add that we are
sincerely grateful to them for the declaration which the
French Ambassador made to me on their behalf, to the
effect that we could count fully upon the assistance of our
ally, France. In the existing circumstances, that declara-
tion is especially valuable to us.

(Communicated to the Russian Ambassadors in
Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Ger-

Queen Sophia of Greece, who was at Eastbourne
and was to go on a visit to Potsdam, returns direct to
July 30. At I A.M. Kaiser telegraphs to Czar, who is at Peter-

Sazonoff sees Czar at Peterhof in the morning.

Crown Princess arrives at Potsdam from Mecklen-

At I P.M. Czar telegraphs to Kaiser.

German Ambassador enquires on what conditions
Russia would consent to suspend armaments. Sazon-
off dictates to him the following formula: —

Si I'Autriche, reconnaissant que la question austro-serbe
a assume le carac-tere d'une question europeenne, se de-
clare prete a eliminer de son ultimatum les points qui
portent atteinte aux droits souverains de la Serbie, la
Russie s'engagent a cesser ses preparatifs militaires.

Russian Ambassador at Berlin wires that German
Minister for Foreign Affairs finds formula "inaccep-
table pour I'Autriche."

Chronology 247

July 30. Goschen telegraphs Grey that he has been sent for
by Minister for Foreign Affairs. Latter suggested
that Grey should get Russia to agree to accept media-
tion on basis of occupation of Belgrade, no further
steps to be taken. European peace might then be pre-
served. He knew France did not want war.

German Ambassador at Rome told Rodd that Ser-
bia might demand peace on occupation of Belgrade
and Germany might then devise formula.

Grey wires Buchanan that Lichnowsky had in-
formed him that Germany would endeavour to influ-
ence Austria, after occupation of Belgrade, to promise
not to advance farther while Powers endeavoured to
arrange satisfaction to Austria.

Grey declines Chancellor's bid for British neutrality.
Makes counter-proposal to assure Germany against
aggressive policy by France, Russia, and England
jointly or severally.

Poincare informs Bertie that Russian Government
had been informed by Germany that unless mobilisa-
tion stopped, she would mobilise. This was modi-
fied to requesting to be informed on what terms Rus-
sia would demobilise. Answer was, that Austria give
assurance that she would respect Serbia's sovereignty
and submit certain of her demands to international
discussion. Urged England to inform Germany that
she would aid France. This would assure peace.

At midday Emperor Franz Josef, from Ischl, and
heir to throne arrive at Vienna and alight at Schoen-
July 31. Kaiser moves to Berlin.

Czar telegraphs to Kaiser (hour not given).

Kaiser telegraphs to Czar, 2 p.m.

Kaiser makes speech from balcony of Schloss.

Goschen wires Grey that Chancellor told him that
he was about to confer with Kaiser and that Russia
was making active military preparations on frontier
in spite of Czar's appeal to Kaiser.

Goschen wires Grey that he had spent an hour with
Minister for Foreign Affairs. Impossible to consider
any proposal until answer from Russia as to counter-
manding mobilisation.

Buchanan wires Grey that Russia decided to mobil-

248 Chronology

ise because Austria was moving troops against Russia
as well as Serbia.
July 31. Orders given at St. Petersburg for general mobilisa-

Goschen, later, wires Grey that Russia is mobilis-
ing generally. Berchtold, as regards Grey's proposal,
was to get the Emperor's instructions "this morn-

German Government decrees Krie gs gefahrzustand.

Bunsen wires Grey that Forgach (Under-Secretary)
still hopes for preservation of peace. Telegrams pass-
ing between Kaiser and Czar and St. Petersburg and

Lichnowsky informs Grey that discussion has been
resumed between St. Petersburg and Vienna.

Buchanan wires Russian formula as follows: —

• Si I'Autriche consent a arreter la marche de ses armees
sur le territoire serbe, et si, reconnaissant que le conflit
austro-serbe a assume le caractere d'une question d'interet
europeen, elle admet que les Grandes Puissances examinent
la satisfaction que la Serbie pourrait accorder au gouverne-
ment d'Autriche-Hongrie sans laisser porter attenite a ses
droits d'Etat souverain et a son independance, la Russie
s'engage a conserver son attitude expectante.

German Government wires twelve hours ultima-
tum to St. Petersburg.

German Government wires Paris asking whether
France intends to remain neutral, with eighteen hours
for reply.

Von Schoen gives notice to France requiring declara-
tion as to her neutrality within eighteen hours, delay
expiring on Saturday at i p.m.

British Government enquires of French and Ger-
man Governments whether they intend to respect
Belgian neutrality.
Aug. I. Czar telegraphs to Kaiser, 2 p.m.

Kaiser telegraphs to Czar (no hour given).

Bertie wires Grey that President Poincare told him
Russian general mobilisation followed Austro-Hun-

I P.M. Von Schoen telegraphs Chancellor that Prime
Minister, in answer to his enquiry, had declared,
"France would do what her interests dictated."

Chronology 249

Aug. I. 5 P.M. French notice of mobilisation (orders given

at 3.40 P.M.).

Viviani declares this had become necessary owing
to German mobilisation. Under Kriegsgefahrzustand
the Germans had called up six classes. Three were
sufficient to bring their covering troops up to war
strength. Remaining three being reserves, this was
mobilisation under another name.

Sazonoff sends secret wire that German Ambassa-
dor had declared at twelve midnight that if within
twelve hours (midday) Russia did not commence de-
mobilisation, Germanjr would mobilise.

Goschen wires Grey that Germany's orders are given
for mobilisation, navy and army, first day, August 2.

Berlin correspondent of the Times wires that the
Kaiser and members of the Royal Family drove into
Berlin from Potsdam towards three o'clock and had a
tremendous reception. "They passed in open motor-
cars down the great middle way of Unter den Linden,
which is reserved for ceremonial occasions. The first
car contained the Emperor, wearing the full-dress uni-
form of Cuirassiers of the Guard, and the Empress,
who wore a claret-coloured dress. The Emperor,
whose face was very grave, kept his hand at the salute
all the way down, while the Empress bowed acknowl-
edgment of the cheers of the vast crowd." (Times,
August 3, 1914.)

Bunsen wires Grey of general mobilisation of Aus-
trian army and fleet.

\ Mensdorfl tells Grey that Austria had not "banged
the door" on compromise.

Grey wires Goschen that " Sazonoff announces that
Austrian Ambassador declared readiness of his Gov-
ernment to discuss substance of Austrian ultimatum
to Serbia. SazonoflF proposes discussion take place in
London." (Communicated to the Powers.)

Grey wires Buchanan that Austrian Government
has informed German Government of its readiness to
negotiate, if Russia will stop mobilising; preservation
of peace seems possible.

Austro-Hungarian Ambassador calls on M. Viviani
and declares Austria's readiness to discuss "fond du
conflit" with the other Powers.

250 Chronology

Aug. I. Bunsen declares (in his despatch to Grey of Sep-

tember l) that Russian Ambassador (Schekebo) in-
formed him that Russia and Austria were practically

Mensdorff calls Grey's special attention to fact that
conversations with St. Petersburg had not been
broken off by Austria and that latter had given assur-
ance to Russia that neither an infraction of Serbia's
sovereign rights nor acquisition of Serbia's territory
was contemplated.

Count Szapary (Austrian Ambassador at St. Peters-
burg) to Count Berchtold: —

Petersburg, ist August.
At an interview to-day with Sazonoff, I informed him I
had received instructions, but I had first to point out that
I did not know what was the present situation at Vienna
created by the Russian general m.obilisation. My communi-
cation was, therefore, subject to this. I said that your com-
munications treated of the misunderstanding as if we had
rejected further negotiations with Russia. This I assured
him was a mistake. Your Excellency was not only quite
ready to negotiate with Russia on the widest basis, but was
also in particular inclined to submit our Notentext to dis-
cussion in so far as its interpretation was concerned.

Sazonoff expressed his satisfaction at this proof of
good-will, but he thought that success was more likely
to be achieved on the neutral ground of London.

Goschen wires Grey that he had argued that Ger-
many had only to wait while Austria and Russia were
coming to terms. Secretary of State says Germany
could not wait, as she had speed and Russia numbers.

At 7.10 P.M. German Ambassador at St. Petersburg
delivers declaration of war to Russia.
Aug. 2. German force enters Grand Duchy of Luxemburg.

Grey gives Cambon assurance regarding protection
of Channel and hostile naval operations generally
against France.
Aug. 3. France offers Belgium five army corps. Belgium de-

clines them.

Italy replies to Germany that, latter having declared
aggressive character of Austria's action, she was not
bound by her purely defensive alliance.
Aug. 4. Germany invades Belgium.

Chronology 251

Aug. 4. Goschen has several interviews at Wiihelmstrasse
endeavouring to persuade Germany to draw back, but
in vain, and asks for his passports. Handed in tele-
graphic report at nine, which never reached Foreign

The form of British declaration of war was that
unless Germany undertook not to proceed farther in
Belgium, British Government would have to take all
steps to uphold Belgium's neutrality.

Aug. 7. Russian Ambassador (Schekebo) at Vienna leaves
Embassy, Berchtold stating that, in view of menacing
attitude of Russia in Austro-Serbian conflict and "the
fact that Russia had commenced hostilities against
Germany," Austria-Hungary considered herself also
at war with Russia.

Aug. 12. Dumaine (French Ambassador) leaves Vienna.

Bunsen and Mensdorff leave Vienna and London

Dec. 5. • According to Giolitti's speech of this date, Austria
had prepared an ultimatum to Serbia in August, 191 3,
and asked Italy if she would support her if she went
to war. Italy did not consider this a "casus foederis."


Jan. 13. Count Berchtold resigns. Succeeded by Baron
Stephen Burian.

Jan. 23. Baron Burian visits Berlin.

March I. Germans accuse the French of using shells which
discharge an asphyxiating gas.

April 8. Conditions of agreement communicated by Sonnino
to Austria-Hungary stipulate that Trieste and ad-
joining territory be constituted into an autonomous
and independent state and "porto franco." No mili-
tary, either Austrian or Italian, to enter it. Italian
sovereignty over Valona to be recognized by Austria-
Hungary. Austria-Hungary to give up all interest in
Albania. Trentino to be ceded up to boundaries ac-
cording to Treaty of February 28, 1 8 10.

April 10. Squitti (Italian Minister at Nisch) telegraphs that,
according to confidential information, separate peace
between Austria-Hungary and Russia is possible.

April 12. Germans accuse Russians of using shells which dis-
charge asphyxiating gas.

252 Chronology

April 13. Telegram similar to that of Squitti from Cucchi
(Italian Minister at Sofia), object being for Austria-
Hungary to have her hands free to deal with Italy.

April 15. Bellati (Italian Ambassador at Berlin) telegraphs
that people are speaking of separate peace between
Germany and Austria-Hungary and Russia.

April 16. Germans renew accusation of the French using as-
and 21. phyxiating gas.

April 22, General warning issued by German Embassy at
Washington against travelling by English liners.

Warning specially repeated in respect of the Lusi-

Germans use asphyxiating gas and gain nine kilo-

May Lusitania sails.

May 3. Sonnino (Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs) de-
clares Treaty of Alliance between Italy and Austria-
Hungary cancelled.

May 4. Notification of cancellation communicated to Baron

May 7. Japan delivers ultimatum to China, forty-eight
hours for reply.

Lusitania torpedoed.

May 8. Kaiser on southeastern front.

Von Billow has hour's audience of King of Italy.

May 9. China accepts Japan's ultimatum.

May II. At Milan demonstration against German Consulate.

May 12. Demonstration at Rome against Giolitti as cham-
pion of peace.

May 13. Demonstration at Rome against Giolitti and neu-

May 16. D'AnnunzIo, the famous Italian writer, speaks In
same sense in the Costanzi theatre. Demonstrations
at Florence and Venice follow. Processions with cof-
fins bearing flags, "Here lies with Giolitti the dignity
i of Italy."_

The Giornale d^ Italia states that an Anglo-Italian
agreement for immediate attack by Italy has been con-

May 17. The Popolo d' Italia (Milan) states that alliance with
Austria-Hungary was cancelled on May 4, and that
agreement is now made with Allies to attack Austria-
Hungary on May 24.

Chronology 253

May 17. Manifestation in favour of war at Naples, two hun-
dred professors and the Rector of University at their
head. Manifestations at Padua and Parma. At
Palermo attack on German Consulate. In Turin state
of siege declared on account of barricades and fighting
between rival partisans.

May 18. Von Bethmann-HoUweg states in Reichstag that
Austria-Hungary was prepared {inter alia) to allow
Trieste to have an Italian university and be a free
port with an Italian administration.

At Rome fifty thousand persons manifest in favour
of war, headed by Mayor Colonna and addressed by
D 'Annunzio.

May 20. At sitting of Chamber, Italian Socialists declare
they will vote against the war, but, if declared, they
will do their best to bring it to a speedy and successful

Mr. Asquith announces that steps are being taken
to place Government on a national basis. Completed
on May 28.

May 23. Italian declaration of war handed by Italian Am-
bassador to Burian.

May 25. Von Biilow and Macchio (Austro-Hungarian Am-
bassador) leave Rome. Also Von Miihlberg (German
Minister to the Vatican) and Von Schonburg-Harten-
stein (Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Vatican).

May 26. Italian Ambassador at Berlin (Bellati) leaves.

Kaiserin at Berlin visits the Orangerie-Lazarett and
spends over an hour with the wounded.

Prince and Princess von Biilow arrive in Berlin at
9.05 A.M. (Anhalter Bahnhof) with some one hundred
and twenty persons.

Herr von Miihlberg had accompanied Prince von
Biilow as far as Lugano.

May 28. Chancellor makes statement in Reichstag on Italian

June 28. Dr. Dernburg back in Berlin.

U . S . A


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