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CHAPTER XV. Saint Margaret's descent, according to Baldred
the abbot, according to William the historian, and according
to Bishop Turgot ; on the authority of these three and a
great many historians that illustrious lineal succession is
brought down from the kingdom of the Angles to the lawful
heirs of Saint Margaret, ...... 4

CHAPTER XVI. Alfred, son of Ethelwlf, .... 6

CHAPTER XVII. His brother Ethelred succeeds him, . . 6
CHAPTER XVIII. Malcolm, King of Scots, and Henry of

England, 7

CHAPTER XIX. King Malcolm, ..... 9
CHAPTER XX. Malcolm conquers the petty king of Argadia, 1
CHAPTER XXI. Death of Malcolm King of Scotland, . .11
CHAPTER XXII. King William, brother of the said King

Malcolm, 13

CHAPTER XXIII. King William sets out for Gaul against the
wish of his countrymen, . . . . . .14

CHAPTER XXIV. Henry, the father, out of hatred for Saint
Thomas, has his son Henry crowned, . . . .15

CHAPTER XXV. War between the father and son, [Kings] of

England, .16

CHAPTER XXVI. Capture of William King of Scotland, . 17



CHAPTER XXVII. Reconciliation of the Father and Son, Kings

of the English, .18

CHAPTER XXVIII. Liberation of King William, . . .19
CHAPTER XXIX. Rebellion of Galloway and fickleness of the

men thereof, . . . . . . . . .20

CHAPTER XXX. The noble cleric Gilbert the Scot, . .21

CHAPTER XXXI. Certain incidents connected with this matter, 24
CHAPTER XXXII. - Restoration of the Earldom of Huntingdon

to King William of Scotland, ...... 25

CHAPTER XXXIII. Flight and Death of Henry Fitz-Empress

King Richard, . . . . . . .26

CHAPTER XXXIV., . .... 27

CHAPTER XXXV. The harmony, peace, and happy tranquillity

between William King of Scotland and Richard, of England, . 29
CHAPTER XXXVI. The King of England does homage to the

King of France, . . . . . " . . 29

CHAPTER XXXVIII. Peace between the Kings of France and

England, . .30

CHAPTER XXXIX. Quarrel between the Kings of England and

France, . . . . . . . ' . .31

CHAPTER XL. Fickleness and faithlessness of the English, . 32
CHAPTER XLI. Terms of the Treaty of Peace, . . .33
CHAPTER XLII. Agreement entered into over and above, . 35
CHAPTER XLIII.- -Peace between the Kings and Kingdoms estab-
lished and sworn again for the third time at Norham, . .36
CHAPTER XLIV. King William's Death, . . . .38

CHAPTER XLV. Copy of Apostolic Bull sent to King William

on the Privileges of the Church of Scotland, . . . 39
CHAPTER XL VI. Like Privilege granted to King William, . 40


CHAPTER I. King Alexander, son of the aforesaid King William, 42
CHAPTER IV. David of Huntingdon and his death But first
certain acts of King Alexander against the King of England, . 43



CHAPTER V. David, Earl of Huntingdon, . . . .44
CHAPTER VI. The Dauphin Louis, the eldest son of the King of

France, comes to England, 45

CHAPTER VTI. Return of Louis son of the King of France, . 4G
CHAPTER VIII. Interdict and Excommunication of the Kingdom

of Scotland, 47

CHAPTER IX. King Alexander's nuptials, . . . .49
CHAPTER X. Death of Philip king of the French, . . .50
CHAPTER XI. Mutual love between the kings of Scotland and

England after the marriage contracted with the sister of the

latter, . . . . . . . . . .52

CHAPTER XII. Certain events ; and death of Alexander IL, . 53
CHAPTER XIII. Tenor of the Charter of Privileges at the

instance of Maud the Good Queen of England, daughter of the

Sainted Queen Margaret, . .. , . . . .54
CHAPTER XIIII. Beginning of Alexander in. king of Scots, . 54
CHAPTER XV. Removal of the ashes of the body of the most

blessed Queen Margaret, . . ... . . .56

CHAPTER XVI. Marriage of King Alexander to the daughter of

Henry in. king of England, 57

CHAPTER XVII. The new king's counsellors suspected, . . 58
CHAPTER XVIII. What manner of men a king's counsellors

should be, ......... 60

CHAPTER XIX. On what days the king ought to wear the

crown, etc., ......... 62

CHAPTER XX. Good characteristics and points in a king, . 64
CHAPTER XXI. The counsellors of King Alexander, a youth of

nine, are changed by the advice of the king of England, . 65
CHAPTER XXII. King Alexander is seized by his own liegemen, 66
CHAPTER XXIII. Battle of Largs, and victory through Saint

Margaret, '. . . 67

CHAPTER XXIIII. Miracle by the blessed Margaret, *. . 70
CHAPTER XXV. The petty king of Man does homage to the

king of Scotland, . . - I . . . . .72



CHAPTER XXVI. Treaty between the kings of Scotland and
Norway about the islands of Scotland Battle fought by the
king of England against Simon de Montfort, . . .73

CHAPTER XXVII. Escape of Prince Edward, who was kept in
close custody Battle fought, . . . . . .74

CHAPTEB XXVIII. Certain facts connected with the welfare
and the history of the realm, . . . . . .70

CHAPTER XXIX. Council of Lyons Birth of Sir Robert de
Bruss king of Scotland, . . . . . . .77

CHAPTER XXX. Breach between the kings of England and Scot-
land Alexander iv., son of the king of Scotland, . . .78

CHAPTER XXXI. Cruelty of Edward king of England towards
the Welsh Wailing and mourning of the inhabitants of Scot-
land for the death of the king's firstborn, and of the queen of
Norway and her daughter, who were the heirs-apparent of the
kingdom of Scotland, . ... . . .79

CHAPTER XXXII. This tyrant Edward hinders the expedition
or passage to the Holy Land, by reason of his ravenous greed
Death of the most noble King Alexander in., . . .80

CHAPTER XXXIII. Good character and government of this king, 8 1

CHAPTER XXXIV. Lament for the king Prophecy of the seer
Thomas the Rhymer, . . . . . . .82

CHAPTER I. Election of six wardens to the government of the

kingdom after the death of the most noble prince Alexander in., 84
CHAPTER II. Statement of the right of these parties The king

of England chosen supreme judge through confidence in his

good faith, . . * *. . .85
CHAPTER III. King Edward treacherously has the nobles of

Scotland summoned to the Council in order to deceive them, . 87
CHAPTER IV., . . . . . . . . .89

CHAPTER V. Decision of the Parisian doctors learned in the law,

on the discussion of the rights of the said litigants, . . 89



CHAPTER VI. The same continued ; the king of England mis-
states the case, 90

CHAPTER VII. The same continued View taken by others, . 92
CHAPTER VIII. The same continued Their opinions, . .93
CHAPTER IX. The same continued Decision in favour of King

Robert, 95

CHAPTER X. The same continued, . . . . .97
CHAPTER XI. His subtlety and devices, . . . .98
CHAPTER XII. Their arguments at the council of the king of

England in favour of the vassalage of the throne of Scotland, . 100
CHAPTER XIII. Brief statement of the genealogy of the kings

of Scotland, beginning from Saint Margaret down to the

daughter of the king of Norway, . . . . .101
CHAPTER XIV. The same continued, ... . .102
CHAPTER XV. The second daughter of David of Huntingdon, . 103
CHAPTER XVI. Saint Margaret's two daughters, . . .104
CHAPTER XVII. Balliol and his most'wretched government, . 105
CHAPTER XVIII. Certain incidents, . . , . .106
CHAPTER XIX. Terms of the alliance between the kings of

France and Scotland, . . . . . . .108

CHAPTER XX. The treaty continued Terms of the principal

clause, as inserted in the royal letter, . . . .109

CHAPTER XXI. King John withdraws the homage foolishly

done by him to the king of England, contrary to the privileges

of the crown, * . . . . . . .111

CHAPTER XXII. The whole of the beneficed English ousted from

the kingdom of Scotland by Fresale bishop of Saint Andrews, 112
CHAPTER XXIII. Robert Bruce and Balliol Their partisans

Disunion in the country, . . . . . . .114

CHAPTER XXIV. The castles of Scotland taken by King Edward

John Balliol taken, . . . . . . .114

CHAPTER XXV. The magnates and the Estates of Scotland are'

forced likewise to do homage to the king of England, . . 1 1 G
CHAPTER XXVI. William Wallace, . . . . .117



CHAPTER XXVII. He destroys Northumberland Other events, 118
CHAPTER XXVIIL Battle of Varia Capella or Falkirk, . .121
CHAPTER XXIX. Truce granted by Edward king of England to

the kingdom of Scotland at the instance of the king of France, 122
CHAPTER XXX. Copy of the papal bull, . . . .123

CHAPTER XXXI. Copy of the pope's letter sent to the king of
England, . . . ' . . . . . .124

CHAPTER XXXII. The same continued, . . . .127

CHAPTER XXXIII. Answer of the barons of England, contain-
ing a great falsehood and froward disobedience, . . .129
CHAPTER XXXIV. Answer of the king of England to the papal

bull, . . 130

CHAPTER XXXV. These allegations continued, . . .132
CHAPTER XXXVI. Same continued, . . . . .133
CHAPTER XXXVII. Same continued, . . . . .135
CHAPTER XXXVIII. The same continued Copies of divers
letters sent to our lord Boniface viu. by the said King
Edward, to palliate his proceedings against the Scots, . .137
CHAPTER XXXIX. Copy of another letter, of Honorius in.,
sent by the king of England to Boniface vin., against the king

of Scotland, 139

CHAPTER XL. Copy of another forged letter, . . . 139

CHAPTER XLI. How the Scots met the inventions of the tyrant

Edward king of the English, 140

CHAPTER XLIL Instructions sent to the Court of Home by the
prelates and barons of the kingdom of Scotland against Edward
king of England, . . . . . . . 141

CHAPTER XLIII. Same continued, . . . . .143

CHAPTER XLI V. Same continued, . . . . .144

CHAPTER XLV. Same continued, - . . . .147

CHAPTER XLVI. Same continued, . . . . .149
CHAPTER XLVII. Same continued, . . . . .151

CHAPTER XL VIII. Same continued, . . . . .152

CHAPTER XLIX. Rescripts of Pope Gregory, and answers, . 154



CHAPTER L. Same continued, . . . . . .155

CHAPTER LI. Same continued, 156

CHAPTER LII. Same continued, . . . . . .159

CHAPTER LIII. Same continued, . . . . . .161

CHAPTER LIV. Copy of a letter of wailing and complaint made
by the barons and lords of Scotland to the Roman pontiff, first
setting forth and showing the antiquity of the noble Scottish
nation, and their first origin; secondly, concerning their de-
parture from Egypt and Greece, and the settlements they made
in course of time while journeying towards Scotland, and the
many and countless troubles and misfortunes they passed
through ; and, thirdly, concerning the extraordinary, tyrannous
and cruel troubles, assaults and lawless ravages inflicted upon
the kingdom of Scotland by the present King Edward of
England, . . ... . ., . . .163

CHAPTER LV. to CHAPTER LXII. Case laid before the supreme
pontiff, . * 166


CHAPTER L Engagement at Roslyn, . . . . .168
CHAPTER II. The king of England scours the country and brings

the people (communitas) of Scotland under his dominion, . 169
CHAPTER III. The king besieges Stirling Castle Robert Bruce, 171
CHAPTER IV. League between Robert Bruce and John Cumyn

Accusation of Bruce, . . * > . . .172

CHAPTER V. Accusation and escape of Robert Bruce, . .174
CHAPTER VI. John Cumyn killed, . . . . .175

CHAPTER VII. Coronation of Robert Bruce, . . . .176

CHAPTER VEIL Battle of Methven, . . . . .177

CHAPTER IX. Rout at Slenach, . . . . . .179

CHAPTER X. Edward of Carnarvon, . . . . .180

CHAPTER XI. Successes of King Robert, . . . .182

CHAPTER XII. Glorious victory gained at Bannockburn, on Saint

John the Baptist's Day, by God's grace alone, . . .183



CHAPTER XIII. Hereditary entail aiid succession to the throne

made by consent of the Three Estates, . . . .184
CHAPTER XIV. Edward Bruce elected king of Ireland, . .186
CHAPTER XIX. Taking of the town of Berwick by Thomas

Randolph, . 187

CHAPTER XX. The Black Parliament of Scotland, . . .188
CHAPTER XXI The king of Scotland goes across to England, . 189

CHAPTER XXII. King David Bruce, 190

CHAPTER XXIII. Death of King Robert Bruce, . . .192
CHAPTER XXIV. Copy of an entail formerly drawn up touching

the hereditary right to the throne of Scotland, . . .193
CHAPTER XXV. The Earl of Murray is elected guardian Other

events at this time, . . . . . . . .195

CHAPTER XXVI. James Douglas carries the king's heart to the

Holy Land, . . ...... . .190

CHAPTER XXVII. Edward Balliol, . . . ... 197

CHAPTER XXVIII. King David Bruce goes over to France, . 200
CHAPTER XXIX. Letter sent by the lord pope to the kings of

France and of England for peace, ..... 203
CHAPTER XXX. Siege of Lochleven Castle, .... 205
CHAPTER XXXI. Same continued, ..... 206
CHAPTER XXXII. His successes, and other events, . . 208

CHAPTER XXXIII. Same continued, . , . . .210

CHAPTER XXXIV. Kilblein, 212

CHAPTER XXXV. Recovery of the castles by sir Andrew Murray, 214
CHAPTER XXXVI. Same continued Black Annes, countess of

the Marches, . . . . * . . . . .216
CHAPTER XXXVII. Death of the most valiant and most noble

Andrew Murray, the guardian, . . . . . .218

CHAPTER XXXVIII. Siege of Stirling, . . . .219

CHAPTER XXXIX. King David's return from France His acts

in the beginning of his rule, . . . ' . . . 221
CHAPTER XL. Cressy Battle of Durham in Scotland. . . 222
CHAPTER XLI. William Douglas slain, .... 226



CHAPTER XLII. The king of England arrives in Scotland after
the taking of Berwick The Balliols resign to the king of
England their pretended right, ...... 227

CHAPTER XLIII. Battle of Poitiers, 229

CHAPTER XLIV. King David ransomed, .... 230
CHAPTER XLV. Return of the king of England into France, . 231
CHAPTER XLVI. King David, on being instructed to do so,
urges upon the three estates that Lionel, son of the king of
England, should succeed him on the throne of Scotland, . 232


CHAPTER I. Coronation of Robert Stewart, . . . .235
CHAPTER II. Base flight of Henry Percy earl of Northumber-
land, ' . . 237

CHAPTER III. Ambassadors of the king of France sent into
Scotland, .... V" : . . . .239

CHAPTER IV. Same continued, . .. . . . .241

CHAPTER V. An English peasant attacks and slays nobles and
magnates, ......... 243

CHAPTER VI. Arrival of Henry duke of Lancaster, uncle of the

king of England, 244

CHAPTER VII. Arrival of the French into Scotland in aid of the
Scots against the English, . . . . . .246

CHAPTER VIII. Acts of Robert Stewart earl of Fife, . . 247
CHAPTER IX. Battle of Otterburn, . . . . .248

CHAPTER X. King Robert of Scotland, being of great age,
appoints his younger son, Robert duke of Albany, governor

of Scotland, . 251

CHAPTER XI. Coronation of King Robert in. and Queen

Anabella, 252

CHAPTER XIV. Coronation of King Henry iv., . . . 255
CHAPTER XV. Marriage of the duke of Rothesay, . v . 255
CHAPTER XVI. Death of Black Archibald Douglas, . .256
CHAPTER XVII Betrayal and death of the duke of Rothesay, . 257



CHAPTER XVIIL Fight of Nisbet, 259

CHAPTER XIX. Siege of Cocklaw Castle, . . . .260

CHAPTER XX. Battle of Shrewsbury, 261

CHAPTER XXI. Death of King Robert in. and capture of his

eldest son King James i., ...... 261

CHAPTER XXII. Certain events at this time, . . .263

CHAPTER XXIII. Outbreak of war between England and the

kingdom of Scotland, through Henry v. king of England, . 264
CHAPTER XXV. The earl of Buchan crosses into France, having

been sent by the governor to the assistance of the French, . 265
CHAPTER XXVI. Events leading up to the above-mentioned

battle of Baugd, . . . ... . .266

CHAPTER XXVII. Madness of King Henry v., and beginning

of his mortal pain, ........ 268

CHAPTER XXVIIL Battle of Verneuil, . .. . .270

CHAPTER XXIX. Description of the battle, . . . .271

CHAPTER XXX. Same continued, . . . .273

CHAPTER XXXI. Same continued, . . . . .275

CHAPTER XXXII. Account of the wonderful girl who was sent

by God's providence to succour France Her exploits, . .277


CHAPTER I. King James i., . . . . . .278

CHAPTER II. Arrest of lords for the crime of high treason, . 279
CHAPTER III. Execution of the duke of Albany and his sons, . 280
CHAPTER IV. Consummation of the marriage between the

Dauphin and Margaret, 282

CHAPTER V. Issue of the king and queen, .... 284
CHAPTER VI. The English craftily wish to break the league

between France and Scotland, . . . . . .285

CHAPTER VII. How King James i. besieged Roxburgh Castle, . 287
CHAPTER IX. Death of King James i. Measureless grief of all

Christendom thereat, . . . . .,,... . . 288
CHAPTER X. Fearful penalty exacted for the king's death, . 290




Notes to Book vi., 293

Notes to Book vn., 295

Notes to Book vin., ....... 297

Notes to Book ix., . . . . . . . 301

Notes to Book x., . 303

Notes to Book XL, . . . . . . 304

INDEX, ... .307


THE fifteenth century dawned in Trance upon a scene of
the most deplorable anarchy and wretchedness. The hundred
years' war with England was fast drawing to its climax of
disaster for France. The spirit of patriotism which such a war
might have aroused had been crushed by the misrule of a line
of incapable kings. The people, ground down by the constant
exactions of the crown, and driven to desperation by the tyranny
of the nobles, had repeatedly risen in revolts characterised by
the most brutal atrocities, and these again had been suppressed
with relentless cruelty. During the brief intervals of truce
companies of disbanded soldiers scoured the country, commit-
ting the most frightful crimes, and living upon the plunder of
the defenceless peasantry. To crown all, the madness of King
Charles vi. led to a struggle for the reins of government between
the parties of Burgundy and Armagnac, which plunged the
country into the horrors of a civil war stained with mutual
treachery and assassination.

The capture of Rouen by the English after a stubborn
resistance seemed for a moment to rouse what national spirit
remained in France. The rival factions consented to forego
their differences and make common cause against the foreign
invader. But the treacherous murder of the duke of Burgundy
at Montereau by the Armagnacs soon put an end to all hopes
of such a result, and threw the Burgundian party openly
into the arms of England. The only hope for France now lay
in the Dauphin Charles, who had cast in his lot with the
Armagnacs. The resources at his command within the country


were miserably inadequate to the task of making head against
the formidable alliance of the English and Burgundians, who,
between them, were in possession of a great part of France ;
and his proscription for the murder of the duke of Burgundy
deprived him of much of the support he might have counted
upon from the remainder, impoverished and exhausted though it
was. In his extremity, despairing of help at home, he sought
it abroad. The attachment of Valentine de Milan, duchess of
Orleans, to his cause, procured him a contingent of Lombards,
and the long-continued friendship between France and Scot-
land, combined with their common hostility towards England,
led him, as the champion of France, to hope for help from the
Scots. Accordingly, in 1420/416 sent the comte de Vendonie
on an embassy to Scotland, to beg assistance in terms of the
ancient league. 2

The Dauphin could not have chosen a more fitting time
for his request. For some years the duke of Albany, at
the head of affairs in Scotland, had pursued a policy of peace
and friendship with England. The English king, fully
occupied with his war with France, was anxious to secure the
neutrality of Scotland; and in King James I. and Murdach
Stewart, Albany's son, who had been taken prisoner at
Homildon, he held a twofold pledge of peace; for Albany,
equally afraid of the king of England putting an end to his
regency by releasing James I., and desirous of obtaining
his own son's freedom, had a double reason for wishing
to conciliate him. Thus, during a long interval of peace,
a generation of young Scotsmen had grown up, tired with the
traditions of their fathers' warlike deeds, yet lacking an oppor-

1 Bower places this embassy in 1419.

2 George Buchanan's History qf Scotland. Juvenal des Ursins (Nouvette
Collection des M&moires pour servir d th'tstoire de France, etc., by M. M.
Michaud et Poujoulat, Paris, 1836, vol. ii. p. 546) states that Sir William
Douglas and one whom he calls " messire Thomas Quelsatry " came to France
in 1418 to serve the Dauphin.


tunity of emulating them. The opportunity now offered itself.
Albany, since his son's release four years before, was more
inclined to break with England. In case of war, Henry would
see the advantage of keeping James in his power, and thus
Albany's authority was secured. Moreover, he was glad to
give employment to the restless spirits around him ; and, by
shifting the battle-ground to France, he would avert the horrors
of war from his own country. France indeed had long been
the favourite resort of soldiers of fortune, and the free com-
panies had made it the acknowledged field of those who sought
gain or distinction by the sword. A body of 7000 1 men was
therefore readily voted by the Scottish Estates, and sent to
France under the command of John earl of Buchan, Albany's
second son, accompanied by Archibald Douglas, earl of Wig-
town, eldest son of the earl of Douglas, Sir Thomas Seton
and Sir John Stewart of Darnley. Their headquarters were
fixed at Chatillon, and they soon gained many successes over
the English.

The first serious encounter, however, was at Bauge*, in Anjou,
in the year 1421. The duke of Clarence, left in command of the
English forces during Henry's temporary absence in England,
proposed to lay siege to the castle of Bauge with 10,000 men.
Thereupon Buchan, with 7000 Scots and Frenchmen, marched
to Le Lude, four miles off, to give him battle. As, however,
it was Good Friday, they agreed to put off fighting until
after Easter, and fixed upon a time and place for the battle. 2
Notwithstanding this, Clarence attempted to surprise the Scots
during the truce, but was gallantly repulsed and killed. The
description of the battle given in the Book of Pluscarden agrees
in the main with the other accounts 3 of it. Our Chronicle, how-
ever, is the only authority for a statement concerning the death

1 Our author says 10,000. 2 Juvenal des Ursine, p. 564.

3 Ibid., Bower, Monstrelet, Berry's Jfistory of Charles VII. (Alain
Chartier), George Buchanan.


of the duke of Clarence, who, according to Bower, followed by
Buchanan, was wounded in the face by Sir William Swinton's
lance, and despatched by the earl of Buchan with a mace. The
Book of Pluscarden gives the following account : " The com-
mon report was that a highland Scot named Alexander
Makcaustelayn (Macausland), a native of Lennox, of the house-
hold of the lord of Buchan (Buchanan), killed the said duke
of Clarence ; for, in token thereof, the aforesaid Macausland
brought with him to camp a golden coronet of the finest gold and
adorned with precious stones, which was found on his helmet
upon his head in the field ; and he sold it for a thousand nobles
to the lord Darnley, who afterwards left that coronet to Eobert
Houston in pledge for five thousand nobles he owed him." l

Buchanan of Auchmar 2 states that the Macausland referred
to here was Sir Alexander Buchanan, eldest son of John, son
of Sir Walter, eleventh laird of Buchanan ; and he adduces as
evidence the fact that after the battle of Baugd there was
added to the arms of Buchanan " a second tressure round the
field, flowered and counterflowered, with flower-de-luces of the
second, and in a crest a hand coupee holding a duke's coronet,
with two laurel branches wreathed round the same; which
addition was retained by the family of Buchanan in all time
thereafter." 3

1 See page 268 of this volume. This is the passage quoted by George
Buchanan, which identifies our Chronicle as the Book of Pluscarden.

Online LibraryThomas Frognall DibdinThe historians of Scotland (Volume 10) → online text (page 1 of 38)