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779



v.9



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Southern Branch
of the

University of California

Los Angeles



Form



This book is DUE on the last date stamped below



Form L-9-15iH-10.'25



THE

HISTORIANS OF SCOTLAND.

VOL. IX.



EDINBURGH : T. AND A. CONSTABLE,
PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN AND TO THE UNIVERSITY.



THE



HISTOEIANS OF SCOTLAND



VOL. IX.



of




VOL. III.



EDINBUKGH
WILLIAM PATEESON

1879.

73031





Cronpftii



BY ANDROW OF WYNTOUN.

EDITED BY

DAVID LAING.



IN THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. III.



EDINBURGH

WILLIAM PATERSON

1879.



v.\
TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

PREFACE, . . . . . . . . . ix

APPENDIX :-

1. ACCOUNT OF WYNTOWN AND HIS CHRONICLE, . xi

2. DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING MANUSCRIPTS, WITH

FACSIMILES, xvii

3. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF MACPHERSON, . . xxxvii
THE CHRONICLE:

NYNTH AND LAST BOOK, . .... . . 1

VARIOUS READINGS GIVEN BY MACPHERSON, WITH

ADDITIONAL VARIOUS READINGS FROM OTHER MSS., 119

NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE CHRONICLE,
BY MACPHERSON, DR. LAING, AND BISHOP FORBES, 137

BREVIS CRONICA (SHORT CHRONICLE IN PROSE), . 321
GLOSSARY BY MACPHERSON, REVISED, . . 350
INDEX OF NAMES, ETC., . 393



PREFACE.

IN the Introductory Notice prefixed to Volume
First, I explained the plan adopted in editing the
work. This Third Volume brings it to a close. The
Ninth and last Book of the Chronicle is followed by
Notes and Illustrations to the several volumes, con-
sisting of Various Readings published in the former
edition by Macpherson, along with his Notes, Glossary,
and Index, but the whole revised and considerably
enlarged where it seemed requisite.

As an Appendix to the Preface, I have now, as
proposed, to subjoin two distinct articles. The one
is an Account of the Author and his Work ; the
other, a Description of the various Manuscripts of the
Chronicle that have been discovered and made use of
in preparing this edition.

In regard to the personal history of the Prior of St.
Serifs Inch, Lochleven, I regret that after long and
diligent research so little information can be obtained.

I have been more fortunate as to the early Manuscripts
VOL. in. b



x PEEFACE.

of his Chronicle, as it will be seen that several of these
were unknown to Macpherson. I have likewise added
a short Biographical Sketch of his own life, as an act
of justice to his memory, his learned and valuable
labours having hitherto been entirely overlooked in
Scottish Biography.

The pleasing duty now remains for me to express
my sense of obligation for the advantage and conveni-
ence afforded in the use of the Manuscripts that are
described. Those in the British Museum required
to be examined on the spot, but every facility was
afforded for doing so by my old friend Sir Frederic
Madden, and his successor, as Keeper of the Manu-
script Department, Edward A. Bond, Esq. ; to the
Curators of the Library of the Faculty of Advocates ;
to Principal Shairp and the Curators of the University
Library, St. Andrews ; to Mrs. Erskine Wemyss of
Wemyss Castle ; to the Honourable R. W. Talbot ;
and to the late Ear^l of Dalhousie.

DAVID LAING.

EDINBURGH, 1876.



[xi J



APPENDIX I.



NOTICE OF THE AUTHOE AND HIS WORK.

THE information to be gleaned respecting the Author of the
Original Chronicle is restricted to a few facts which he himself
chiefly has recorded. His birth may be placed soon after the
middle of the fourteenth century; and he tells us he was
baptized by the name of Andro of Wyntoun :

" And for I wyll nane here the blame
Off my defawte, this is my name
Be baptysyne, Androwe of Wyntowne." 1

His ecclesiastical position, and his connection with St.
Andrews and the Priory of Lochleven, are thus referred to :

" Off Sanctandrowys a Chanone
Regulare, bot noucht for-thi
Off thaini all the lest worthy :
Bot off thare grace and thaire fawoure
I wes, but meryt, made Priowre
Off the Ynche within Lochlewyne,
Ha wand tharof my tytill ewyne
Off Sanctandrowys dyocesy,
Betwene the Lomownde and Bennarty." 2

The exact period during which he held the office of Prior
has not been ascertained, but from sources referred to in
Macpherson's Preface, it appears that from 1395 to 1413 he
publicly acted in that capacity. 3 With the leisure and retire-

1 Book I. Prol. 1. 83-85. 2 Ibid. 1. 86-94.

3 Vol. i. Preface and Notes, pp. xxxiii, xxxiv.



xii APPENDIX I.

ment which his position afforded, it is probable that the
writing of the " Cronykil " would not occupy him any great
length of time ; and that the work was carried on with con-
siderable diligence and application seems to be indicated in
these lines :

" Memento dierum, that leve yow nocht,
Antiquvrum, hot drawe to thoucht

like generatyowne,

* * ' * * *

The sentence off this autorite
Suld move men to besy be,
Thare statis to kene Orygynalle

And thame to treyte Memoryalle,
*****

The dayis sulde be set for tenne
A certane purpos for tyll afferme :
Swa stablyst have I my delyte
Consequenter now to dyt
Wyth delytabyll incydens,
And in plesand conveniens," etc. 1

The latter part of the work at least was written when the
Author was beginning to feel the infirmities of old age. This
is quaintly expressed in the Prologue to the Ninth Book :

" For, as I stabil myne intent,
Offt I fynd impediment,
Wyth sudane and fers maladis,
That me cumbris mony wis ;
And elde me mastreis wyth hir brevis,
like day me sare aggrevis.
Scho has me maid monitioune
To se for a conclusioune,
The quhilk behovis to be of det.
Quhat tenne of tyme of that be set,.
I can wyt it be na way ;
Bot, weil I wate, on schorte delay
At a court I mon appeire
Fell accusationis thare til here,
Quhare na help thare is, bot grace." 2

1 Book III. Prol. 1. 7-28. 2 Book IX. Prol. 1. 33-47.



APPENDIX I. xiii

The last lines of Book IX. obviously afford ground for the
conclusion that the work was finished subsequent to the death
of Eobert Duke of Albany, and before the return of James the
First from his captivity in England, or between 3d September
1420 and April 1424.

In reference to the title of his work, Wyntoun explains that
it is called " Orygynale," not, as might now be supposed, because
it was his own composition, but from the circumstance that it
treats of history from the beginning, or, as he reckons it, from
the creation of angels :

" The tytill of this Tretis hale,
I wyll be caulde Orygynale :
For that begynnyng sail mak clere
Be playne proces owre matere.
As of Angelis, and of Man
Fyrst to rys the kynde began." 1

From the apparent variations in the MSS. it has been con-
cluded that the Author made a complete revisal and enlarge-
ment of his Cronykil, so as to be reckoned first and second
editions. His first intention evidently was to limit the work
to Seven Books, 2 but afterwards changed to Nine Books.
While some copies are so divided, in others the chapters are
numbered consecutively from beginning to end, and not accord-
ing to separate Books.

Though "Wyntoun in the course of time, while compiling his
Chronicle, made frequent corrections and additions, these were
not to such an extent as materially to alter the work itself.
The most important alterations (as already noticed in the
Preface) occur in Chapters vm. and xix. of Book IV. in refer-
ence to the first advent and the succession of the Pictish kings.
The MSS. containing the corrected text are reckoned to be
the last revised and completed text.

1 Book I. Prol. 1. 95-100. 2 Vide voL ii. p. 369, ch. xix.



xiv APPENDIX I.

The sources from which Wyntoun derived his information
are repeatedly referred to throughout the work ; but he com-
plains of the scarcity of historical writings within his reach :

" For few wrytys I redy fande,
That I couth drawe to my warande :
Part off the Bybyll, with that that Perys
Comestor ekyde in hys yherys ;
Orosius, and Frere Martyne,
"Wyth Ynglis and Scottis storys syne." l

As already mentioned in the Preface, pp. xxxiv, xxxv, a
considerable portion of the Cronykil was written by another
author, of whose name Wyntoun confesses he was ignorant :

" Tyll hys purpos accordand
Before hym wryttyn he redy fand,
That in the Kyng Dawys days ware dwne
The Brws, and Eobertis, his systyr swne.
Quha that dyde, he wyst rycht noucht ;
Bot that till hym on cas wes browcht." 2

The assistance thus afforded him he gratefully acknowledges,
and modestly ascribes a higher degree of genius to the author
than he considered himself to possess :

" This part last tretyd beforne,
*****

Wyt yhe welle, wes noucht my dyte ;
Tharoff I dare me welle acqwyte.
Qwha that it dytyd, nevyrtheles,
He schawyd hym off mare cunnandnes
Than me, commendis this tretis,
But fawoure, quha will it clerly prys.
This part wes wryttyn to me send :
And I that thoucht for to mak end
Off that purpos, I tuk on hand,
Saw it wes welle accordand
To my matere, I was rycht glade ;
For I wes in my trawale sade,

1 Book I. Prol. 1. 115-120. 2 Book VIII. 1. 2955-2960.



APPENDIX I. xv

I ekyd it here to this dyte,
For to mak me sum respyte." 1

This contributed portion of the Cronykil extends from
Chapter xix. of Book VIII. to Chapter x. of Book IX., or
about 1 80 pages of the present edition.

In regard to the general character and style of the Cronykil,
it does not seem necessary to add any further critical observa-
tions to those of Mr. Macpherson in his preface, more espe-
cially as every reader has now the opportunity of judging for
himself. A good deal has been said of the simple credulity of
Wyntoun in relating so much that is purely fabulous, as, for
instance, the stories about St. Serf, the patron saint of the
Priory ; but he is by no means singular in this, for previous
writers had recorded these fables, or they were handed down
by tradition, and as an ecclesiastic, if not as a historian, he
could scarcely venture to ignore them ; but no wonder need be
felt at the credulity of the honest chronicler, when even now
the same or similar fables are devoutly credited by persons of
undoubted learning. In all that relates to sober history, how-
ever, it is generally admitted that the Cronykil is a work of
great value, as a trustworthy record of not a few facts, of which
no information could be obtained from any other source now
known to exist. That Wyntoun did not write down everything
he heard or read, without discrimination, appears from his own
account of the principles which ruled his selection of matters :

" Yet I wyll noucht wryt wp all,
That I hawe sene in my tyme fall,
Part, that is noucht worth to wryte ;
Part, that can mak na delyte ;
Part, that can na proffyt bryng ;
Part, hot falshed or hethyng ;
Qwhat is he, off ony wyte,
That wald drawe sic in this wryte 1

1 Book IX. 1. 1153-1172.



xvi APPENDIX I.

In Iawt6 is full my purpos
Off this Tretis the sowme to clos.
Noucht all yhit that is fals, and lele ;
Noucht all to wryte, yhit na consele." 1

The Priory "of the Inche within Lochlewyne," in which
Wyntoun spent so great a part of his life, is described by
Spottiswoode as a house belonging originally to the Culdees,
in whose place the Canons-Kegular were introduced by the
Bishop of St. Andrews. It was founded in A.D. 842 by
Brudeus, the last of the Pictish kings, in honour of Saint Serf,
or Servanus, who is reported to have travelled from Palestine
to Inchkeith, and got Merkinglass and Culross for his posses-
sion. The Priory was granted by King David I. to the See of
St. Andrews. 2 According to the Register of the Priory of St.
Andrews, this transfer was made by the Culdees and Eonan
the Abbot, to Fothadh, son of Bren, Bishop of St. Andrews, on
condition that he would provide them with food and raiment. 3
This Fothadh is said to have died in the year 9 6 1. 4

Various distinguished personages granted lauds to the Priory
of Lochleven, as recorded in the Register above referred to.
Among these may be mentioned King Macbeth and his wife
Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe, who, between 1037 and 1054, gave
to the monks of the Priory, by charter, the village of Bogie,
on the south bank of the Leven, in the parish of Markinch.
Edgar, son of Malcolm King of Scots, gave them Portmoak ;
and Malcolm and his queen, Margaret, gave them the village of
Balchristie, in the parish of Newburgh, Fife. 5

The island in Lochleven, Kinross-shire, on which the Priory
was built, is about eighty acres in extent, and is used as pasture
ground. Some ruins of the Priory buildings, especially of the

1 Book IX. 1. 1177-1188. * Reeve's 8. Adamnan's Life of

2 Spottiswoode, as quoted in Gor- S. Columba, p. 394.
don's Afonasticon, vol. i. p. 90. 5 Beg. Prior. S. Andreas.

* Reg. Prior. S. Andrece, p. 113.



APPENDIX II. xvii

chapel, still remain. The parish of Portmoak, in which the
Priory was situated, is said to have been the birthplace of
Andrew Wyntoun, and, in recent times, of Michael Bruce the
poet. There was also a priory of Portmoak, with a history
somewhat similar to that of Lochleven.



APPENDIX II.

NOTICES OF THE VARIOUS KNOWN MANUSCRIPTS
OF THE CRONYKIL.

THE manuscripts, I imagine, may be referred to two classes,
the original and the amended forms. In the first the Cronykil
was divided into seven books, and the chapters run consecutively
from Chapter I. to Chapter CXCV. Such are the MSS. Wemyss
and Second Edinburgh. In the second class the Cronykil was
divided into Nine Books, and the chapters of each book numbered
separately. Of these are the Royal, St. Andrews, First Edin-
burgh, and Cotton MSS. Perhaps there might be a third class,
in which the later additions, contained chiefly in Book IX.,
may have been substituted and added to the older text. The
Lansdowne and Harleian MSS. are abridged.

I. THE ROYAL MANUSCRIPT.

The volume so called is preserved in the British Museum
among the King's Manuscripts, presented to the nation by King
George the Second in 1757, and is marked 17. D. xx. It is
already described in the Preface, vol. i. pp. xli-xliv. It is
mentioned by Innes, who was the first to examine it, with his
usual accuracy of research. He considered this MS. of the



xviii APPENDIX II.

Cronykil as greatly superior to all others, and as presenting the
author's improvements in a revised text. He conjectured that
it was written early in the fifteenth century, the date 1430
being usually assigned. 1 Macpherson, in adopting this opinion,
says that it appears to have been transcribed for George Barclay
of Achrody. According to other manuscript notes in the volume,
it appears that this George was brother-german to Sir Patrick
Barclay of Tollie, described as " chief " of the Barclays in
Scotland. If we knew more of the history of this family, the
date of the writing might be perhaps exactly ascertained. On
a careful examination, the date assigned by Innes seems rather
early, and about 1460 or 1470 may be more correct. In the
Catalogue of the MSS. of the King's Library, by David Casley,
London 1734, p. 270, it is thus described: 17. D. xx. I.
" Andrew of Wyntoune, Canon of St. Andrews, his Originale
Chronicle : An Heroic Poem in 9 Books ; containing the
History of the Scottish Nation to the year of grace 1418."

So far as the history of this manuscript can be traced, it
appears to have passed from the Barclays through the hands
of Sir William Innes, vicar of Banff (who may have been the
actual transcriber), and of Mr. Thomas Nicholson, commissary
of Aberdeen, before it was acquired by William le Neve, in his
official capacity as York Herald, at the Coronation of King
Charles the First at Edinburgh, in the year 1633. From
Noble's History of the College of Arms, 2 we find that Le Neve
was appointed York Herald on 25th November 1625, and was
promoted as Clarenceux King-of-Arms in June 1635. There
can be no doubt that after Le Neve's death in 1661, when his
various collections were dispersed, this manuscript had been
added to the Eoyal Library at St. James's. It is but proper
to notice that a facsimile of the entire first page, with its

1 Critical Essay, London, 1729, vol. ii. p. 624.

2 London, 1795, 4to, pp. 238, 245, 278, etc.



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APPENDIX II. xix

ornamented border, having a shield of arms and the autograph
" William Le Neve, York," forms No. LXV. of the splendid
series of " Facsimiles of National Manuscripts," published by
Sir Henry James, E.E., of the Ordnance Survey Office : South-
ampton, 1863, large folio. To avoid a wrong impression of its
having been originally an ornamented manuscript, it would
have been well for the editor to have stated that the borders,
etc., on this page were about two centuries later than the
manuscript itself, having been added by Sir William le Neve
after it came into his possession.

This MS. is written in a small hand (see the facsimile), and
contains, on an average, fifty-two lines in a page. It is made up
in quairs of twenty leaves, the outer one being of vellum and
the others of stout paper.

The Prose Chronicle at the end, filling ten leaves, the last on
vellum, assigned by Macpherson to 1530, 1 and by Pinkerton to
1540, is evidently of an older date, probably 1500-1510, if not
earlier. The leaves form part of the Wyntoun MS. The most
important parts of this Chronicle are given by Pinkerton. 2 He
contracts the form by giving the years in simple numerals
instead of " in the year of God," etc.

II. THE LANSDOWNE MANUSCEIPT.

This copy of the Cronykil is also in the British Museum,
among the Marquis of Lansdowne's manuscripts, " MS. Bibl.
Lansdowne 197." It is an oblong folio of 259 leaves, written
towards the end of the fifteenth century. In the printed
catalogue it is assigned to the beginning of the sixteenth
century, and had belonged to the Sinclairs of Eoslyn, and was
brought from Scotland by General Fairfax. It has the auto-
graph of " W. Sinclair of Eoisling."

1 See his note, p. xliii. of Preface. 2 Pinkerton's History, vol. i. p. 502, etc.



xx APPENDIX II.

The Lansdowne MS. is divided into Books and Chapters ; but
the latter appear to have been numbered only last century, and
the numbers run consecutively without distinction of Books.
It is considerably abridged as compared with the Royal and
other MSS. The last two pages of it are written in a different
and rather later hand. The chief variations occurring in this
copy, including its numerous omissions, are noted among the
additional Various Readings, pp. 137-145 of this volume.

III. THE COTTONIAN MANUSCRIPT.

This also belongs to the British Museum, and is marked
" MS. Bibl. Cotton. Nero, D. XI." In addition to what is
stated concerning it by Macpherson (see Preface, p. xlv), it
may be described as an oblong folio, with an average of sixty-
eight lines in a page. It wants a few leaves at the beginning
and the end. Thus it begins with the lines

" And drynkys bot water of the se,
Qwtheyr it salt or byttyr be." 1

and breaks off with the first six lines of Chapter XXV. of
ook IX.

The writing of this MS. may be assigned to about 1440, or
the early part of the reign of James the Second. It is divided
into Nine Books, and separate Chapters, but not numbered. In
addition to what is entered regarding this copy of Wyntoun
among the Various Readings, it may be stated that the Pro-
logue of the Second Book contains thirty-four lines, of the
Third Book forty-two lines, and of the Fourth Book forty-
eight lines. The Chapters of the Eighth Book are given in a
list of about eighty-four titles. The Prologue of Book IX.
has fifty-eight lines, and the list of Chapters about thirty-two
titles.

1 Vol. i. p. 32, lines 687, 688.



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APPENDIX II. xxi



IV. THE ST. ANDREWS MANUSCRIPT.

This MS. was found in the University Library of St. Andrews,
in a ragged state, without title or name, early in the present
century. It was sent to Edinburgh to be repaired and bound,
and in that process some of the leaves were misplaced. The
previous history of the volume is unknown, but at the foot of
one of the pages, near the middle of the book, there occurs this
note : " Patrik Lermenthe of Dersy, kny*, his book." And on
the last folio, the following signature is written several times in
small hand, "Jo: ballingall." At the beginning some leaves
are wanting, and others mutilated. The legible portion begins
at vol. i. p. 26, 1. 509, of this edition

" But efter that to name it had
In Grece the Lordschype of Arcade."

It is written on paper in a hand which may be assigned to the
latter part of the reign of King James the Fourth, and contains
452 leaves, with about thirty-four lines in a page. The titles
of the Chapters are in red ink, and numbered consecutively
as far as to "Cap. IX XX XVIJ" (i.e. nine score and seventeen,
or 197). The Chapters that follow are not numbered. The
Rubrics are much the same as in the printed text, but are
numbered straight on, although actually divided into Books,
with the Prologues not reckoned. The two Chapters of
Book IV. on the Early Kings are in their first or unrevised
state. Chapter XLIII. of Book VIII. occurs only in this MS.
and that called the Second Edinburgh MS. The last chapter
which has a rubric is titled

" How the Erie of Fyff with hys ost
Raid to pruff Erie Marchalis bost."



xxii APPENDIX IT.

This MS. concludes

" The Erie of Mar in his prowes
That gretumly comendit was,
A lady weddyt gret of land,
The lady of Daffull in Braband.
Witht honour syne recordit hes
Nayme agane in hys cuntre.

J. Ballangall."

The six last leaves are occupied with part of the prose Chronicle,
beginning with Fergus the first king, and ending with Corane
or Gorane Congal.



V. FIKST EDINBURGH MANUSCEIPT.

This MS. is preserved in the Library of the Faculty of
Advocates, Edinburgh, and is now marked 19.2.3. I find no
account given of the volume as to whom it belonged and how
it was acquired. On the fly-leaf there is inscribed the name
" Johne JErskine." In another part of the volume the follow-
ing words are written on the margin :

" Hie liber est meus M c Kawlay cognomine dictus
Portnellan erat natus Matheus ipse erat vocatus."

There occurs also the name of "ane honorabill man, Sir
Niniane Dalzell de Glasquhen." It is probable, however, that
it belonged to Sir Robert Sibbald before being placed in the
Advocates' Library. In the catalogue of his library, sold by
auction at Edinburgh in February 1723, the MSS. are described
at pp. 135 to 140, and extend to 147 articles. Of these, No. 21
is " Winton's (Andr.) Chronicle in Old Scots Rime." " No. 22,
An Old MS. of Scottish History, but no name or title is given
to identify the work." These MSS. at the end of the sale
were sold in one lot to the Faculty of Advocates for the sum
of 260.






B. VII., L 3608.




No. 6. MS. EE.



B. VII., 1. 3613.



Sr^4^^




APPENDIX II. xxiii

like the St. Andrews Manuscript, this is divided into Books
and Chapters, but not numbered, except in a later hand (per-
haps Sir James Balfour's). The Eubrics are much the same as
in the printed text ; but the two chapters of Book IV. relating
to the Pictish Kings contain the original statements.

The volume is a small folio, and bound in wood. The writing
may belong to the end of the fifteenth century. The beginning
is wanting as far as to line sixty-five of the Prologue of Book
I., " For all honest det suld be." It breaks off in Book IX.,
p. 94, at line 2594. Other defects are noted among the
Various Readings.



VL SECOND EDINBURGH MANUSCRIPT.

This volume is also in the Advocates' Library, marked 15
Denmyln, 19.2.4, but it was formerly marked A. 1 . 13. In the
reign of Charles the First this MS. had come into the possession
of Sir James Balfour of Denmyln, the Lord Lyon, and was
acquired with the rest of his MSS. by Sir Robert Sibbald, who
refers to it in his " Memoria Balfouriana," Edinburgh, 1699, as
" The Chronicle Originall of Andrew Wintoun," in verse, to
which is joined " Brevis Chronica," in prose.

This Manuscript is a square folio, and is written in a hand
of the end of the fifteenth or early in the following century.
The Chapters are numbered right on to the end. The Prologue
at the beginning has 128 lines as in the printed text, with the



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