Thomas Bellingham.

Diary of Thomas Bellingham, an officer under William III online

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previously mentioned.

Ye 24th. — A fayr day. My paine increases. I was for some
time wth Mr. Fleetwood and others att Cowpers and ye mitre.

Ye 25th. — A very wett day. I sweat and was visited in ye
evening by ye mayor and severall others, I this [day] received ye
R. decl. from C. F. and shewed it ye mayor. A stranger preach'd.

Alderman Thomas Winckley was the Mayor. — R. decl., i.e., Royal

Ye 26th. — A fayr day. Capt. Piggott's and Rigby's companyes
drew upp in ye Market Place. I was att Rigby's wth Dr Lee and
others, and sup't and playd att cards att 2iiy cousen Johnson's.

Ye 27th. — A frost. We had an account of Yorkc being seized
by Lord Danby, Dunblane, Fairfix, &c., and yt ye militia had
joyn'd them. I was att night wth yc mayor, Capt. Rigby,
G. Rigby, and others.

York was seized on November 22nd by the Earl of Danby. He was at the
head of about loo horse soldiers: the militia in the city immediately sided
with him, and the garrison was speedily disarmed. — Lord Dunblane w-as

32 Till- Bellingham Diary. [Nov., 1688.

the heir apparent to the Danby earldom. — Fairfax would be the 5th Earl. —
It is very probable that Captain Rigby was Thomas, eldest son of
Lieut. -Colonel Rigby, who was a son of the notable Colonel T^igby, of
Middleton, in Goosnargh, near Preston. — G. Rigby was Gilbert Rigby,
brother of Thomas.

Yc 28th. — A frost. I din'd att Camells wth Mr. Fleetwood,
Parker, and scvcrall others, and att night was wth Mr. Rich.
Pcrcivall, of Manchester, etc.

Yc 29th. — A frost. We had an account of ye desertion of
Prince George, D of Ormond and Grafton, Lds Churchill, Arran,
Coll. Berkeley, and severall others. I sup't att ye Mitre wth Dr.
Lee, Mr. Lemman, Greefeild, etc.

The desertion to the side of the Prince of Orange of Prince George
(son-in-law of James II), the Dukes of Ormonde, Grafton, &c., took place
on or about the 25th of November. — Mr. Lemman was Alderman Lemon. —
Greefeild was Christopher Greenfield, who practised as a lawyer in Preston
for some time, married a daughter of Dr. Bushell, vicar of Preston, was
one of the members of Parliament for Preston from March 1689-90 to
November 1695, and was knighted whilst M.P.

Ye 30th. — A frost. Dean Ward was here. He tould me of ye
discorse between Dr Owens and one Lancaster, att Prescott, about
ye birth of ye P. of W, wch a woman overheard, and that it was a
sham and nothing more.

A statement had been made public to the effect that Mary, Queen of
James II, was confined on June loth, and had given birth on that day to a
prince — the Prince of Wales; but "the nation over which, according to the
ordinary course of succession, he would have reigned was fully persuaded
that the mother was not really pregnant." (Macaulay's Histor>' of
England.) This view of the case was, however, incorrect: there was born
on the day named " the most unfortunate of princes, destined to seventy-
seven years of exile and wandering, of vain projects, of honours more
galling than insults, and of hopes such as make the heart sick." (Ibid.)
This prince was the one now historically known as the " Old Pretender."


Cuiilainiiif; Can'eil OiU- thninirv /'iiir. nnlrally .sin iiiuiditiii nilli li.lliiii^haiii Arm.s. {i^c.

Dec, 1688.] The Bellingham Diary. 33

Dec. ye ist.
A fayr day, but cold. My paine in ye shoulder continues, for
which I sweat ; and att evening I treated cousens Johnson and
Patten wth oysters and wine, and playd att Cards pretty late.

Ye 2nd.— A dry, cold day. I was not att church in ye morning,
but heard yt ye vicar preach'd a very factious sermon. Ye curate

made a good serm : in ye afternoon.

The Rev. Thomas Birch was the vicar, and Mr. Farrand was the curate.

Ye 3d. — A dry, cold day. I tooke Physick for my paine, which
continues very violent. In ye evening my cousens Johnson and
Patten came, and sate wth mc and play'd cards till it was late.

Ye 4th. — A cold, dry day. We had an account of Bristol!

Plymouth, Hull, Newcastle, Carlisle, and severall other places sur-

rendred for ye P of O. Proclamations for a Parliament to sitt ye

15th of January. I wrote severall letters for Ireland. Was wth

ye Rigbys. Ye Capt Challenged Capt Brathwait who recanted.

The first mentioned officer was, presumably Captain Rigby, and the
second Captain Thomas Braithwaite.

Ye 5th. — A cold, dry day. In ye afternoon I walk'd wth
CoUonel to Penwortham. Was wth Mr. Greenfeild and others att
Rigbys. Supt at Couscn Pattens, and playd att cards.

Ye 6th. — A frost. I walk'd wth Mr. Chaddock and Franks to
the Marsh. Was wth Mr. Kennyon att Coopers, and after wth
Mr. Farrington ye parson att Rigby's.

Ye 7th. — A fayr frost. We had an account of an address from
ye navy, and that our fleet and ye Dutch lay very freindly together
att Portsmouth. I was att evening wth Mr. Mayor and severall
others att Rigbys.

34 Tim; Rklmngham Diary. [Dec, 1688.

Yc 8th. — A frost. I was wth Mr. Fleetwood and parted early.
Dr. Lee tould ye story of ye lightning killing 2 men in ye middle
of 12 or 13, and took such serpentine motions, and went out of ye
top of ye house.

Ye 9th. — A fiyr day. I walk'd to Pcnwortham, and heard

Mr. Gregory, and din'd there, and was att Ratcliffe's, wth Mr.

Greenfeild and others, where ye P : O. De was read, etc.

The diarist would hear Mr. (the Rev. Benjamin) Greg-ory read the
service, or preach, in Penwortham Parish Church. — The De. (Declaration)
was perhaps that issued at the Hague, by the Prince of Orang-e, on October
loth, 1688, and, later, translated and condensed by Gilbert (afterwards
Bishop) Burnet, and then circulated in England — a Declaration in which
the Prince of Orange referred to the illegal acts of James II, his father-in-
law, accepted the invitation of the English Parliament to take the place of
James on the throne, and proclaim " a free and legal parliament," &c. ;
or it may have been the " Supplementary Declaration " that was circulated
— a Declaration which included a fierce attack on Roman Catholics, causing-
much excitement in the country, and which, many years afterwards, turned
out to have been a forgery by Hugh Speke.

Ye 1 0th. — A fayr day. I sweat. Ye soldiers went to Physick
chappell and tooke downe ye Bell, &c.

There seems to be a mistake or some omission of details here. Dom.
Gregory (Bartholomew Hesketh, who belonged to a family in Goosnargh,
near Preston) built a Roman Catholic chapel at or near Fishwick Hall, on the
cast side of Preston, and had charge of the mission there. " The chapel
had an organ, a pulpit, and two bells ; but, on the termination of the
respite from persecution which Catholics enjoyed during the short reign
of James II, the bells were buried near the stable wall adjoining the Hall.
They were afterwards removed to the cellar of the White Bull Inn, near the
Parish Church, in Preston, and at that time kept by a Catholic, Richard
Jackson, who rented a portion of the Fishwick estate." (Hewitson's
History of Preston, p. 3S7.) In Fishwick's History of the Parish of
Preston, p. 306, there is reproduced some evidence taken from the
" informations " in the forfeited estate papers, at the Public Record Office,
which fully confirms this statement.

Yc I ith. — A wett day. I went to ye boat house, to see a match
att shooting between one Brown of Yorkshire and Billino^ton of
Lancashire. They shott but halfe of a sett. I sup't att Cousen

Dec, 1688.] The Bellingham Diary. 35

Patten's. We had account of severall vessells arriv'd att Liver-
poole, yesterday, wth multitudes of English who fled out of Ireland
for fear of a massacre.

Ye 1 2th. — A moyst day. We heard the boyes declaime att
school. I went to see the shooting att boat house. Was wth
Dr. Lee, Mr. Chaddock, and others att George Rattliffes. Tooke
a long farewell. B was tould ye account of ye Lord of Meath's
going to Tirconnell and desiring armes for theyr protection, but
was refus'd and threatned and charg'd wth Rebellion.

Tirconnell was Richard Talbot, Earl of Tyrconnel, the General of the
soldiers of James II in Ireland.

Ye 13th. — A very wett day. I rode to Camells to see ye ship

wch came from Holland. Ye master tould me he was 3 weekes

since att Ireland, and ye Custome house officer assur'd him there

were armes lately come over for 15,000 men. He saw 2 dutch

ships off Pyle of fother. Dean Ward came from Liverpoole, and

confirms the account of 500 being come from Ireland for fear of a

massacre, thatt Ld of Meath and Granard went to Tirconnell who

gave them no satisfaction, and that he believ'd Ld Meath was come

over to the P of O, and yt ye D of Orm was gone into Ireland wth

a considerable force.

The Pyle of fother, i.e., the Pile of Fouldrey, is a fiat island, with an
area of 19 acres, near the mouth of Walney Channel, and about three miles
south-east of Barrow-in-Furness. There are on it the ruins of a castle
which was built in the time of King Stephen. — The Duke of Ormond was
now definitely on the side of the Prince of Orange.

Ye 14th. — A moyst day. We had an acct [account] of ye K, Q,

and P [King, Queen, and Prince] being withdrawn towards Ireland.

I was wth Sr. Rich. Standish, major Farrington, &c.

Major Farrington would be either Henry or William Farington, of
Worden Hall, Leyland.

0$ Tin: Bki.i.inoham Diary. [Dec, 1688.

Yc 15th. — A fayr day. Wc had an account by express this
morning, from Wiggan, that 8,000 Scotch and Irish were ravaging
the Kingdom, yt they massacred in Breimingham, burnt Stafford,
and were moving towards Newcastle [? under-Lyme], upon which
this town was making all speedy preparation and sent several!
expresses. I was desir'd to take care of the horse, wch I did, and
gott severall who were very ready but wanted arms. We searcht
severall suspected houses, but found very little. We return'd
about 4 a clock, mctt ye mayor, and I entred. About 50 gave
thcyr names to serve in ye horse.

Tlie ravagfing- Scotch and Irish would be soldiers on the side of James
II. — The entries were made on behalf of the Prince of Orange.

Ye 1 6th. — A fayr day. I had above 60 who rode under my

command. I march'd to ye mill hill, where I exercized them, and

brought them into ye town, where they gave 2 very good volleys.

I treated ym. Mr. Clarett this day brought an account of the K

being stoppt att Feversham, of the Chancellor and others being

taken. A letter came from my Ld Derby confirming the newes of

the Irish and Scotch. Mr. Rishton came from Warrington. I was

wth Captaine Bold.

Mill Hill was in a field on the eastern side of Preston — between the
present Park-road and Deepdale-road. — Mr. Clarett was not a local person.
— The King (James II) was caught at Emley Ferrj', near the Isle of
Shcppey, not far from Faversham, whilst on a hoy, waiting to make his
escape to the Continent. Eventually, after being at Rochester for a time,
he returned, of his own accord, to London.— The Chancellor (Lord
Chancellor Jeffreys) was caught at Wapping, disguised as a sailor, and
removed to the Tower of London, where he died.— Captain Bold, it is almost
a certainty, was Peter Bold, Knight of the Shire (Lancashire) in 1677, and
High Sheriff of the county in 1690.

Ye 17th. — Awctt day. I drew out ye Volunteers, who appcar'd
better appointed than yesterday. We exercised on ye marsh, and
they performed admirably. We marcht in a full body through the
town, gave a volley, and dismiss'd. We had 2 expresses, one from

Dec, 1688.] The Bellixgham Diary. 37

ye Lord Danby, from York, wh brought an account yt he was
advanceing wth 2 Regiments of foot, 8 troop of horse, and one of
grenadiers ; ye other from Coll Rawstorne, that the Irish were dis-
pers'd about [? Shrew]sbury, and had layd down theyr arms.
Sr Tho Clifton was taken and brother.

Ye 1 8th. — A wett day. I drew out ye troop, but ye raine drove

us in againe. We had a report of ye King's death [James II],

but, God be prays'd, it prov'd false. The newes sayes that

Tirconnell was seiz'd, together wth ye castle of Dublin, by Lords

Granard, Meath, Mou[nt]joy, and Inchequin. I was wth parte of

ye troop, who treated me att ye anchor, and after wth Coll Rigby,

Capt Bold, &c.

Coll Rigby was Lieutenant-Colonel Rigby, who served under his father
(Colonel Rigby, ob. 1650) in the Parliamentary army.

Ye 19th. — A frost. Ye militia Companyes and troop drew out.
I saw them exercise very ill. I was after wth ye mayor, Capt Bold,
and others att ye Dogg, and after att ye Mitre. Ye mayor receiv'd
a fresh account from Lancaster, which came from Kendall, that ye
Scotch and Irish were gone Yorkshire road and had burnt Halifax ;
but it is not believ'd. Ye mayor shewed me ye letter at ten at

Ye Dogg was the name of a Preston inn ; and probably the present Old
Dog Inn, on the south side of Church-street, if it be not the actual
building, occupies the same site.

Ye 20th. — A great frost. I walk'd wth Dr Lee, Mr. Lcmman,

and Mr Langton to Penwortham, where we were nobly entertain'd.

I won some money. Capt Bold came after dinner and was much

in drinke. Att night I was wth the mayor, att [^ had] ale, &c.

The place where the party were entertained at was Penwortham Hall. —
Mr. Langton would be Mr. Richard Langton, a member of the Preston
Common Council.

38 Tm: Rki.i.inoham Diary. [Dec, 1688.

Yc 2ith. — A hard frost. Our ncwcs yt ye K [King] had againe
rctir'd to Rochester, yt P [Prince of Orange] come to St. James.
I wrote sevcrall letters to Ireland, and was att Mr. Rigbys [with]
Capt Bold, Mr. Fleetwood, and others.

Ye 22nd. — A hard frost. Tom White came here. I gott him a
pass from the mayor, gave him ^,5, and sent him towards Kirkham.
I was wth Mr. Fleetwood, Mr. Sherburn of Stanihurst, and others,
att yc mitre, and after wth Kellett att ye White bull.

White was not a Preston person. — Mr. Sherburn was Mr. Richard
Sherburn, of Stonyhurst, his ancestral home, a few miles north-west of
Whallcy. For many years it has been a Roman Catholic College, belonging
to the Order of Jesuits, and it stands high in the domains of education.

Ye 23th. — A great frost. We had little newes, but that there
would be great alterations in Ireland, and its doubted whether ye
King will leave ye Kingdome. We walk'd in ye afternoon, and
miss'd a railing sermon wch ye Vicar Preached against ye cere-
monycs of ye Church.

Ye 24th. — A great frost. Ribble was frozen over. Mr. Greg-
son and I went a gunning, but gott little, only some few small
birds. Capt Bold went hence. We din'd att Dr Lees. Was wth
Capt Clayton and his sonne att Mittons. He brought an Irish
proclamation wth him, which was sent to Liverpoole, by order of
Tirconnell, to ye mayor.

Captain Clayton would be a member of or connected with the Clayton
family of Fulwood.

Ye 25th. — A gentle thaw. Little newes. Ye K: continues still

att Rochester. Debates about a free Parliament. Tirconnell

refuses to surrender Ireland. I was wth Sr Tho Stanly and much

company at Serjeant Wall's.

Anthony Wall, gent., had this year been elected sub-Bailiff or Town's

Dec, 1688.] The Bellingham Diary. 39

Ye 26th. — A hard frost. We were nobly entertained att ye
mayors. Went after to one of ye Serjeants ; so to Mittons ; and
from thence to play att ye Coffee house, where we won £2'^-

One of ye Serjeants, i.e., either the Mayor's or the town's Serjeant. — The
Coffee house probably adjoined a place called the Coffee Garden, which was
on the east side of Main Sprit Weind.

Ye 27th. — A hard frost. Dr Lee went from hence to Fullwood

under halfe an houre for a wager. I din'd wth much company att

Mr. Rigby's ; but a very ill dinner. After waited on ye Mayor ;

to the other Serjeants [house] ; from thence to Rattcliffe's ; and so

to play, to ye Coffee house, where I lost ;{^20, and Mr. Greenfeild

was halfes and mett a disappointment.

Fulwood, at its nearest boundary line, is only a mile and a half from
Preston Town Hall ; so that if Dr. Lee made a bet of the kind named he
must, supposing- he walked and was not in any way handicapped by
infirmity, hav^e either started at some point in Preston farther south than
the Town Hall — the usual place for calculating- distances to and from the
borough — or finished in some part of Fulwood more remote than the
boundary line mentioned.

Ye 28th. — A hard frost. We had an account of ye King's being
gone towards France. I sent T. White away wth some letters. I
was wth Mr. Mayor and Chr Parker att Cravens, and after sup't
att Cousen Johnson's.

Cravens was Mr. Edward Craven's.

Ye 29th. — A frost. Mr. Fleetwood came hither, and scemes

unwilling to stand for Parliament man. I was wth him att ye

Dogg. Mr. Hodgkinson, Mrs Langton, and her sister sup't

wth us.

Mr. Fleetwood was Edward, son of Mr. John Fleetwood, of Penwortham. —
Mr. Hodgkinson was Alderman Thomas Hodgkinson, of Preston. — Mrs.
Langton was the wife of Richard Langton, a member of the Council, and
in 1602-3 Mayor of Preston. Her maiden name was Mary Hodgkinson:
she was the only daughter of William Hodgkinson, of Preston, gent., and
niece of Alderman Thomas Hodgkinson before mentioned.

^.o The Bki.i.inoham Diary. [Dec. -Jan., 1688-89.

Yc 30th. — A hard frost. I walk't after dinner to Penwortham,
over yc ice, wth Mr. Franks, and saw severall people sliding and
walking over Ribble.

Yc 31th. — A hard frost. Cousen Johnson, Bryan, and I walk't
8 miles a fowling, and mett nothing. We sup't.att Cousen
Patten's, and came late home. I was invited to Mr. Franks, but it
was after dinner.

Januar. ye ist [1688-89].

A very hard frost. A noble entertainment att Penwortham. I
receiv'd bad newes from Ireland, of great preparations by Tircon-
nell, and that T. White was afraid of possession being taken.
T. White return'd from Liverpoole, but I sent him again wth more
letters, etc.

The entertainment would, as usual, be at Penwortham Hall.

Ye 2d. — A very hard frost. I saw Mr. Sympson, of Kendall,
and treated him. We sup't att cousen Johnson's wth Mr. Rigby
and his Lady, etc.

Yc 3rd. — Much snow. I had my couscns and Mr. Sympson
and wife to supper. We were very merry, and made ye discovery
ot cous[en] Johnson's love letter-writing to 2 Ladyes. I saw R P
and O.

The initials probably refer to Rigby, Patten, and Osberston or

Ye 4th. — A frost continues. I walk't to Walton. Poast came
in late. I reproachd. Was wth ye mayor att widdow Clifton's,
eating of oysters which came from London.
Widow Clifton was probably a local innkeeper.

Jan., 1688-89.] '^"^ Bellingham Diary. 41

Ye 5th. — A hard frost. We din'd att Mr. Hodgkinsons. I
treated Cous Johnson, D. [^ R.] Langton, and Mr. Franks, att
Turlagh's. An unhappy accident fell out between M [ .'^ N —
Nabby] and me.

Ye 6th. — Frost continues. Nabby was very ill all last night, by
means of ye late accident. All is well again. We had newes that
Tirconnell had resign'd and. fled into France, and that most of the
considerable places in ye Kingdome had declar'd for ye P of O.
A stranger preach'd this afternoon.

Ye 7th. — Frost continues. R. Piggott, Johnson, and I walk't to
Penwortham, where we mett severall gentlemen, and walk't to Boat
house, and came home wth Coll.

Ye 8th. — Some haile and sleet which froze as it fell. I was wth
Mr. Mayor, who is in great perplexity about the choosing men to
goe to Convention. He this day receiv'd the circular letter.
Ld Derby recomends his brother.

The men to whom reference is made were the two who had to be elected
M.P.'s for Preston. — Convention means the Convention Parliament about
to be summoned. A circular letter was sent out by the Prince of Orange
to the various boroughs, ordering the burgesses thereof to return members
to the Convention Parliament, which was to meet on January 22nd, at
Westminster, and the communication referred to was a letter of this kind. —
Lord Derby was William George Richard Stanley, the Qth Earl, and the
brother recommended by him was the Hon. James Stanley.

Ye 9th. — A thaw. In ye evening I was wth ye Rigbye Capt
and his brother, and others, att Rigby's, very merry.

Ye roth. — A great thaw. I saw Walton copp overflowen. I
was wth ye mayor and Coll. All night Nabby was ill, but proves a
false alarm. I rode out wth cousen Johnson. Patten and Rigby
make great interest for election. Mr. Stanly is sure to be one.

Walton cop — an artificially raised bank, running along a portion of the
south-west side of the Ribblc, between the present police station and the
houses at the north end of Walton village, near the bridge, and intended to
protect the adjoining road, land, &c., from flood water.

42 The Bki.i.incmam Diary. [Jan., 1688-89.

Ye iith. — A fresh frost. Ill newes from Ireland. I was wth
one of Bellfast, att Rattliffs. I gott some Guinnyes. Monsieur
Bryan gott a soare hurt on his nose. I visited him, etc.

Yc 1 2th. — Frost in ye morning ; thaw'd in ye afternoon. This
is call'd ye great Saturday, but a very slender markett ; no goods
goe off. I was att Rigby's wth Capt W. Clifton and his brother
James and one Mr. Westby, all R, who seeme very high upon ye
ncwes of Tirconnell houlding out.

Great Saturday was the name given to an annual horse fair at Preston —
it was called Great Saturday Horse Fair. For a very long- while it lasted a
whole week — the first week after the first Sunday in the New Year ; in
January, 1879, the time of it was reduced to three days; in 1905 it was
limited to two days ; and as thus curtailed so it remains. — The two Cliftons
were William and James (brothers of Sir Thomas Clifton) ; Mr. Westby
would be a member of or connected with the Westby family, of Mowbreck
Hall, near Kirkham ; and they were evidently all Roman Catholics — " all R."

Ye 13th. — A frost and thaw. About 2 this morning Naby
[Nabby] fell into labour, and so continu'd in much paine till past
nine att night, att wch time she was deliver'd of a lusty daughter.

Ye 14th. — A trost and thaw. I was wth ye mayor and above 18
more of ye best of the town, and payd beverage for my daughter.
Rigby and Patten will not stand to theyr agreement about election.
I was desir'd to personate ye E of Derby's brother.

Yc 15. — A frost and thaw. This day was ye election of
members to serve in the Convention [Parliament]. Mr. Stanly,
whom I personated, was unanimously chosen. Ye competition
between Rigby and Patten was carried by 2 votes for Patten : he
had 208, 'tother 206. I was carry'd on mens shoulders from barrs
to barrs, and was handsomely treated till very late.

Mr. Stanley was the Hon. James Stanley. He was a Whig. Only in one
Parliament did he sit as a member for Preston. He was M.P. for
Lancashire from 1690 to 1702, when, through the death of his brother, he

Jan., 1688-89.] '^"^ Bellingham Diary. 43

succeeded to the peerage as the loth Earl of Derby. — Rigby was most likely
Edward Rigby — grandson of Edward Rigby, Serjeant-at-law, who was one
of the members for Preston from 1661 to 1681. — Patten was Thomas, a
Whig, the eldest surviving son of Alderman William Patten ; the latter
being a son of Thomas Patten, of Patten, near Warrington, who was an
ancestor of Colonel Wilson Patten (afterwards Lord Winmarleigh). — The
" barrs " were the toll bars in Preston, at the time in question three in
number, viz., one in Fishergate, near the top of Mount-street, another in
Church-street, near the end of Water-street (now Manchester-road), and the
third in Friargate, between Edward-street and Bridge-street (the latter now
merged in Marsh-lane). Many years ago these bars were done away with.

Ye 1 6th. — A great thaw, but without much raine. I was to
take leave of Mr. Patten in order to his journy to London. I sent
7 Guineas by him. I was wth W. Patten, Capt. Pigot, and others,
and came home in good time.

W. Patten was a son of Alderman William Fatten, and the diarist's
cousin. — Capt. Pigott may have been Mr. Robert Pigott (or a relative of his)
referred to in the note to the entry for Oct. gth, 1688.

Ye 17th. — A thaw. This afternoon abigail was baptised in the
Church. Cousen W. Patten godfather, and Cousens Johnson and
Betty Bickerton godmothers. I had ye mayor and some of ye best
of ye town. 1 was att night wth Capt Longworth and some other
Justices who kept sessions here this day and receiv'd certificates of
all dputy Lewts and magistrates of this side of ye country.

Abigail was the diarist's daughter (named after his wife), born on the

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